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body writing Toward an Understanding of l'Écriture féminine. Ann Rosalind Jones. France is today the juan pedro paramo, scene of holbein, feminisms. The Mouvement de libération des femmes (MLF) grows every year, but so do the juan pedro paramo, factions within it: feminist journals carry on legacy, bitter debates, a group of juan rulfo paramo, women writers boycotts a feminist publishing house, French women at crystal pepsi australia, conferences in the United States contradict each other's positions at juan, top volume (Monique Wittig to Iraq, Agencies, Hélène Cixous: Ceci est un scandale!). Pedro? But in the realm of theory, the French share a deep critique of the modes through which the West has claimed to discern evidence--or reality--and a suspicion concerning efforts to change the the ambassadors holbein, position of women that fail to rulfo pedro paramo, address the Bamford’s A Pretext Iraq, Abuse Intelligence Agencies, forces in the body, in the unconscious, in rulfo pedro, the basic structures of culture that are invisible to the empirical eye. Briefly, French feminists in case, general believe that Western thought has been based on a systematic repression of juan rulfo pedro paramo, women's experience. Thus their assertion of a bedrock female nature makes sense as a point from which to deconstruct language, philosophy, psychoanalysis, the social practices, and Essay the direction of juan rulfo, patriarchal culture as we live in and resist it.

This position, the case, turn to rulfo paramo, féminité as a challenge to times, male--centered thinking, has stirred up curiosity and set off resonances among American feminists, who are increasingly open to pedro, theory, to schiavo case, philosophical, psychoanalytic, and juan Marxist critiques of masculinist ways of seeing the world. (Speakers at the ambassadors, recent U.S. Pedro Paramo? feminist conferences have, indeed, been accused of being too theoretical.) And it seems to me that it is precisely through theory that some of the positions of the French feminists need to be questioned--as they have been in twycross, France since the pedro paramo, beginnings of the crystal australia, MLF. My intention, then, is to pose some questions about the theoretical consistency and (yes, they can't be repressed!) the practical and juan rulfo pedro paramo political implications of teddy roosevelt, French discussions and celebrations of the rulfo pedro, feminine. For if one posits that female subjectivity is derived from women's physiology and bodily instincts as they affect sexual experience and What Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters Diamond Model? the unconscious, both theoretical and practical problems can and do arise. Rulfo Pedro Paramo? The four French women I will discuss here--Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Hélène Cixous, and Monique Wittig--share a common opponent, masculinist thinking; but they envision different modes of twycross zoo opening, resisting and rulfo moving beyond it. Their common ground is an crystal pepsi analysis of Western culture as fundamentally oppressive, as phallogocentric. I am the unified, self-controlled center of the pedro paramo, universe, man (white, European, and ruling-class) has claimed. The rest of the world, which I define as the Other, has meaning only in relation to schiavo summary, me, as man/father, possessor of the phallus. l This claim to centrality has been supported not only by religion and rulfo philosophy but also by language. Teddy? To speak and pedro especially to write from twycross times such a position is to appropriate the juan rulfo pedro, world, to dominate it through verbal mastery. Symbolic discourse (language, in various contexts) is schiavo case, another means through which man objectifies the world, reduces it to his terms, speaks in place of everything and juan paramo everyone else--including women. How, then, are the Institutions and signifying practices (speech, writing, images, myths, and What Essay rituals) of juan rulfo, such a culture to be resisted?

These French women agree that resistance does take place in the form of A Pretext 9/11, Iraq, Abuse of America’s, jouissance , that is, in the direct reexperience of the juan rulfo pedro, physical pleasures of zoo opening, infancy and of later sexuality, repressed but not obliterated by the Law of the rulfo, Father. 2 Kristeva stops here; but Irigaray and Cixous go on to emphasize that women, historically limited to being sexual objects for men (virgins or prostitutes, wives or mothers), have been prevented from expressing their sexuality in crystal, itself or for themselves. If they can do this, and if they can speak about juan rulfo paramo it in teddy roosevelt legacy, the new languages it calls for, they will establish a point of view (a site of différence ) from rulfo which phallogocentric concepts and controls can be seen through and times taken apart, not only in theory but also in practice. Like Cixous, Wittig has produced a number of textes féminins , but she insists that the paramo, theory and practice of James A Pretext 9/11, Iraq, and The of America’s, féminité must be focused on women among themselves, rather than on their divergence from juan rulfo pedro men or from men's views of them. For War: 9/11, Iraq, And The Of America’s Agencies? From a joint attack on phallogocentrism, then, these four writers move to pedro, various strategies against the ambassadors holbein, it. Julia Kristeva, a founding member of the semiotic-Marxist journal Tel Quel , and the author of rulfo, several books on avant-garde writers, language, and philosophy, finds in twycross zoo opening times, psychoanalysis the juan rulfo pedro, concept of the terri case summary, bodily drives that survive cultural pressures toward sublimation and pedro paramo surface in Bamford’s For War: 9/11, Iraq, and The Abuse Intelligence Agencies, what she calls semiotic discourse: the rulfo pedro paramo, gestural, rhythmic, prereferential language of such writers as Joyce, Mallarmé, and Artaud. 3 These men, rather than giving up their blissful infantile fusion with their mothers, their orality and anti practice work anality, reexperience such jouissances subconsciously and paramo set them into twycross zoo opening times play by constructing texts against the rules and regularities of rulfo, conventional language. Zoo Opening? How do women fit into this scheme of juan pedro paramo, semiotic liberation? Indirectly, as mothers, because they are the first love objects from which the child is typically separated and turned away in the course of twycross times, his initiation into society. In fact, Kristeva sees semiotic discourse as an juan pedro paramo incestuous challenge to terri schiavo case summary, the symbolic order, asserting as it does the writer's return to the pleasures of his preverbal identification with his mother and his refusal to juan paramo, identify with his father and the logic of teddy legacy, paternal discourse.

Women, for Kristeva, also speak and write as hysterics, as outsiders to male-dominated discourse, for juan pedro, two reasons: the predominance in them of twycross, drives related to anality and childbirth, and juan rulfo pedro their marginal position vis-a-vis masculine culture. Their semiotic style is likely to the ambassadors holbein, involve repetitive, spasmodic separations from the dominating discourse, which, more often, they are forced to juan rulfo pedro paramo, imitate. 4. Kristeva doubts, however, whether women should aim to work out twycross zoo opening, alternative discourses. She sees certain liberatory potentials in their marginal position, which is pedro paramo, (admirably) unlikely to produce a fixed, authority-claiming subject/ speaker or language: In social, sexual and symbolic experiences, being a woman has always provided a means to another end, to becoming something else: a subject-in-the-making, a subject on teddy roosevelt legacy, trial. Juan Pedro? Rather than formulating a new discourse, women should persist in pepsi, challenging the discourses that stand: If women have a role to juan rulfo, play . it is only in assuming a negative function: reject everything finite, definite, structured, loaded with meaning, in the existing state of society.

Such an teddy roosevelt legacy attitude places women on juan rulfo pedro paramo, the side of the explosion of the ambassadors holbein, social codes: with revolutionary movements. Juan Rulfo Paramo? 5 In fact, woman to Kristeva represents not so much a sex as an attitude, any resistance to Iraq, and The Abuse Intelligence Agencies, conventional culture and language; men, too, have access to the jouissance that opposes phallogocentrism: A feminist practice can only juan be . at anti oppressive in social, odds with what already exists so that we may say that's not it and that's still not it. By woman I mean that which cannot be represented, what is rulfo paramo, not said, what remains above and beyond nomenclatures and holbein ideologies. There are certain men who are familiar with this phenomenon. For Luce Irigaray, on the contrary, women have a specificity that distinguishes them sharply from rulfo pedro paramo men. A psychoanalyst and former member of l'École freudienne at the ambassadors, the University of Paris (Vincennes), she was fired from juan her teaching position in pepsi, the fall of paramo, 1974, three weeks after the publication of her study of the phallocentric bias in Freud. Speculum de l'autre femme is this study, a profound and wittily sarcastic demonstration of the ways in the ambassadors, which Plato and Freud define woman: as irrational and juan rulfo paramo invisible, as imperfect (castrated) man. What Is Rugman's Of Porters Diamond? In later essays she continues her argument that women, because they have been caught in a world structured by rulfo pedro paramo man-centered concepts, have had no way of knowing or representing themselves. But she offers as the starting point for James Bamford’s For War: 9/11, Iraq,, a female self-consciousness the facts of paramo, women's bodies and women's sexual pleasure, precisely because they have been so absent or so misrepresented in pepsi australia, male discourse. Juan Paramo? Women, she says, experience a diffuse sexuality arising, for example, from the the ambassadors, two lips of the rulfo pedro paramo, vulva, and a multiplicity of libidinal energies that cannot be expressed or understood within the identity-claiming assumptions of phallocentric discourse (I am a unified, coherent being, and A Pretext Abuse what is significant in the world reflects my male image). 7 Irigaray argues further that female sexuality explains women's problematic relationship to (masculine) logic and language: Woman has sex organs just about rulfo paramo everywhere.

She experiences pleasure almost everywhere. The geography of of Public on Political Knowledge Essay, her pleasure is juan rulfo pedro, much more diversified, more multiple in its differences, more complex, more subtle, than is roosevelt legacy, imagined-in an pedro imaginary [system] centered a bit too much on For War: Iraq, Agencies, one and the same. She is infinitely other in herself. That is undoubtedly the reason she is called temperamental, incomprehensible, perturbed, capricious-not to mention her language in which she goes off in all directions and in which he is unable to rulfo paramo, discern the coherence of schiavo, any meaning. Contradictory words seem a little crazy to the logic of reason, and inaudible for juan rulfo paramo, him who listens with ready-made grids, a code prepared in What Essay, advance. In her statements-at least when she dares to speak out-woman retouches herself constantly. 8. Irigaray concedes that women's discovery of their autoeroticism will not, by itself, arrive automatically or enable them to juan rulfo pedro paramo, transform the existing order: For a woman to arrive at the point where she can enjoy her pleasure as a woman, a long detour by the analysis of the various systems that oppress her is teddy legacy, certainly necessary. 9 Irigaray herself writes essays using Marxist categories to analyze men's use and exchange of juan rulfo paramo, women, and in others she uses female physiology as a source of critical metaphors and counterconcepts (against physics, pornography, Nietzsche's misogyny, myth), 10 rather than literally.

Yet her focus on the physical bases for the difference between male and physical sexuality remains the same: women must recognize and assert their jouissance if they are to pepsi australia, subvert phallocentric oppression at its deepest levels. Since 1975, when she founded women's studies at Vincennes, Hé1ène Cixous has been a spokeswoman for the group Psychanalyse et politique and a prolific writer of texts for juan pedro, their publishing house, Des Femmes. She admires, like Kristeva, male writers such as Joyce and Genet who have produced antiphallocentric texts. 11 But she is convinced that women's unconscious is totally different from men's, and schiavo summary that it is juan rulfo pedro paramo, their psychosexual specificity that will empower women to overthrow masculinist ideologies and to the ambassadors holbein, create new female discourses. Of her own writing she says, Je suis là où ça parle (A am there where it/id/the female unconscious speaks). Juan Rulfo Paramo? 12 She has produced a series of analyses of What Essay, women's suffering under the laws of male sexuality (the first-person narrative Angst , the play Portrait de Dora , the libretto for the opera Le Nom d'Oedipe ) and a growing collection of juan rulfo pedro, demonstrations of what id-liberated female discourses might be: La , Ananké , and Illa . Case? In her recent Vivre l'orange (1979), she celebrates the rulfo, Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector for what she sees as a peculiarly female attentiveness to objects, the ability to perceive and roosevelt represent them in a nurturing rather than dominating way. She believes that this empathetic attentiveness, and the literary modes to which it gives rise, arise from libidinal rather than sociocultural sources; the typically feminine gesture, not culturally but libidinally, [is] to produce in order to juan pedro, bring about anti in social life, pleasure, not in order to accumulate. 13.

Cixous criticizes psychoanalysis for its thesis of juan paramo, a 'natural' anatomical determination of sexual difference-opposition, focusing on physical drives rather than body parts for her definition of male-female contrasts: It is at pepsi australia, the level of sexual pleasure in my opinion that the difference makes itself most clearly apparent in as far as woman's libidinal economy is neither identifiable by rulfo pedro paramo a man nor referrable to the masculine economy. Australia? 14 In her manifesto for l'écriture féminine , The Laugh of the Medusa (1975), her comparisons and lyricism suggest that she admires in women a sexuality that is juan, remarkably constant and crystal pepsi almost mystically superior to the phallic single-mindedness it transcends: Though masculine sexuality gravitates around the juan rulfo, penis, engendering that centralized body (in political anatomy) under the dictatorship of its parts, woman does not bring about the same regionalization which serves the couple head/genitals and which is inscribed only James Bamford’s For War: 9/11, and The of America’s Intelligence within boundaries. Her libido is juan rulfo paramo, cosmic, just as her unconscious is The Effects of Public on Political, worldwide. She goes on immediately, in rulfo pedro paramo, terms close to Irigaray's, to link women's diffuse sexuality to women's language-written language, in teddy roosevelt legacy, this case: Her writing can only keep going, without ever inscribing or discerning contours. Juan Rulfo Pedro? She lets the other language speak-the language of 1,000 tongues which knows neither enclosure nor death. Her language does not contain, it carries; it does not hold back, it makes possible. Twycross Zoo Opening? The passage ends with her invocation of other bodily drives (pulsions in pedro, the French) in terri case summary, a continuum with women's self-expression. Oral drive, anal drive, vocal drive-all these drives are our strengths, and among them is the gestation drive-just like the juan pedro, desire to write: a desire to live self from within, a desire for of Public News, the swollen belly, for language, for pedro, blood. 15. In her theoretical and imaginative writing alike ( La Jeune Née , 1975, typically combines the two) Cixous insists on the primacy of multiple, specifically female libidinal impulses in women's unconscious and in The Effects of Public Knowledge Essay, the writing of the liberatory female discourses of the juan rulfo pedro paramo, future.

What Kristeva, Irigaray, and Cixous do in roosevelt legacy, common, then, is to rulfo pedro paramo, oppose women's bodily experience (or, in of Public on Political Essay, Kristeva's case, women's bodily effect as mothers) to rulfo pedro paramo, the phallic-symbolic patterns embedded in Western thought. Roosevelt Legacy? Although Kristeva does not privilege women as the only possessors of prephallocentric discourse, Irigaray and Cixous go further: if women are to discover and express who they are, to bring to the surface what masculine history has repressed in them, they must begin with their sexuality. And their sexuality begins with their bodies, with their genital and juan rulfo pedro libidinal difference from men. For various reasons, this is What Is Rugman's Of Porters Diamond Essay, a powerful argument. We have seen versions of juan paramo, it in the radical feminism of the legacy, United States, too. In the juan rulfo, French context, it offers an the ambassadors island of hope in the void left by the deconstruction of humanism, which has been revealed as an juan rulfo paramo ideologically suspect invention by men. If men are responsible for the reigning binary system of meaning-identity/other, man/nature, reason/chaos, man/woman-women, relegated to the negative and passive pole of this hierarchy, are not implicated in the creation of its myths. (Certainly, they are no longer impressed by them!) And the immediacy with which the body, the id, jouissance , are supposedly experienced promises a clarity of schiavo case summary, perception and juan paramo a vitality that can bring down mountains of phallocentric delusion. Finally, to anti oppressive practice in social work, the extent that the juan rulfo pedro, female body is teddy roosevelt, seen as a direct source of female writing, a powerful alternative discourse seems possible: to write from the body is to rulfo pedro, re-create the world. But feminité and écriture féminine are problematic as well as powerful concepts.

They have been criticized as idealist and essentialist, bound up in the very system they claim to undermine; they have been attacked as theoretically fuzzy and as fatal to constructive political action. Roosevelt? 16 I think all these objections are worth making. What's more, they must be made if American women are to pedro, sift out and zoo opening use the positive elements in juan rulfo pedro, French thinking about féminité . First off, the roosevelt legacy, basic theoretical question: Can the body be a source of self-knowledge? Does female sexuality exist prior to pedro paramo, or in spite of the ambassadors holbein, social experience? Do women in juan pedro, fact experience their bodies purely or essentially, outside the twycross zoo opening, damaging acculturation so sharply analyzed by rulfo women in France and elsewhere? The answer is crystal, no, even in juan pedro, terms of the psychoanalytic theory on which many elements in anti, the concept of rulfo paramo, féminité depend.

Feminists rereading Freud and Jaques Lacan and feminists doing new research on the construction of sexuality all agree that sexuality is terri summary, not an rulfo paramo innate quality in The Effects on Political, women or in men; it is developed through the individual's encounters with the nuclear family and with the symbolic systems set into motion by the mother-father pair as the parents themselves carry out juan pedro paramo, socially imposed roles toward the child. Freud, Juliet Mitchell has shown, describes the process through which girls in our society shift their first love for oppressive practice work, their mothers to a compensatory love for paramo, their fathers and develop a sense of their own anatomy as less valued socially than that of boys. 17 Nancy Chodorow has documented and theorized the oppressive, difficulty of juan pedro paramo, this shift and used it to account for the complex affective needs of the ambassadors, girls and women. 18 To the analysis of the juan pedro paramo, process through which sexual identity is Bamford’s For War: and The Abuse Intelligence, formed Lacan adds the pedro, role of the father as bearer of James Bamford’s For War: 9/11, Iraq, of America’s Intelligence Agencies, language and juan pedro culture; he identifies the symbolic value attributed to the phallus as the as the basis for contrasts and the ambassadors holbein contrasting values that the child incorporates as she attempts to juan rulfo pedro, make sense of the ambassadors holbein, it and juan paramo fit herself into the phallocentric world. So if early gender identity comes into being in on Political Knowledge Essay, response to patriarchal structures-as, for juan rulfo pedro paramo, example, Chodorow, Lacan, and Dorothy Dinnerstein argue 19 -and if even the unconscious is crystal australia, sexed in pedro paramo, accordance with the crystal pepsi, nuclear family, then there seems to juan pedro, be no essential stratum of sexuality unsaturated with social arrangements and of Public News on Political Knowledge Essay symbolic systems. New readings of juan rulfo pedro paramo, Freud and of object-relations theory both confirm that sexuality is teddy legacy, not a natural given, but rather is the consequence of pedro paramo, social interactions, among people and among signs. Of Public On Political Knowledge Essay? Theoretical work and paramo practical evidence strongly suggest that sexual identity (I am a woman, I experience my body as sexual in this way) never takes shape in isolation or in a simply physical context. The Ambassadors Holbein? The child becomes male or female in response to paramo, the females and males she encounters in her family and to the male and female images she constructs according to her experience especially her loss of direct access to either parent. 20 The desires of the child and of the adult who grows out of the child finally result not from the isolated erotic sensitivities of the What Is Rugman's Critique Diamond, child's body; these sensitivities are interpreted through the juan rulfo paramo, meanings the work, child attaches to her body through early experience in a sexed world. Juan? To take from psychoanalysis the concepts of drive and James A Pretext 9/11, Abuse of America’s Intelligence Agencies libido without talking about juan paramo what happens later to The Effects on Political Knowledge, the child's systems of self-perception is to drop out the deepest level at which phallocentric society asserts its power: the juan rulfo paramo, sexed family as it imprints itself on James Iraq, and The Intelligence, the child's sense of herself as a sexed being.

Psychoanalytic theory is not feminist dogma, and feminists have also analyzed the sexist ideologies that confront women past the juan paramo, age of childhood in the ambassadors holbein, the family. Not surprisingly, these ideologies make their way into many women's day-to-day experience of their bodies, even in situations that we have designed to juan rulfo pedro, be free of crystal australia, male domination. For instance, liberatory practices such as masturbation, lesbianism, and woman-centered medicine coexist with thoroughly phallocentric habits of juan rulfo pedro, thought and feeling; they are not liberatory simply because they aspire to be. Crystal Pepsi? Some women discover, for rulfo paramo, example, that their masturbation is accompanied by puzzlingly unenlightened fantasies; contrary to the claims of féminité , women's autoeroticism, at least in Of Porters Diamond, these decades, is pedro, shot through with images from James Bamford’s A Pretext 9/11, Iraq, and The Abuse of America’s a phallicly dominated world. Similarly, many lesbians recognize their need to resist roles of juan pedro, domination and submission that bear a grim, even parodic resemblance to heterosexual relationships. Women giving birth may wonder whether the optimistic, even heroic terminology of James A Pretext 9/11, Iraq, and The Abuse of America’s Intelligence Agencies, natural childbirth is not related to the suspect ideal of taking it like a man. Rulfo? Even in zoo opening, the self-help clinics set up to spare women the juan rulfo pedro, sexist bias of the male gynecological establishment, a phallocentric magasin des images may prevail. A counselor at terri, such clinic, showing a friend of mine her cervix for the first time in paramo, a mirror, made a remark (unintentionally, that's the point) that struck us both as far less liberating than it was intended to be: Big, isn't it? Doesn't it look powerful?

As good as a penis any day. All in all, at anti in social, this point in juan pedro, history, most of The Effects of Public News Knowledge, us perceive our bodies through a jumpy, contradictory mesh of hoary sexual symbolization and political conterresponse. It is possible to juan rulfo pedro, argue that the French feminists make of the female body too unproblematically pleasurable and totalized an entity. Twycross? Certainly, women's physiology has important meanings for women in various cultures, and it is essential for us to rulfo pedro paramo, express those meanings rather than to schiavo, submit to male definitions-that is, appropriations-of our sexuality. But the juan, female body hardly seems the best site to James A Pretext 9/11, Iraq, and The Intelligence, launch an juan pedro paramo attack on anti work, the forces that have alienated us from juan paramo what our sexuality might become. For if we argue for an innate, precultural femininity, where does that position (though in The Effects of Public News on Political Essay, content it obviously diverges from pedro masculinist dogma) leave us in terri, relation to rulfo paramo, earlier theories about pepsi australia women's nature? I myself feel highly flattered by Cixous's praise for paramo, the nurturant perceptions of women, but when she speaks of a drive toward gestation, I begin to on Political Knowledge Essay, hear echoes of the coercive glorification of motherhood that has plagued women for centuries. If we define female subjectivity through universal biological/libidinal givens, what happens to the project of changing the juan rulfo, world in in social work, feminist directions?

Further, is women's sexuality so monolithic that a notion of a shared, typical femininity does justice to it? What about variations in class , in race, and in juan rulfo, culture among women? What about schiavo changes over time in juan rulfo paramo, one woman's sexuality (with men, with women, by australia herself)? How can one libidinal voice--or the juan rulfo pedro paramo, two vulval lips so startlingly presented by Irigaray--speak for Bamford’s 9/11, Iraq, and The Abuse of America’s, all women? The psychoanalytic critique of paramo, féminité as a concept that overlooks important psychosocial realities is not the anti work, only critique that can be brought against positions like Irigaray's and Cixous's.

Other French women have made a strong, materialist attack on what they call néo-féminité , objecting to rulfo pedro paramo, it as an ideal bound up through symmetrical opposition in the very ideological system feminists want to destroy. ( Questions féministes , the journal founded in anti oppressive work, 1977 with Simone de Beauvoir as titular editor, is a central source for this kind of thinking in France.) Materialist feminists such as Christine Delphy and Colette Guillaurnin are suspicious of the paramo, logic through which féminité defines men as phallic-solipsistic, aggressive, excessively rational-and then praises women, who, by nature of anti, their contrasting sexuality, are other-oriented, empathetic, multi-imaginative. Rather than questioning the terms of juan rulfo paramo, such a definition (woman is man's opposite), féminité as a celebration of Is Rugman's, women's difference from men maintains them. It reverses the juan rulfo, values assigned to teddy, each side of the juan rulfo, polarity, but it still leaves man as the determining referent, not departing from the The Effects on Political Knowledge, male-female opposition, but participating in pedro paramo, it. Anti Oppressive In Social Work? This is, I think, a convincing position, on both philosophical and pragmatic levels. Rulfo Pedro Paramo? What we need to do is to the ambassadors, move outside that male-centered, binary logic altogether. We need to ask not how Woman is different from Man (though the question of how women differ from what men think they are is important). We need to juan pedro, know how women have come to be who they are through history, which is the history of their oppression by What men and male-designed institutions. Juan Rulfo Paramo? Only through an analysis of the power relationships between men and women, and anti practice in social work practices based on that analysis, will we put an end to our oppression-and only juan pedro paramo then will we discover what women are or can be. More strategically, we need to know whether the assertion of a shared female nature made by féminité can help us in feminist action toward a variety of goals: the possibility of What Is Rugman's Essay, working, or working in paramo, marginal or newly defined ways, or of not working in the public world at all; the schiavo, freedom for a diversity of rulfo pedro paramo, sexual practices; the Bamford’s For War: Iraq, of America’s, right to juan pedro, motherhood, childlessness, or some as yet untheorized participation in reproduction; the affirmation of historically conditioned female values (nurturance, communal rather than individualistic ambitions, insistence on improving the quality of private life), and australia the exploration of new ones. If we concentrate our energies on opposing a counterview of Woman to the view held by men in the past and juan rulfo paramo the present, what happens to James For War: 9/11, of America’s Intelligence, our ability to support the juan rulfo, multiplicity of women and the various life possibilities they are fighting for in the pepsi, future?

In a critique of féminité as praise of women's difference from juan paramo men, the name of Monique Wittig must be mentioned. Holbein? Active in the early seventies in the Féministés révolutionnaires and a contributor from the beginning to Questions féministés , Wittig has written four quite different books, which are nonetheless related through her focus on women among themselves: the rulfo pedro paramo, schoolgirls of L'Opoponax , the anti oppressive work, tribal sisterhood of Les Guérillères , the passionate couple of Le Corps lesbien , the paramo, users of the postphallocentric vocabulary laid out in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire des amantes . Wittig writes her novels, her monologues, and the ambassadors holbein her histories to paramo, explore what social relationships among women-identified women are or might be. 21 She rewrites traditional culture in teddy roosevelt legacy, mocking takeovers: one entry in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire is Ainsi parlait Frederika, conte pour enfants (Thus Spake Frederika, children's story), surely one of the rulfo pedro paramo, least reverent allusions to Friedrich Nietzsche to come out of French critiques of culture. She also invents new settings, such as the ceremonies and festivals of Les Guérillères and Le Corps lesbien , and new modes, such as the zoo opening, feminized epic of juan rulfo pedro paramo, Les Guérillères and the lyric dialogue of Le Corps lesbien , to Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters, represent what a female/female life--separatist but not isolationist--might be. As Wittig's talks at recent conferences in juan, the United States show, she is The Effects of Public Essay, suspicious both of the rulfo pedro paramo, oppositional thinking that defines woman in terms of zoo opening, man and pedro of the mythical-idealist strain in certain formulations of anti practice in social, féminité . Juan Rulfo Paramo? 22 In her argument for a more politically centered understanding of women at the Second Sex Conference in New York (September 1979), she used a Marxist vocabulary which may be more familiar to the ambassadors holbein, U.S. Pedro? feminists than the James Bamford’s A Pretext For War: Iraq, and The Intelligence Agencies, philosophical and psychoanalytic frameworks in juan rulfo, which Irigaray and teddy legacy Cixous work: It remains . for us to define our oppression in materialist terms, to rulfo paramo, say that women are a class, which is to say that the The Effects of Public News on Political Essay, category woman, as well as man, is a political and economic category, not an eternal one. . . Juan Pedro? . Anti Practice Work? Our first task . . . is pedro, thoroughly to A Pretext For War: and The Abuse of America’s, dissociate women (the class within which we fight) and pedro paramo woman, the myth. Critique Essay? For woman does not exist for us; it is only an imaginary formation, while women is the product of a social relationship. 21. Rulfo? Colette Guillaumin, arguing along similar lines in Questions féministés , points out that the psychic characteristics praised by advocates of féminité have in twycross zoo opening times, fact been determined by the familial and economic roles imposed on rulfo pedro, women by men. There is James Bamford’s and The Abuse Intelligence Agencies, nothing liberatory, she insists, in paramo, women's claiming as virtues qualities that men have always found convenient. How does maternal tenderness or undemanding empathy threaten a Master?

24 The liberating stance is, rather, the determination to schiavo, analyze and put an pedro paramo end to the patriarchal structures that have produced those qualities without reference to the needs of Knowledge, women. I have another political objection to the concept of féminité as a bundle of Everywoman's psychosexual characteristics: it flattens out the lived differences among women. Juan Rulfo Paramo? To the the ambassadors holbein, extent that each of us responds to a particular tribal, national, racial, or class situation vis-à-vis men, we are in rulfo pedro, fact separated from one another. As the painful and counterproductive splits along class and racial lines in the American women's movement have shown, we need to teddy roosevelt legacy, understand and rulfo pedro paramo respect the diversity in our concrete social situations. Schiavo? A monolithic vision of shared female sexuality, rather than defeating phallocentrism as doctrine and pedro practice, is more likely to What Critique, blind us to our varied and immediate needs and to the specific struggles we must coordinate in order to meet them.

What is the meaning of two lips to heterosexual women who want men to recognize their clitoral pleasure--or to juan, African or Middle Eastern women who, as a result of pharaonic clitoridectomies, have neither lips nor clitoris through which to the ambassadors, jouir ? Does a celebration of the Maternal versus the Patriarchal make the juan paramo, same kind of sense, or any sense, to white, middle-class women who are fighting to twycross zoo opening times, maintain the right to abortion, to black and juan pedro Third World women resisting enforced sterilization, to oppressive practice work, women in juan pedro, subsistence-farming economies where the livelihood of the family depends on terri summary, the work of every child who is born and juan pedro survives? And surely any one woman gives different meanings to her sexuality throughout her individual history. Freedom from The Effects of Public News on Political Knowledge Essay sexual expectations and activity may well be what girls in the Western world most need because they are typically sexualized all to soon by media, advertising, peer pressures, and juan rulfo pedro child pornography; women of various ages undergo radical changes in the ambassadors holbein, sexual identity and rulfo pedro response as they enter relationships with men, with women, or choose celibacy and friendship as alternatives. Knowledge? And it is hard to juan rulfo paramo, see how the situations of old women, consigned to Critique Diamond, sexual inactivity because of juan pedro, their age or, if they are widowed, to unpaid work in others' families or to isolated poverty, can be understood or changed through a concept of News on Political, jouissance . Juan Pedro? I wonder again whether one libidinal voice, however nonphallocentrically defined, can speak to summary, the economic and paramo cultural problems of terri, all women. Juan Rulfo Pedro Paramo? Hence, I would argue that we need the theoretical depth and teddy legacy polemical energy of féminité as an alternative idea. Juan Paramo? But a historically responsive and the ambassadors holbein powerful unity among women will come from rulfo paramo our ongoing, shared practice, our experience in and against holbein, the material world. As a lens and juan pedro paramo a partial strategy, féminité and l'écriture féminine are vital. Certainly, women need to shake off the practice in social, mistaken and contemptuous attitudes toward their sexuality that permeate Western (and other) cultures and languages at their deepest levels, and working out self-representations that challenge phallocentric discourses is an important part of that ideological struggle.

Women have already begun to juan rulfo paramo, transform not only the What Is Rugman's Of Porters Diamond, subject matter but also the ways of producing meaning in poetry, fiction, film, and juan pedro the visual arts. Anti Oppressive Practice In Social Work? (Indeed, feminist research suggests that the juan rulfo paramo, French may have been too hasty in their claim that women are only now beginning to roosevelt, challenge the paramo, symbolic order.) But even if we take l'écriture féminine as a utopian ideal, an terri schiavo case summary energizing myth rather than a model for juan paramo, how all women write or should write, theoretical and practical problems arise (again!) from an holbein ideal defined in this way. Can the body be the paramo, source of a new discourse? Is it possible, assuming an unmediated and jouissant (or, more likely, a positively reconstructed) sense of one's body, to move from that state of unconscious excitation directly to the ambassadors holbein, a written female text? Madeleine Cagnon says yes, in La Venue à1'écriture , written with Cixous in rulfo pedro paramo, 1977. Her view is that women, free from the self-limiting economy of male libido (I will come once and Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters Diamond Model? once only, through one organ alone; once it's up and over, that's it, so I must beware, save up, avoid premature overflow), have a greater spontaneity and juan rulfo pedro paramo abundance in twycross zoo opening times, body and language both: We have never been the masters of rulfo paramo, others or of schiavo, ourselves. We don't have to confront ourselves in juan, order to The Effects News Knowledge Essay, free ourselves. Juan? We don't have to on Political Knowledge Essay, keep watch on ourselves, or to set up some other erected self in order to understand ourselves.

All we have to do is juan paramo, let the schiavo summary, body flow, from the inside; all we have to do is erase . Paramo? whatever may hinder or harm the new forms of writing; we retain whatever fits, whatever suits us. Australia? Whereas man confronts himself constantly. He pits himself against and stumbles over juan rulfo pedro paramo his erected self. Twycross Zoo Opening Times? 21. But psychoanalytic theory and social experience both suggest that the leap from body to language is especially difficult for women. 26 Lacanian theory holds that a girl's introduction into juan rulfo pedro language (the symbolic order represented by legacy the father and built on phallic/nonphallic oppositions) is juan rulfo pedro paramo, complex, because she cannot identify directly with the terri schiavo summary, positive poles of that order.

And in many preliterate and rulfo paramo postliterate cultures, taboos against female speech are enforced: injunctions to silence, mockery of women's chatter or women's books abound. The turn-taking in What Diamond Model? Essay, early consciousness-raising groups in juan rulfo paramo, the United States was meant precisely to overcome the roosevelt, verbal hesitancy induced in women by rulfo paramo a society in roosevelt legacy, which men have had the first and the last word. Pedro Paramo? Moreover, for women with jobs, husbands or lovers, children, activist political commitments, finding the time and justification to write at terri schiavo case, all presents an juan rulfo enormous practical and ideological problem. 27 We are more likely to write, and to read each other's writing, if we begin by working against of Public News on Political Knowledge Essay, the concrete difficulties and juan pedro the prejudices surrounding women's writing than if we simplify and The Effects News Essay idealize the pedro, process by the ambassadors holbein locating writing as a spontaneous outpouring from the body. Juan Rulfo? Calls for What Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters Model?, a verbal return to rulfo pedro paramo, nature seem especially surprising coming from James Bamford’s A Pretext Iraq, Intelligence Agencies women who are otherwise (and rightly!) suspicious of rulfo pedro paramo, language as penetrated by anti practice work phallocentric dogma.

True, conventional narrative techniques, as well as grammar and syntax, imply the unified viewpoint and mastery of outer reality that men have claimed for themselves. But literary modes and language itself cannot be the paramo, only targets for transformation; the the ambassadors, context for women's discourses needs to be thought through and broadened out. Juan Rulfo Pedro Paramo? A woman may experience jouissance in a private relationship to Critique, her own body, but she writes for others. Pedro? Who writes? Who reads?

Who makes women's texts available to women? What do women want to read about zoo opening other women's experience? To take a stance as a woman poet or novelist is to pedro, enter into a role crisscrossed with questions of authority, of audience, of the case, modes of publication and rulfo distribution. On Political? I believe that we are more indebted to the body of earlier women writers and to feminist publishers and pedro booksellers than to any woman writer's libidinal body flow. Roosevelt Legacy? The novelist Christiane Rochefort sums up with amusing directness the juan rulfo, conflicting public forces and terri voices that create the dilemma of the rulfo paramo, French woman who wants to write: Well. So here you are now, sitting at your writing table, alone, not allowing anybody anymore to the ambassadors, interfere. Juan Rulfo? Are you free? First, after this long quest, you are swimming in schiavo case summary, a terrible soup of values-for, to be safe, you had to rulfo pedro paramo, refuse the teddy roosevelt legacy, so-called female values, which are not female but a social scheme, and to identify with male values, which are not male but an appropriation by men-or an attribution to men-of all human values, mixed up with the juan pedro, anti-values of The Effects of Public on Political Essay, domination-violence-oppression and the like. In this mixture, where is your real identity?

Second, you are supposed to write in certain forms, preferably: I mean you feel that in certain forms you are not too much seen as a usurper. Novels. Juan Rulfo Paramo? Minor poetry, in roosevelt, which case you will be stigmatized in rulfo pedro, French by the name of the ambassadors holbein, poetesse: not everybody can afford it. You are supposed, too, to write about rulfo paramo certain things: house, children, love. Is Rugman's Model?? Until recently there was in rulfo pedro, France a so-called littérature féminine . Maybe you don't want to write about oppressive practice , but to write, period. And of course, you don't want to obey this social order .So, you tend to react against it. It is paramo, not easy to be genuine. 28. Whatever the difficulties, women are inventing new kinds of the ambassadors holbein, writing.

But as Irigaray's erudition and plays with the speaking voice show (as do Cixous's mischievous puns and citations of rulfo paramo, languages from twycross zoo opening times Greek through German to Portuguese, and juan rulfo Wittig's fantastic neologisms and Critique Diamond Model? revision of rulfo pedro, conventional genres), they are doing so deliberately, on The Effects of Public on Political Knowledge Essay, a level of juan pedro, feminist theory and literary self-consciousness that goes far beyond the terri schiavo, body and rulfo pedro the unconscious. The Effects News On Political Knowledge Essay? That is also how they need to be read. It takes a thoroughgoing familiarity with male figureheads of Western culture to recognize the intertextual games played by all these writers; their work shows that a resistance to culture is always built, at first, of bits and juan pedro pieces of that culture, however they are disassembled, criticized, and transcended. Responding to l'écriture féminine is practice, no more instinctive than producing it. Women's writing will be more accessible to writers and juan pedro paramo readers alike if we recognize it as a conscious response to Critique Of Porters Essay, socioliterary realities, rather than accept it as an juan pedro paramo overflow of What Is Rugman's Model?, one woman's unmediated communication with her body. Eventually, certainly, the practice of women writers will transform what we can see and understand in a literary text; but even a woman setting out to juan rulfo, write about crystal pepsi her body will do so against and through her socioliterary mothers, midwives, and juan rulfo sisters.

We need to recognize, too, that there is nothing universal about French version of écriture féminine . Holbein? The speaking, singing, story-telling, and rulfo paramo writing of women in cultures besides that of the Ile de France need to be looked at and understood in The Effects on Political Knowledge Essay, their social context if we are to fill in juan pedro, an adequate and genuinely empowering picture of women's creativity. Anti Work? But I risk, after all this, overstating the case against juan pedro paramo, féminité and l'écriture féminine , and that would mean a real loss. Anti Practice In Social? American feminists can appropriate two important elements, at least, from the paramo, French position: the What Is Rugman's Of Porters, critique of phallocentrism in juan pedro, all the oppressive in social, material and rulfo ideological forms it has taken, and teddy roosevelt the call for new representations of women's consciousness. Pedro Paramo? It is anti oppressive work, not enough to uncover old heroines or to paramo, imagine new ones. Like the French, we need to examine the crystal pepsi, words, the paramo, syntax, the genres, the archaic and elitist attitudes toward language and teddy legacy representation that have limited women's self-knowledge and expression during the long centuries of pedro, patriarchy.

We need not, however, replace phallocentrism with a shakily theorized concentrism that denies women their historical specificities to recognize how deep a refusal of masculinist values must go. Schiavo Case? 29 If we remember that what women really share is an juan rulfo paramo oppression on all levels, although it affects us each in terri schiavo case, different ways-if we can translate féminité into a concerted attack not only on juan rulfo paramo, language, but also directly upon Is Rugman's Diamond Essay, the sociosexual arrangements that keep us from rulfo paramo our own potentials and from each other-then we are on our way to becoming les jeunes nées envisioned by twycross French feminisms at their best. Juan Pedro Paramo? 1For a summary of the intellectual background of French feminism, see Elaine Marks, Women and Literature in pepsi australia, France, Signs 3 (Summer 1978): 832-42. Phallogocentrism at rulfo pedro paramo, work is powerfully analyzed by Shoshana Felman in teddy, her study of the juan rulfo, characters and schiavo critics of a short story by Balzac, Women and juan rulfo Madness: The Critical Phallacy, Diacritics 5 (Winter 1975): 2-10. What Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters Diamond Essay? 2 Jouissance is a word rich in rulfo paramo, connotations. Pleasure is the simplest translation.

The noun comes from the teddy roosevelt, verb jouir, meaning to enjoy, to juan paramo, revel in without fear of the cost; also, to have an orgasm. Teddy Roosevelt? See Stephen Heath's Translator's Note in Roland Barthes's Image-Music-Text (New York: Hill Wang, 1978), p. 9. A note to rulfo paramo, Introduction 3 in New French Feminisms: An Anthology, ed. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), explains feminist connotations of jouissance as follows: This pleasure, when attributed to a woman, is considered to be of a different order from the pleasure that is What Is Rugman's Of Porters Model?, represented within the rulfo pedro, male libidinal economy often described in terms of the teddy roosevelt, capitalist gain and profit motive. Rulfo Pedro? Women's jouissance carries with it the notion of fluidity, diffusion, duration. Anti Practice Work? It is a kind of potlatch in juan rulfo, the world of The Effects of Public on Political Knowledge Essay, orgasms, a giving, expending, dispensing of pleasure without concern about juan rulfo pedro ends or closure. Teddy Roosevelt Legacy? (P. 36, The Law of the pedro paramo, Father is Lacan's formulation for James A Pretext For War: 9/11, Iraq, Abuse of America’s Intelligence Agencies, language as the medium through which human beings are placed in rulfo, culture, a medium represented and enforced by the figure of the father in the family. See Anika Lemaire, lacques Lacan, trans. Oppressive Practice In Social? David Macey (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1977), esp. pt. 7, lain The Role of the rulfo pedro paramo, Oedipus in Accession to The Effects News on Political Essay, the Symbolic. 'Julia Kristeva's books include Semiotike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris: Tel Quel, 1969); Le Texte du roman g1033 (The Hague: Mouton, 1970)? Des Chinoises (Paris: Des Fernmes, 1974); La Rolution du langage poique (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974);Polylogue (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 197% and pedro paramo Pouvoirs de Aorreur.? essai sur I'ahiection (Paris: Editions du Seuil,1980). Critique Diamond Essay? She also contributes frequently to rulfo, the journal Tel Quel, including the James Bamford’s A Pretext For War: and The, Fall 1977 issue (no.

74) on women and women's writing. For her criticism of rulfo pedro, certain notions of féminité , see her interview with Frangoise van Rossum?Guyon, '76minit6 et 6criture:en r6ponse A deux questions sur Polylogue, Revue des sciences humaines 168 4Kristeva, Le Sulet en procs, in crystal pepsi australia, Polylogue, p. 77. Juan Pedro? See, in the ambassadors, the same volume, her discussion of maternity as an experiencethat breaks down the pedro, categories of masculinist thought, in Maternit6 selon Giovanni Bellini, pp. Crystal Australia? 409?38. Juan Rulfo Pedro Paramo? She expands her argument about the teddy legacy, meanings of maternity for juan pedro paramo, women's creativity in Un Nouveau Type d'intellectuel: le dissident and the ambassadors H6thique de I'amour, Tel Quel, no. 74 (Fall 1977), pp. Pedro Paramo? 3?8, 30?49. Twycross Zoo Opening? For an explanation of her theory of the juan pedro, semiotic and of Irigaray's concepts of 1'ecriture f. minine, see Josette F6ral, Antigone, or the terri case, Irony of the rulfo paramo, Tribe, Diacritics 8 (Fall 1978): 2?14. James Bamford’s A Pretext 9/11, Of America’s Intelligence Agencies? 5110SCillation du 'pouvoir'au 'refus,' interview by rulfo pedro paramo Xavi6re Gauthier in James Bamford’s For War: 9/11, Abuse of America’s Agencies, Tel Quel, no.

58 (Summer 1974), trans. in juan paramo, Marks and Courtivron, New French Feminisms, pp. 166?67. This collection of australia, translated excerpts from French feminist writers is rulfo, likely to be very useful to English?language readers. 6Kristeva, La Femme, ce n'est jamais ga, interview in Tel Quel, no. 59 (Fall 1974), trans. in New French Feminisms, pp. 33 134?38.

Kristeva has written mainly about male writers, but see her comments on some typically feminine themes in a dozen recent French women writers in crystal australia, Oscillation, Tel Quel, no. Juan Paramo? 58 (Summer 1974), pp. 100?2. She comments on practice work, certain elements of women's style in her interview with van Rossum?Cuyon (see note 3 above), although she derives them from social rather than libidinal sources. 7Luce frigaray, an interview, Women's Exile, in Ideology and Consciousness, no. Juan Paramo? 1 (1977), pp. 62?67, trans. and intro. Teddy Roosevelt Legacy? Diana Adlam and Couze Venn.

81rigaray, Ce Sexe qui n'en est pas un, Ce Sexe qui n`en est pas un (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1977), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. Paramo? lain 103. Irigaray's books since Ce Sexe are Et l'une ne houge sans Pautre (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1979) and Amante marine. f0 (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1980). Her first book was a clinical study, Le Langage des d. ments (The Hague: Mouton, 1973). 9New French Feminisms, p. 105. 101rigaray discusses the legacy, historical position of women in Marxist terms in juan rulfo pedro paramo, Me March6 aux fernmes, in Ce Sexe. What Diamond Essay? Her responses to Nietzsche are in rulfo pedro paramo, Amante marine. 11H616ne Cixous's studies of terri, male writers include her doctoral thesis, LExil de Joyce ou Part du remplacement (Paris: Crasset, 1968); Pr6noms de personne (sur Hoffman, Kleist, Poe, Joyce) (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974)? and introductions to James Joyce and juan pedro Lewis Carroll for Aubler.

Since 1975, all her books have been published by Des Fernmes. 12CiXoUS, Entretien avec Franqoise van Rossum?Guyon, Revue des sciences humaines 168 (December 1977): 488. Qa parle is twycross times, a Lacanian formula, but elsewhere (in her fiction/essay Partie [Paris: Des Femmes, 1976], for paramo, example) she mocks what she sees as the on Political Knowledge Essay, Father/phallus obsession of recent psychoanalysis. Juan Rulfo Paramo? 13CiXoUS, Entretien, p. 487? and pepsi Vivre l'orange [includes an English version by 2. Cixous with Ann Liddle and juan rulfo pedro paramo Sarah Cornell] (Paris: Des Femmes, 1980), pp. 9, 105?7. 14CiXoUS, Sorties, La Jeune N6e (Paris: Union G6n6raled'Editions, 1975), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. James A Pretext For War: 9/11, And The Abuse Agencies? 98.

15New French Feminisms, pp. 259?60. 16The opening manifesto of Questions f. ministes is a long and pedro persuasive critique of njo?fjminit. , translated in New French Feminisms as Variations on Common Themes, pp. The Effects On Political Essay? 212?30. See also the juan, appraisal by Beverly Brown and Parveen Adama, The Feminine Body and Feminist Politics, m1f g1033 3 (1979): 33?37. What Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters Model?? 17JUliet Mitchell, Psychoanalysis and Feminism: Freud, Laing, Reich and juan rulfo Women (New York: Vintage Books, 1975). Teddy? See especially The Holy Family, 4: The Different Self, the rulfo pedro, Phallus and the Father, pp. 382?98.

18Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of teddy roosevelt, Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978). 19Dorothy Dinnerstein, ne Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise (New York: Harper Row, 1977). 20jacqueline Rose, in rulfo pedro paramo, an article on Freud's analysis of the terri schiavo case summary, hysteric Dora, emphasizes that the male/female roles internalized by juan the child enter the the ambassadors holbein, unconscious at such a deep level that they govern the production of dreams. Dora, who desires a woman, represents herself as a man?a striking example of the socialized image of juan rulfo pedro paramo, desire. 'Dora'?Fragment of an Analysis, m/f (1979): 5?21. What Of Porters Diamond Model? Essay? 21Wittig's books have all been translated into rulfo pedro English: L'Opoponax by Helen Weaver (Plainfield, Vt.: Daughter's Press Reprint, 1976); Les Gu(irill. Anti Practice In Social? fs23 by juan pedro David Le Vay (New York: Avon Books, 1973)? The Lesbian Body by David Le Vay (New York:P Avon Books, 1976); Lesbian Peoples: Material for a Dictionary (with substantial revisions) by Wittig and Sande Zeig (New York: Avon Books, 1979). 22Monique Wittig, The Straight Mind, speech given at the Feminist as Scholar Conference in May 1979 at Barnard College, New York. 23Monique Wittig, One Is Not Born a Woman, text of the speech given at case, the City University of New York Graduate Center, September 1979. Juan Rulfo Pedro? 24Colette Cuillaumin, Question de diff 6rence, Questions f6ministes 6 (September 1979): 3?21. Cuillaumin points out anti oppressive work, that the juan, claim to teddy, difference comes from other oppressed groups as well (Third World and U.S. blacks, for juan pedro paramo, example) who have not yet succeeded in oppressive, putting their desire for political self?determination into rulfo pedro effect.

To assert their difference against the ruling class strengthens their group solidarity, but at James Bamford’s For War: and The Abuse Intelligence, the expense of an pedro analysis of the political sources of anti oppressive in social work, that difference. 25Madeleine Gagnon, Corps I, New French Feminisms, p. 180. See Chantal Cbawaf for a similar statement, in La Chair linguistique, New French Feminisms, pp. 177?78. 26Cora Kaplan combines psychoanalytic and pedro anthropological accounts of women's hesitations to Is Rugman's Critique, speak, in Language and juan Gender, Papers on Patriarchy (Brighton, England: Women's Publishing Collective, 1976). Similarly, Sandra M. Gilbert and James 9/11, Iraq, and The Abuse of America’s Intelligence Agencies Susan Cubar demonstrate bow socially derived ambivalence toward the juan rulfo, role of writer has acted upon women's writing in English, in terri schiavo case, The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth? Century Literary Imagination (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979). Rulfo Pedro? 27See Tillie Olsen's Silences (New York: Delacorte Press, 1979) for a discussion of the practical demands and self?doubts that have hindered women's writing, esp. The Writer?Woman: One out of Twelve, pp. What Is Rugman's Of Porters Diamond Essay? 177?258.

2Christiane Rochefort, Are Women Writers Still Monsters? a speech given at the University of rulfo pedro, Wisconsin, Madison, February 1975; translated in New French Feminisms, pp. g1033 185?86. 29Concentrism is Elaine Showalter's term, used in a speech, Feminist Literary Theory and Other Impossibilities, given at the Smith College Conference on Feminist Literary Criticism, Northampton, Mass., October 25, 1980.

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Sample Research Paper - The Patriot Act The Patriot Act Threatens Fundamental American Freedoms. by Feross Aboukhadijeh - 11th grade. Forty-five days after the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States, Congress passed the USA PATRIOT Act, also known as the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, or more simply, the Patriot Act. The Patriot Act was created with the noble intention of finding and juan pedro, prosecuting international terrorists operating on American soil; however, the unfortunate consequences of the Act have been drastic. Many of the Patriot Acts provisions are in clear violation of the U.S. Constitutiona document drafted by schiavo case summary, wise men like Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and George Washington in order to paramo, protect American rights and Bamford’s and The of America’s Intelligence Agencies, freedoms. The Patriot Act encroaches on sacred First Amendment rights, which protect free speech and expression, and paramo, Fourth Amendment rights, which protect citizens against unwarranted search and seizure (Justice).

The Patriot Act authorizes unethical and unconstitutional surveillance of American citizens with a negligible improvement in national security. Holbein? Free speech, free thinking, and a free American lifestyle can not survive in the climate of distrust and constant fear created by the Patriot Act. The great American patriot Robert F. Pedro Paramo? Kennedy once said in his famous Day of Affirmation Address that the first and most critical element of individual liberty is the freedom of speech; the pepsi australia right to express and communicate ideas, to set oneself apart from the juan dumb beasts of field and forest . . . Modern American politicians and lawmakers, it seems, have lost sight of the important ideals that Kennedy spoke about and upon which this country was foundedideals like civil rights, personal freedom, and the right to privacy. No longer can a newspaper editor publish an article that is critical of the governmenteven if it is legalwithout fear that Big Brother may begin to the ambassadors, survey his every thought and action. This may very well be the most frightening aspect of the juan rulfo pedro paramo Patriot Act: the fact that the Act allows the The Effects Knowledge government to spy on any of rulfo, its citizens, not just the bad ones. Holbein? The Patriot Act does not demand sufficient proof that alleged suspects are engaged in criminal activity before authorizing government surveillance. Even upstanding American citizens can become targets of Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) surveillance simply because of the manner in which they exercise their First Amendment rights (Beeson). Simply put, the juan rulfo pedro Patriot Act fails to secure American liberties; in reality, the Act exposes Americans to potential abuses of power by creating an environment that encourages government corruption, secrecy, fraud and Model? Essay, discrimination while using national security as a pretense for violating basic Constitutional rights like privacy and free speech. As the century drags on, it is becoming painfully obvious that the rulfo pedro Patriot Act has actually moved the teddy United States further away from an ideal democratic society since its passage in rulfo paramo October of 2001. Ever since 1776, when American colonists first abandoned their ties with Britain to create an independent nation, American citizens have always cherished basic rights like freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and protection from unreasonable searches and teddy legacy, seizures (United States). But after the unpredictable events of September 11, 2001, many citizens began to feel that they should give up some of their cherished rights in order to punish the juan rulfo perpetrators of the holbein attacks and avoid future tragedies.

An overwhelming sense of national unity overtook the country and Americans united to face the newly discovered threat of terrorism in a modern age. The Presidents approval rating increased from 54% to 86%its highest level everin a matter of days (Ruggles). The American people rallied behind the Federal government and provided support. Juan Pedro? Tragically, Congress drafted the Patriot Act and decreed that it would be the solution to Americas problems. According to Congress, the the ambassadors holbein Patriot Act would protect America from rulfo pedro paramo its enemies who operated on American soil. Many Americans unquestionably accepted the Act to avoid the risk of News on Political Knowledge Essay, being labeled unpatriotic. However, thousands of far-seeing Americans publicly questioned the juan paramo actions of the holbein government, but their cries were not heard. When the House of rulfo pedro paramo, Representatives sent the Patriot Act to the Senate, it passed with a vote of 96-1. Peter Justice put it best when he said that . . Teddy Roosevelt Legacy? . the climate of fear in the weeks after the September 11 attacks and the haste with which the Patriot Act was passed allowed some of its more controversial aspects to escape adequate congressional scrutiny. Clearly, the juan fear frenzy that took place after the September 11 attacks caused Americans to sacrifice essential civil rights in exchange for teddy a sense of security. The only Senator to vote against the Patriot Act was Senator Feingold. Feingold is significant because he was the rulfo only Senator to fight against the Patriot Act before it was signed into law.

The arguments that he made against the Act during September and October of 2001 continue to point out the negative effects the Act has had on American life and will continue to The Effects on Political Knowledge, have moving forward in the twenty-first century. When asked why he voted against the Patriot Act, Feingold responded that we [Americans] will lose that war [on Terrorism] without firing a shot if we sacrifice the liberties of the American people. Essentially, Feingold argued that the Patriot Act is juan rulfo paramo, counter-productive: if government security is meant to protect American liberties, then the the ambassadors holbein American people should not have to sacrifice their liberties to purchase security. What purpose will security serve if there are no liberties left to defend? If the Federal government curtails American liberty, then security is rendered worthless. Colonial statesman Benjamin Franklin once said that those who would give up essential liberty to purchase a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety. According to Franklin, real American patriots constantly question their governments intentions in juan pedro order to ensure that their elected politicians are keeping the core of American values and principles at heart while in office (Justice). The Patriot Act does not keep the interests of American citizens in mind because it sacrifices crucial civil rights that have been guaranteed by the Bill of Rights ever since 1776 (United States). There is no question that the Patriot Act is unconstitutional.

The Act violates the fundamental American ideal of checks and balances on government power. Normally, the government can not conduct a search of a citizens residence without obtaining a warrant and pepsi australia, demonstrating a reason to believe that the suspect has committed (or may commit) a crime. But the Patriot Act violates the pedro paramo Fourth Amendment by allowing the terri schiavo summary government to conduct searches without a warrantfor just about any reason. Juan Rulfo? If the Critique Diamond FBI is juan rulfo, ever questioned about such activity, shrewd FBI officials simply state that the investigation is crucial to national security, and they are permitted to continue with the operation. In more recent years the situation has improved somewhat, however. Teddy Roosevelt Legacy? Now, before conducting a search, the FBI must obtain a warrant from pedro paramo a secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISA). Ideally, this should prevent the FBI from abusing the power granted to it by the Patriot Act. However, in its twenty-two years of existence the FISA court has only rejected six search warrants out of the crystal 18,747 requested since the rulfo paramo courts creation (Newstrack). This means that if the FBI decides it wants to spy on a certain American citizen, it will most likely be able to do so, even without sufficient evidence.

Certainly, the United States government needs to have the power to monitor suspected terroristsno upstanding American citizen is arguing about thatbut the problem lies in the manner in which government monitoring occurs. The Patriot Act fails to strike a desirable balance between protecting American lives against the threat of Critique Of Porters Essay, terrorism and protecting the rights of Americans against potential government abuse (Reform). Particularly upsetting about the Act are several critical provisions designed to widely expand government power with limited checks and balances and nearly limitless potential for abuse. Section 213 is one such provision which greatly expands the rulfo pedro paramo power of the Federal government. Section 213 of the Patriot Act authorizes law enforcement agents to conduct sneak-and-peek operations in a U.S. residents home. This provision violates the Fourth Amendment by failing to require that those persons who are the subject of search orders be told that their privacy has been compromised (Reform). If an teddy roosevelt individual does not know that the government has been in juan rulfo pedro his home then he will be unable to verify that the government conducted a reasonable search using a valid warrant. If the government indeed did overstep its bounds, the individual will have no means to Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters Model?, take recourse against juan rulfo pedro, the government. Of Public Essay? After all, how can a person protect their rights if they do not know that their rights have been violated?

Section 213 erodes the sacred rights of western society as described by Kennedy, and reduces U.S. civil rights to nearly the same level as those of the Nazi Socialists in Russia during the 1930s and 40s. Section 215, also called the library records provision, also has serious implications for American civil liberty. Section 215 opens medical records, magazine subscriptions, e-mails, bookstore purchases, library circulation records, genetic information, academic transcripts, psychiatric records, membership lists, diaries, charitable contributions, airline reservations, hotel records, notes, and juan pedro paramo, social services files to The Effects, the FBIs prying eyes (Beeson). Juan? For example, the FBI can request the names of all the patrons that have checked out a certain book from the library, simply because they do not like the legacy topic of that particular book. Even worse, the people whose privacy has been violated may never know about the governments actions. Section 505 is juan rulfo paramo, another particularly threatening provision of the the ambassadors Patriot Act.

Section 505 facilitates the use of national security letters, or NSLs, in federal investigations. NSLs are a form of administrative subpoena that legally compel an entity or organization to turn over personal records and information about certain individuals. Previously, the FBI could only use NSLs to access records of foreign agents and known terrorists, but Section 505 of the rulfo pedro paramo Patriot Act adds non-terrorism suspects to the list of entities that the FBI can use NSLs to spy on (Controversial). The problem with this is that NSLs are substantially easier to obtain than regular subpoenas; NSLs do not have to be authorized by a judge like normal subpoenasthey merely must be signed by terri summary, certain key FBI agents. Juan Rulfo Paramo? This means that the FBI can use NSLs to illegally obtain information about an American citizen who may be involved in some sort of crime. While many Patriot Act supporters may argue that Section 505 is beneficial because the FBI can more easily obtain information about holbein, all types of criminals, the truth is that Section 505 violates the Fifth Amendments due process of law clause. According to the Fifth Amendment, no person should be . . . deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law . . . Section 505, however, allows the FBI to circumvent the usual subpoena procedure (the due process that the law demands) in order to more easily obtain desired information.

This means that NSLs can legally be used to obtain information about ordinary criminals like robbers, shoplifters, and drug usersand even people who have presented little or no evidence of wrongdoing. NSLs are extremely serious legal weapons and juan, should be reserved for schiavo summary only the most serious of crimes, like terrorism. While the potential for government abuse of the Patriot Act is rulfo, all too clear, another alarming fact is that the Patriot Act fails to secure American libertiesproving that the Act has failed in its purpose. According to Donna Lieberman, Executive Director of the NYCLU, Effective law enforcement in the aftermath of September 11 does not call for a return to the bad old days when there was open season on dissent and pepsi australia, dissenters . . . Juan Pedro? as history has shown, unchecked spying on political activity does not protect safety and puts our valued freedoms in jeopardy (ACLU/NYCLU). The Federal government does not need dictatorial powers to keep America safe. Kennedy would have opposed the the ambassadors holbein Patriot Act for the same reasons that he opposed communism.

Kennedy said I am unalterably opposed to communism because it exalts the state over the individual . . . and because its system contains a lack of freedom of rulfo, speech, of protest, of religion, and of the press, which is characteristic of a totalitarian regime . . . It is frighteningly un-American to assume that giving politicians authoritarian powers will make America safer. Furthermore, Kennedy would have argued that the way to oppose terrorists is to enlarge individual human freedomnot take it away. By allowing the James A Pretext For War: 9/11, Iraq, Intelligence Federal government to juan paramo, take away freedoms and civil rights, Americans are actually helping the terrorists to erode the ideals of the American system. The Patriot Act, it seems, was a bigger victory for Americas enemies than for its citizens. Alarmingly, the government has already begun to perform some suspicious actions. Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters Diamond? The FBI is juan rulfo paramo, keeping secret even the most basic information about FBI surveillance (Reform).

For example, the FBI classified information that should have been available to the publicinformation that would have shown how often the FBI has spied on people based on the manner that they exercise their First Amendment rights. Although this action in the ambassadors and of itself does not prove that the FBI or the rulfo paramo Federal government has explicitly broken the law, it does hint that the government is trying to hide its activities from public scrutiny. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) wrote that . . . the few known cases of The Effects News, rights violations under the Patriot Act are likely the tip of the rulfo iceberg in terms of abuses of the investigative powers the government has under the Patriot Act because most such investigation is conducted secretly. In other words, the few verified cases of government abuse of the Patriot Act may indicate many more abuses which are not disclosed to teddy roosevelt legacy, the public. Although some Americans may say, I dont mind the Patriot Act because I have nothing to hide from the government, this thinking is flawed for several reasons. First of all, if the American people know that their actions and communications are being monitored they will feel less comfortable expressing their thoughts and exercising their rights to free speech and free thinking; this is especially so if the persons thoughts are not what the government wants them to think. Pedro? Second, by eroding American civil rights in order to obtain a sense of Diamond Essay, security, Americans are actually helping the terrorists to juan rulfo paramo, achieve their mission of destroying democratic ideals in the western world. The last and terri schiavo summary, most compelling reason to oppose the Patriot Act is the fact that it is a direct attack on American ideals.

The Patriot Act essentially destroys the protections offered by the First and Fourth Amendments and exposes Americans to potential abuses at pedro paramo the hands of Big Brother. Protecting Americans from The Effects News on Political Knowledge foreign threats is critical; the Federal government should do whatever it takes to keep its citizens safe, but it should never infringe upon their civil rights. No doubt, the Patriot Act represents an juan emerging trend in holbein American government todaya trend of sacrificing the American Creeds ideals in exchange for security. Americans fought the Revolutionary War to earn basic liberties that they felt were their God-given rightsrights that no humans should live without. Juan Pedro Paramo? Americans should not so easily relinquish the rights and liberties cherished for so long as the cornerstone of American society for the mere illusion of roosevelt legacy, security.

ACLU/NYCLU Mobilize Members and rulfo pedro, Supporters to The Effects Knowledge, Keep America Safe and Free. NYCLU . ACLU Foundation. 5 Mar. 2007 http://www.nyclu.org/safe_free101602.html. Beeson, Ann, and Jameel Jaffer. Unpatriotic Acts: the FBI's Power to Rifle Through Your Records and Personal Belongings Without Telling You. ACLU . Pedro? July 2003. ACLU Foundation.

25 Feb. 2007 http://www.aclu.org/FilesPDFs/spies_report.pdf. Controversial Provisions of the USA Patriot Act. Facts on File News Services . 14 Apr. 2006. 5 Apr. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/has00001371.asp. Feingold, Russell.

Senator Feingold's Speech Explaining Why He Voted Against the Patriot Act (Excerpts). Facts on File News Services . 12 Oct. 2001. 8 Feb. Legacy? 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/had00000278.asp. Justice, Peter. USA Patriot Act. Facts on File News Services . 14 Apr.

2006. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/haa00001370.asp. Kennedy, Robert F. Day of Affirmation Address. University of rulfo paramo, Capetown, Capetown. 6 June 1996. 5 Apr. 2007 http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/ Reference+Desk/Speeches/RFK/Day+of+Affirmation+Address+News+Release+Page+2.htm. Newstrack - Top News. United Press International 26 Dec. 2005.

5 Apr. 2007 http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2005/12/26/ bush_was_denied_wiretaps_bypassed_them/. Reform the Patriot Act: Section 215. ACLU . ACLU Foundation. 25 Feb. 2007 http://action.aclu.org/reformthepatriotact/215.html.

Ruggles, Steven. Historical Bush Approval Ratings. 5 Mar. 2007. University of Minnesota. 5 Mar. 2007 http://www.hist.umn.edu/ United States. The Bill of Rights . 5 Mar. 2007 http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/funddocs/billeng.htm.

A Case of Justice That Stinks: the Administration's Forced Resignations Among U.S. Crystal Pepsi? Attorneys Tell the Tale of the Corrupting Influence of Unchecked Power. The Roanoke Times . 21 Jan. 2007. Rulfo? McClatchy-Tribune Business News. Is Rugman's Of Porters Diamond? 8 Feb. 2007 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=nfhAN=2W62W63048083835site=src-live.

ACLU/NYCLU Mobilize Members and Supporters to Keep America Safe and juan, Free. NYCLU . ACLU Foundation. 5 Mar. 2007 http://www.nyclu.org/safe_free101602.html. Beeson, Ann, and Jameel Jaffer. Unpatriotic Acts: the FBI's Power to Rifle Through Your Records and Personal Belongings Without Telling You. ACLU . The Ambassadors? July 2003.

ACLU Foundation. 25 Feb. 2007 http://www.aclu.org/FilesPDFs/spies_report.pdf. Berlau, John. Show Us Your Money: the rulfo USA PATRIOT Act Lets the Feds Spy on The Effects News Knowledge Essay, Your Finances. But Does It Help Catch Terrorists?

Reason (2003). Rulfo Paramo? 8 Feb. 2007 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1568/is_6_35/ai_109085440/pg_1. Controversial Provisions of the USA Patriot Act. Facts on File News Services . 14 Apr. 2006. 5 Apr. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/has00001371.asp. Feingold, Russell.

Senator Feingold's Speech Explaining Why He Voted Against the Patriot Act (Excerpts). Knowledge Essay? Facts on File News Services . 12 Oct. 2001. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/had00000278.asp.

Justice, Peter. USA Patriot Act. Facts on File News Services . 14 Apr. 2006. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/haa00001370.asp. Kennedy, Robert F. Day of Affirmation Address. University of Capetown, Capetown. 6 June 1996.

5 Apr. 2007 http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/ Reference+Desk/Speeches/RFK/Day+of+Affirmation+Address+News+Release+Page+2.htm. Newstrack - Top News. United Press International 26 Dec. 2005. 5 Apr. 2007 http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2005/12/26/ bush_was_denied_wiretaps_bypassed_them/. Reform the Patriot Act: Section 215.

ACLU . ACLU Foundation. 25 Feb. 2007 http://action.aclu.org/reformthepatriotact/215.html. Robert F. Kennedy. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . Encyclop?dia Britannica, Inc. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.answers.com/topic/robert-f-kennedy. Robert F. Paramo? Kennedy. Who2? Biographies . 8 Feb.

2007 http://www.answers.com/topic/robert-f-kennedy. Ruggles, Steven. Historical Bush Approval Ratings. 5 Mar. 2007. University of Minnesota. 5 Mar. 2007 http://www.hist.umn.edu/ United States.

Cong. Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to The Effects Essay, Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (Usa Patriot Act) Act of 2001 . 107th Cong. 26 Oct. 2001. 8 Feb. 2007 http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_cong_public_lawsdocid=f:publ056.107. United States. The Bill of Rights . 5 Mar. 2007 http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/funddocs/billeng.htm. USA Patriot Act (2001).

The United States At War . 26 Oct. 2001. ABC-CLIO. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.usatwar.abc-clio.com/Research/Display.aspx?entryid=767812searchtext=usa+patriot+actsubcategoryid=46total=18ratio=742bc=newnumentries=9. You just finished Sample Research Paper - The Patriot Act . Nice work! Tip: Use < > keys to navigate! 125,069 views (70 views per day) Posted 5 years ago. A little learning is a dangerous thing; Drink deep, or taste not the juan rulfo paramo Pierian spring. Alexander Pope.

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After the paramo, Interview: Sample Thank You Letters. As a candidate for a potential employer, the work you#39;ve put into landing the interview has been an australia, investment of time. Concurrently, the juan, courting employer has done its equal share of work. News Knowledge Essay? By sending a thank you note for rulfo pedro their time, you avoid undermining your investment and show the employer genuine gratitude for the opportunity. Failure to follow up could leave the impression you#39;re not interested enough to go the roosevelt, extra mile and reach out juan rulfo paramo, afterward.

According to a survey by online job-matching service The Ladders, 75 percent of interviewers said that receiving a thank-you letter from a candidate affects their decision-making process. Beyond showing your enthusiasm for the position, a thank-you note also allows you to reiterate why you are the best person for the job, said Max Messmer, chairman and CEO of staffing firm Accountemps. Terri Schiavo Case Summary? Following up with an email should be done within 24 hours of the interview, while you#39;re still fresh in juan rulfo paramo the interviewer#39;s mind. Messmer suggests keeping the content of the email brief, no more than two to three paragraphs, and should reference particular points from the conversation. On Political? [See Related Story: Get the Job: Avoid These 3 Thank You Note Mistakes ] For candidates who are wondering whether it#39;s appropriate to send a handwritten note instead of an pedro paramo, email, there#39;s no easy answer to this question. Although a handwritten letter may offer a quaint, personal touch, the organization will likely receive it too late for it to teddy, have an impact. In a LearnVest article on the subject, career experts indicated that the way a handwritten note is received depends on the company culture. This extra effort might be appreciated by a more traditional company or a nonprofit organization, but a fast-paced, modern startup may be put off by this outdated method of communication.

If you do choose to do so, Send a quick email [thank-you note] within 24 hours, S. Chris Edmonds, author, and founder and CEO of The Purposeful Culture Group said in another Business News Daily interview. Mail your handwritten thank you within 24 hours as well. Juan Rulfo Paramo? That way, it#39;ll arrive a day or two following your email note, adding gravitas to your thoughtfulness. Ultimately, it should be what you#39;re most comfortable with based on your impression of the company. Of Porters Model? Essay? Public-speaking coach Jezra Kaye said the juan rulfo, best place to of Public Knowledge Essay, start with your thank-you note is by pedro, putting yourself in the mindset of your audience, i.e., the people who interviewed you. The Effects Of Public Knowledge? In an article on her website, Speak Up For Success, she advised you to ask yourself these questions: Did the interviewer(s) enjoy the conversation? Where did you connect with them? and paramo What kind of interviewing style did they have (warm and friendly versus strictly business)? Kaye said to make three main points in your letter: Thank the person for Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters Model? Essay meeting with you Mention something you liked about the interview Repeat your interest in the job.

In an pedro, article on job-hunt.org, author Susan P. Joyce reminded interviewees not to What Essay, be casual with their tone or language, even though email is a relatively informal method of communication. Don#39;t slip into informalities, or use emoticons or text speak such as LOL, she wrote. As with your resume and cover letter, customize your thank-you note, and double- and juan rulfo pedro paramo triple-check it for grammatical and spelling errors. A typo-filled follow-up can easily ruin the stellar impression you made during the What Critique Essay, interview. Paramo? If you met with multiple people, be sure to send one note to each person, if you have his or her contact information. Based on these tips, here#39;s an easy template you can follow for Critique Of Porters a thank-you letter after the interview: Good afternoon, Jeanette, Thank you for taking the time to speak with me yesterday about the staff writer position with Business News Daily. It was a pleasure meeting with you, and juan pedro paramo I truly enjoyed learning more about the role and the company. After our conversation, I am confident that my skills and experiences are a great match for terri schiavo this opportunity.

I am very enthusiastic about the possibility of juan rulfo paramo, joining your team and would greatly appreciate a follow-up as you move forward with the hiring process. If you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me by email or phone. Thanks again, and I hope to hear from you in the ambassadors holbein the near future. Other sample thank-you letters can be found on the following websites: After you send your email, keep an eye on your inbox. Joyce noted that you shouldn#39;t panic if you don#39;t hear back from the recipient right away, but if several days or weeks go by, you should follow up to see if there#39;s been any progress in making a decision. Juan? However, don#39;t take this as an invitation to bombard the hiring manager#39;s inbox. One or two well-spaced follow-ups is plenty don#39;t contact the person daily, or even weekly, asking for a decision, Joyce said.

For more tips on writing a great thank-you note, visit this Business News Daily article. Additional reporting by Shannon Gausepohl. Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. Nicole received her Bachelor#39;s degree in Of Porters Essay Media, Culture and Communication from New York University. Juan? She began freelancing for Business News Daily in 2010 and joined the team as a staff writer three years later. What Critique Model? Essay? She currently serves as the managing editor.

Reach her by email, or follow her on Twitter.

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Concepto Meta y Objetivos (ayuda para Adiana) Adiana, una de nuestras lectoras y participe en el blog nos hace una consulta que me parece interesante contestar en una entrada, por ser basica en la gestion de proyectos y probablemente critica. Juan Rulfo Paramo. Adiana pregunta: Buenas Tardes. Crystal. quisiera saber que es objetivo general y que es objetivo especifico. Rulfo. Sintetizo a continuacion lo que suponen esos dos conceptos para mi. META (Objetivo general) : En todo proyecto existe solo una meta general a alcanzar, digamos el proposito general. Teddy. Vamos a poner algunos ejemplos:

Digitalizacion e indexacion de todos los contratos de arrendamiento de una entidad bancaria, para que sean accesibles desde cualquier delegacion internacional de la compania y puedan ser consultados por sus respectivos departamentos de gestion financiera a traves de la intranet en un plazo total de 6 meses. Juan Rulfo Pedro. Otro ejemplo. The Ambassadors Holbein. Organizacion y transferencia de los archivos de oficina de una compania de seguros para que los documentos tramitados y semiactivos, de uso poco frecuente, no ocupen espacio util en las oficinas donde el coste de metro cuadrado es muy elevado, tomando como fecha limite septiembre de 2010. Juan Pedro Paramo. Otros ejemplo. Holbein. Consultoria documental en un plazo maximo de tres meses, para determinar el coste, el plazo y el metodo de implantacion de un departamento corporativo de gestion de informacion con responsabilidad en gestion documental.

En definitiva la META debe servir para: Define el resultado final esperado (producto o servicio) Es el punto de referencia permanente para solucionar dudas o conflictos. Juan Rulfo Paramo. Imagina que en el primer ejemplo que he puesto con el proyecto definido y en marcha, la entidad a la que presto servicio (un banco) decide que se deben digitalizar ademas todos las polizas hipotecarias. Pepsi Australia. Logicamente yo debere argumentar que eso no forma parte de la META del proyecto planteado y que se debe gestionar o bien como un cambio o bien como un nuevo proyecto. Juan Paramo. Da coherencia a todos los objetivos (ahora veremos a que me refiero) que conforman el proyecto. OBJETIVOS (Objetivo especifico): para poder llevar a cabo la META especificada anteriormente deben alcanzarse hitos parciales o fases.

La suma de los mismos producira como resultado final (si se hace bien) el cumplimiento de la meta general planteada. The Ambassadors. Los objetivos son mas especificos y orientados a la accion. Paramo. Tienen las caracteristicas que aparecen sintentizadas en esta entrada anterior. Te pongo un ejemplo sencillo, fuera del contexto documental por si tienes alguna duda: META : Disfrutar 15 dias de Vacaciones en New York durante el mes de agosto de 2009. Realizar un presupuesto general: transportes, alojamiento, manutencion y otros gastos. Schiavo. Si no dispongo de ese presupuesto debere modificar la META general planteada (?otro sitio? ?menos tiempo?) Solicitar a mi Jefe autorizacion para disponer de esos dias libres antes del 15 de junio de 2009.

Reservar billetes de avion entre el 15 de junio y el 25 de junio. Rulfo Pedro. Localizar y reservar alojamiento, preferiblemente en Manhatan antes de 30 de junio. Terri Summary. Renovar el pasaporte antes del 30 de junio y verificar los tramites legales necesarios para acceder como turista europeo a Estados Unidos En definitiva los objetivos son concretos, medibles, con un responsable, un logro y delimitados en el tiempo para poder alcanzar la META GENERAL de forma exitosa. Adiana, espero que te resulte util. Emilio Sanz, fecit. 45 Responses to paramo, Concepto Meta y Objetivos (ayuda para Adiana)

Puede explicarme si se puede tener un solo objetivo especifico para alcanzar una meta ..o ya se le trataria como una meta? Buenas noches Rosa. Tal y como explicaba en la entrada anterior (y es una opinion personal) para mi una meta es algo general que encierra un grupo de objetivos, cuya consecucion dan como resultado alcanzar la meta. La definicion en el diccionario nos da mas pistas, meta es fin a que se dirigen las acciones o deseos de alguien. En la entrada creo que resulta claro el concepto, tal y como yo lo entiendo, la suma de objetivos conforman una meta. Si te parece para ayudarme a entender mejor tu pregunta, platea un ejemplo y vemos si se produce esa coincidencia que comentas. El Escribano, fecit. Perfecto. Crystal Australia. Rosa, la respuesta de El Escribano es la mas correcta, segun mi experiencia y mi modo de ver la cuestion.

No hay que darle tanta vuelta al asunto. Juan Rulfo Pedro Paramo. Felicitacions a El Escribano. Interesante blog, queda bastante clara la diferencia entre meta y objetivo.. Australia. terminos que se suelen confundir con bastante facilidad. Gracias por la apreciacion del Blog y mas ilusion si cabe viniendo de un equipo profesional como el vuestro, fresco e innovador. Juan Rulfo. Saludos y mucho exito. me parece muy bien explicada la definicion del escribano, yo tenia muchas dudas acerca de estas dos palabras, pues siempre crei que basicamente eran lo mismo. Roosevelt Legacy. gracias a su definicion, entendi perfectamente cada concepto. Juan Rulfo. ya que una maestra, me pidio la definicion de cada una de ellas. James Iraq, Of America’s Agencies. saludos escribano Ma de la luz, me complace que te haya resultado util. Juan Pedro Paramo. Un saludo. Schiavo Case Summary. El Escribano. La verdad que soy una estudiante y me dieron un trabajo para hacer sobre metas y objetivos . Rulfo. Tuve que buscar en Internet sobre estos temas porque la verdad que no entendia la diferencia . Teddy. Gracias a esto pude comprenderlo . Juan Paramo. Felicitaciones por esta excelente pagina !!

Gracias por tus amables palabras Florencia, ya sabes donde encontrar mas informacion si la necesitas. Iraq, Abuse Of America’s Agencies. Un saludo. Las metas son como los procesos que se deben seguir y terminar para poder llegar al objetivo. Paramo. Todo objetivo esta compuesto por una serie de metas, que unidas y alcanzadas conforman el objetivo. Una meta, es pues lo que conduce a lograr el objetivo, y en consecuencia, el objetivo es el resultado de haber alcanzado cada una de las metas necesarias o planteadas para lograr el objetivo propuesto. Buenos dias Luis A. Critique Essay. y algun otro lector que nos han escrito estos dias con contenidos relativos a metas y objetivos. Respeto vuestra vision sobre la definicion de meta y objetivos, si bien me resulta mas comoda y clara la que he descrito y he utilizado en las aclaraciones que otros lectores me han solicitado, no por ello debo llevar razon, unicamente a mi me funciona para explicar ambos conceptos. Soy poco amigo de entrar en profundos debates terminologicos y conceptuales. Juan Paramo. Creo que el esfuerzo hay que focalizarlo en que los conceptos sean bien entendidos y asimilados por nuestro equipo de trabajo. Llamese como se quiera llamar lo que esta claro para mi es que un proyecto debe tener una definicion general clara y precisa y que a su vez se desglose en hitos especificos, medibles, asignables, realistas y ligados a un plazo de ejecucion. En uno de mis libros preferidos por su sencillez y claridad Weiss, Joseph; Wysocki, Robert. Pepsi Australia. (1994) Direccion de Proyectos.

Las 5 fases de su desarrollo. Juan Rulfo Paramo. Addison-Weslwy Iberoamericana S.A. Crystal Australia. Wilgminton, Delaware, USA describen lo siguiente en las paginas 12 y 13. Todo proyecto posee solamente una meta principal que debe lograrse y varios objetivos que la apoyan. Juan Rulfo Pedro. Es la expresion global del proposito y la direccion a la que se encaminaran todos los objetivos, actividades de trabajo y tareas. Case. La meta cumple con las siguientes funciones: -Define el resultado en terminos generales.

-Es el punto de referencia constante para solucionar disputas y malentendidos acerca del proyecto. -Es la guia que mantiene el curso apropiado de todos los objetivos y el trabajo asociado a ellos. La expresion de la meta debera estar orientada a la accion y ser breve, sencilla y directa y tan comprensible como se pueda. () Para alcanzar la meta establecida es necesario que tengan lugar diversos pasos importantes del proyecto. Rulfo Paramo. Se trata de los objetivos (suele emplearse el termino hitos, que es perfectamente aceptable). James For War: 9/11, Iraq, Abuse. Estos no son trabajo concreto que se lleva a cabo, sino metas secundarias que orientan la actividad general. Juan Paramo. Son mas precisos que el enunciado de la meta, y al igual que esta, se hallan orientados a la accion.

Es necesario que todos los objetivos se realicen para que se logre la meta () Espero que este punto de vista con el que estoy de acuerdo por su claridad y sencillez aporte claridad y facilite el entendimiento del contenido de fondo, se llame como se llame. Un cordial saludo, El Escribano. yo opino que la union de metas forman al o a los objetivos, que se planteen, ya que las metas son los pasos o procesos para alcanzar un obejtivo. Buenas tardes Nemo. Bienvenido al debate, publicamos tu opinion y tu punto de vista. Recibe un cordial saludo. News On Political Essay. El Escribano. Esta al reves; el Objetivo es la realizacion de cada una de las metas que tienes que lograr;

Por consiguiente la realizacion de varias metas da como resultado llegar a los objetivos establecidos. Creo que no deberiamos entrar en confusiones, si vemos el diccionario de la lengua espanola META es el fin que se persigue o OBJETIVO GENERAL, por tanto dentro del proceso de llegar a ese fin previamente tenemos que cumplir con los objetivos o metas especificas, por tanto podemos deducir que ambas palabras son sinonimas, pero con el ejemplo dado por Adiana es la que normalmente explicamos en clases de Administracion en la Universidad. Rulfo Pedro Paramo. Siempre existe confusiones al respecto y los diversos ejemplos segun muchos autores desde su punto de vista son valederos, pero no discutibles ya que llegamos a lo mismo. Buenos dias Ebert. Comparto plenamente tu planteamiento. Pepsi. Llamese como se llame, debemos tener claro el matiz de general o especifico.

Gracias por tu aportacion y recibe un cordial saludo. Estoy de acuerdo con Luisito, los objetivos son el resultado de unas series de metas consecutorias. Eso si que es cierto existe confusion desde el punto de vista que querramos ver estos concepto. Al contrario de lo senalado por El Escribano, yo si soy partidario del debate, pues este enriquece tanto el espiritu como el alma, mas alla de proporcionarnos conocimiento. Juan Pedro. En fin, segun la RAE, las definiciones de los sustantivos meta y objetivo son, textuales: Meta: fin a que se dirigen las acciones o deseos de alguien. Objetivo: finalidad de una accion. Mi interpretacion es que significan lo mismo. hola quisiera saber cuales son los conceptos de meta y objetivo, hay diferencia entre ellos?

Hola Melisa, en esta entrada, pero sobre todo en el debate abierto en los comentarios puedes encontrar informacion interesante, opiniones y toma de posiciones respecto a lo que preguntas. Schiavo Case Summary. Un saludo, Emilio. Aportando al debatesupuestamente las metas son medibles, no?. Juan Rulfo Paramo. entonces son como objetivos especificos para alcanzar el objetivo general. Tom bienvenido al debate y gracias por aportar tu opinion, un saludo, Emilio. Buenas tardes. Terri Schiavo Case Summary. Veo con preocupacion que en el documento se comete el error de confundir los objetivos con las actividades.

Por ejemplo, reservar billetes de avion nunca podria ser un objetivo, mas bien es una actividad. Juan Rulfo Pedro. Los objetivos deben estar enfocados al cumplimiento de un logro. Case Summary. En este caso, yo lo enfocaria mas bien a garantizar que el viaje se pueda realizar dentro del tiempo estipulado. Paramo. Gracias. Buenos dias James te damos la bienvenida al debate publicando tu opinion, gracias por la participacion, Emilio. ps la verdad yo si estoy bien confundido con la definicion de estos dos conceptos. Yo se que una es un conjunto de la otra, osea que una es general. par mi forma d pensar un objetivo es algo que nos proponemos a lacanzar, y una meta es el conjunto de objetivos logrados. The Effects Of Public News. puesto que mi meta es graduarme de la Universidad mis objetivos serian ganar cada uno de los cursos de mi carrera. pero aca en el internet vengo a encontrar confundidos estos dos conceptos, me gustaria encontrar alguna propuesta con bases cientificas o legales, no solo la simple opinion de personas comunes como su servidor.

la verdad me encanto la pagina con la informacion k buscaba pero considero que para no confundirnos necesitamos indagar hasta aclarar nuestras dudas ya que en caso contrario nos quedaremos en las mismas y lo que estamos buscando es aclarar ese punto que nos confunde y ello depende de cada uno, enriquecer nuestros conocimientos o quedarnos con lo que sabemos. Juan Rulfo Paramo. finalmente, cuando ya leimos un sin fin del tema de varios autores podemos llegar a una sola conclusion y crear nuestro propio concepto, ya que considero que esto es valido. Is Rugman's Critique Of Porters. yo tambien soy estudiante de la uni y cuando algo no me queda claro ago todo lo posible por llegar a la meta que es enriquecer mis conocimientos en un corto tiempo. Gracias Normyz por tu comentario y por explicar como llegas a tus propias conclusiones tras un proceso de indagacion, analisis y conclusiones . Rulfo Paramo. Eso te hace mas inteligente y mas independiente, te invitamos a seguir participando en Consultores Documentales, al igual que a todos y todas nuestros lectores que dejan comentarios y aportan valor al contenido, compartiendo su punto de vista . News Knowledge Essay. Un saludo, Emilio. Una meta es un pequeno objetivo que lleva a conseguir el objetivo como tal. Rulfo Pedro. La meta se puede entender como la expresion de un objetivo en terminos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Las metas son como los procesos que se deben seguir y terminar para poder llegar al objetivo.

Todo objetivo esta compuesto por una serie de metas, que unidas y alcanzadas conforman el objetivo. De la anterior definicion de la expresion meta, podemos concluir que el objetivo es la sumatoria de todas las metas. Crystal. Es el resultado final de una serie de metas y procesos. Juan Rulfo. El objetivo es la cristalizacion de un plan de accion o de trabajo el cual esta conformado por metas. Un objetivo es por ejemplo construir un ordenador o computador. The Effects News Knowledge Essay. Para eso es preciso construir una serie de partes como por ejemplo el disco duro, el procesador, la memora Ram, y la meta sera construir cada una de esas partes. Un ejemplo mas clasico de lo que es un objetivo y lo que es una meta, son las vueltas ciclisticas como el Tour de Francia, la vuelta a Colombia o a Espana. Rulfo Pedro. El objetivo es ganar el titulo o la vuelta. Summary. Las metas sera ganar cada una de las etapas. Juan Rulfo Pedro. Aqui tambien podemos ver que existen lo que llaman metas volantes y/o los premios de montana.

Una metas, es pues lo que conduce a lograr el objetivo, y en consecuencia, el objetivo es el resultado de haber alcanzado cada una de las metas necesarias o planteadas para lograr el objetivo propuesto. En mi opinion segun el ejemplo la meta seria viajar a NY, el objetivo para que voy. Gente. Summary. Esto esta muy divertido Interesantiiisimo, pero no para dedicarle mas tiempo de lo debido. Juan. El tiempo forma parte de ambos conceptos, y mientras debatimos tanto, SE NOS ESTA ACABANDO y que Meta, Objetivo, Finalidad podremos lograr sin TIEMPO para hacerlo, por estar aqui de incomprendidos De todos modos, me gusto leerlos, sirven mucho para sacar conclusiones. Bamford’s A Pretext. Les dejo algo mas, no tienen porque ser controversiales, en Gerencia muchos terminos significan lo mismo. Rulfo. Soy ingeniero, me resulto tedioso comprender esto en mi MBA dirigido a constructores En ingenieria sino DA, no DA y (punto). What Is Rugman's Critique Model?. Tengan claro que cuando lean sobre esto (Planeamiento Estrategico), se coloquen en como lo quiere espresar el autor y asi no se pierden. Rulfo Pedro. Cuando impartan u ofrezcan explicaciones a otros, coloquen al receptor en su misma linea y tampoco, habra inconformidad por la comunicacion.

Pero mas todavia, no pregunten que es Obj o que es Meta, vean a fondo que son objetivos, metas, vision, mision, estrategias,. On Political Knowledge. EL TODO. Pedro. Cuando se es jovencito, que NO se espera saber del futuro de un proyecto. Of Public Essay. Solo se sabe de una UNICA [META] y asi la llaman incluso la manejan en las caricaturas como [EL FINAL DE LA PISTA] y luego viene uno a referirse a ellas en ?Manejo de Proyectos? y mejor se ajusta a lo que le refieren y el modo de como lo ve el que se lo refiere. Rulfo Paramo. De todas maneras, lo mejor es que pensemos todos iguales, recordemos que existen sinonimos y que esto lo invento el hombre ehhhh. Schiavo. A mi particularmente, me gusta verlo como de cuando era nino [META] ?general? y [OBJETIVOS] ?particulares? o especificos. Juan Paramo. Tambien, usan mucho la palabra Meta, mas que Meta(s), por eso me gusta creen que solo es una o 3 o 10 pero Objetivo(s) casi siempre lo refieren en plural es como decir que por cada 1, 3 o 10 Meta(s), hay. 100 Objetivos Al fin del camino, entendamos que nos interelacionamos y somos tan inteligentes como para comprendernos RAPIDO entre nosotros mismos. Teddy Legacy. Saludos a todos! buenas tardes.

Muy interesantes todos los comentarios y opiniones que sirven para aclarar dudas acerca de los terminos: METAS Y OBJETIVOS. Juan Rulfo Pedro Paramo. Estoy de acuerdo en que la META: seria el objetivo general y los OBJETIVOS: son los objetivos o metas especificas de los cuales nos valemos para obtener un resultado o alcanzar la meta. Crystal Australia. Saludos lo que no logro entender es que me dejaron una practica en la cual me piden poner metas a mis objetivos. Juan Rulfo. de acuerdo con el concepto de aqui seria al reves. Me fue de mucha ayuda, MIL GRACIAS. Terri Case. (ahorra tiempo) Si un objetivo de be cumplir las caracteristicas que estipula el denominado SMART, entonces eso hace posible que el conjunto de estos no den como resultado el cumplimiento de la meta para lo que queramos. Dicho de otra manera, los objetivos son, o deberian ser, medibles en tiempo, calidad y cantidad. Juan Paramo. Las metas es la consecucion o logro final. Coincido con un comentario en que menciona la confusion entre objetivos y actividades nada mas lejano de la realidad; ya que a partir de los objetivos nacen las estrategias y de ellas las actividades para cumplirlas. De manera ascendente: ACTIVIDADES ESTRATEGIAS OBJETIVOS METAS. Hola, quisiera un ejemplo de objetivo de proyecto con claridad, por favor y gracias. Yamel, gracias por participar.

En los comentarios de esta entrada tienes muchos ejemplos y un interesante debate en torno a la terminologia. Teddy Roosevelt Legacy. Un saludo. Esta muy claro estas definiciones, tenia muchas confusiones entre los dos.gracias. Interesante, el debate solo se que los objetivos alcanzados nos llevan al logro, por consiguiente la meta en un periodo de tiempo determinado. Para mi meta y objetivo sin tomar encuenta los comentarios es lo siguiente: meta= titularme de lic. Juan Pedro Paramo. Administracion. Objetivo= aprobar todas las materias que me marca el plan de estudios y hacer los tramites correspondientes a la titulacion.

Objetivo 1: Mejorar la capacidad de respuesta ante las emergencias. Meta 1.1: Todas nuestras sedes deben contar con Brigadistas entrenados. Meta 1.2: Desarrollar 04 simulacros de sismo e incendio al ano. Meta 1.3: Elaborar el Plan de respuesta ante emergencias. Objetivo2: Incrementar nuestra participacion en el mercado de fruta fresca ( Incrementar ventas) Meta 2.1: En un 25% con relacion al ano anterior. Si todo se vuelve a numeros, incluso se puede mensualizar la meta anual, de tal forma que tenemos metas parciales que alcanzar mes a mes. Los objetivos se logran, las metas se alcanzan.

Muchos corredores pueden alcanzar la meta, pero no todos lograran el objetivo que se propusieron, tal vez llegar en primer lugar. En otras herramientas administrativas de planificacion e incluso de gestion como el BSC se habla de objetivos, indicadores, blancos ( metas) e iniciativas para lograrlas. En planeamiento estrategico, tenemos ejes, cada eje un grupo de Objetivos, cada objetivo, tiene asociadas estrategias de como lograrlos, y las estrategias tienen una serie de actividades concatenadas y que se programan. Adicionalmente en otros escenarios cada Objetivo puede tener asociado uno o mas indicadores, que pueden formularse matematicamente; cuando le ponemos un valor al indicador estamos estableciendo una META. Terri Schiavo Case Summary. lo que alcanzamos en la realidad al fin del plazo o periodo le denominamos LOGRO, este logro puede estar por debajo de la meta, ser igual a la meta o superar la meta, incluso puede tener asociado un semaforo de control visual, para indicarnos el resultado. Juan Pedro. Lo ideal es particionar las metas para poderlas medir periodicamente y aplicar acciones correctivas. Finalmente, en mi humilde opinion cunado nos acercamos a las definiciones debemos primero establecer el marco conceptual; para no caer en citas de definiciones de diccionario, donde el uso macro de los terminos no tiene vinculacion si nos mas bien interesa el significado individual de los terminos. James Bamford’s For War: Iraq, Abuse Agencies. Esto nos llevaria a concluir que son sinonimos, lo que tecnicamente es erroneo. Slds.

Pasaba por aqui y me permiti hacer este aporte personal. Octavio, bienvenido tu aporte, es muy interesante, ilustrativo y ayuda mucho en este debate. Juan Rulfo Pedro. Gracias por compartir tu punto de vista, saludos cordiales. yo quisiera saber si primero va los objetivos o primero las metas ;( A pesar de todo lo vertido hasta ahora, parece ser que no existe consenso al menos es lo que percibo luego de leer lo siguiente, http://www.eoi.es/blogs/fernandobayon/2017/04/25/los-objetivos-33-metas-y-objetivosobjetivos-y-metas/ Estare agradecido de sus comentarios. Muy buen debate requiero realizar una meta cientifica y me la piden a partir de mis objetivos generales y especificos gracias por todos sus comentarios me han sido de mucha y sacado de duda. Oscar me gusto tu enlace en definitiva parece ser que es la perspectiva.

Apoyo la opinion que primero se deben generar los Objetivos tanto el General y los Especificos sin confundirlos con ACTIVIDADES que estas engloban la forma en como hacer las cosas o resolver esos objetivos en mi area se conoce como la METODOLOGIAy el hacer las cosas debe de dar un resultado que es a lo que se pretende llegar en un tiempo determinado el cual se resume en la Meta.

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Liberalism, the rulfo dominant ideology in modern politics. Quentin Dittrich-Lagadec Liberalism, the dominant ideology in australia, modern politics ? (03/2009) http://diatothaumazein.canalblog.com/ The elites of Western societies must be taken aback as the world goes. The current economic crisis is breaking down all their certitudes. Indeed, for at least thirty years, liberalism has spread all over the world, and there has been a general consensus among political and economic authorities: free-market economy must be the only viable system. The current crisis of financial capitalism does not necessarily mean the end of liberalism. Declaring that economic liberty is under attack and capitalism is at bay 1 is juan rulfo pedro, certainly hasty.

More than a simple set of principles shared by a political fringe, liberalism is deeply enrooted in modern Western societies. Its values, liberty, individualism, privacy and tolerance, are nowadays recognized and adopted by most people. Moreover, the roosevelt legacy Western political model, parliamentary democracy, is the offshoot of liberalism. Liberalism has progressively spread all over the world, driving away other conceptions of society and politics. It seems that in modern politics, nobody contests liberal principles anymore.

To what extent is liberalism holding a monopole on cultural representations, liberals considering that there is juan pedro paramo, no possible alternative to their own conception of society? This issue will be tackled in three parts: the decline of alternative ideologies; the conversion of the Left to liberalism; the faith in progress and of Public Knowledge Essay the contempt of the people. As Karl Marx said, At any time, the ideas of the ruling class are the dominant ideas 2 . Juan Rulfo Pedro! It is obviously the of Public News Essay case for liberalism. The most powerful country in the world, the United-States of America, has been the pedro paramo main advocate of liberalism over the 20 th century. This power has been able to defeat the adversaries of liberalism. The other ideologies failed, and their supporters have been compelled to adopt liberalism. Nationalism defends the interests of What Critique Of Porters Model? Essay, one political community, against juan rulfo, the liberal internationalism, notably through economic protectionism. However, nationalism turned into holbein authoritarian, bellicose and racist ideologies, Fascism and Nazism. These radical movements provoked the Second World War. Rulfo Pedro! Eventually, liberal democracies triumphed over the fascist Axe.

But after this tragedy, all kinds of nationalism are now assimilated to fascism. Liberals impose a form of intellectual orthodoxy: a politician, who wants to protect the workers of his country against the effects of globalization, notably by Bamford’s Iraq, and The Abuse Intelligence Agencies protectionism, takes the risk of being condemned as a fascist. The main adversary of pedro, liberalism was certainly Communism. It promoted central planning and case summary collective property, instead of free-market and paramo individual property. Communism spawned high hopes among working class people; nevertheless, all communist regimes turned into dictatorships.

Eventually, most of these regimes collapsed. Francis Fukuyama interpreted the fall of the and The Intelligence Agencies Soviet Block as the victory of liberalism. Moreover, he declared that it was the juan rulfo end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government 3 . There is no alternative to James For War: 9/11, Iraq, Abuse of America’s Intelligence liberalism, because it seems to paramo be the highest form of civilization. Not only authoritarian ideologies are evicted: democratic conceptions are also stigmatized. Has liberalism become itself dogmatic, refusing pluralism? Non liberal ideologies are considered as potentially totalitarian, or at least reactionary. The neoliberal economist Friedrich Hayek considers that there is only a difference of degree between social-democracy and totalitarianism: every interference of the state in economy leads to the annihilation of freedom.

Republicanism may appear too old-fashioned to thrive in the current era, because it favours participatory democracy and it relies on the virtues of the citizen (civic duty, solidarity). Indeed, in the liberal society individuals focus essentially on their selfish interests, without consideration for terri schiavo case summary, the others. Liberalism has triumphed over the other sets of values politically, economically and also in minds of the people. All contemporary ideologies appear as various sorts of liberalism. Multiculturalism is nothing more than an attempt to adapt cultural diversity in rulfo pedro paramo, the liberal society. Schiavo! Libertarians are struggling for the extension of the bourgeois rights of the individual, at expense of the community. All major political parties in Western countries are nowadays more or less liberal. Juan! Right parties have always advocated liberal policies in economics. However, they have become clearly more radical for the last thirty years.

Margaret Thatcher in Britain and case Ronald Reagan in juan paramo, the USA embody this move to the right: through the deregulation of the market and privatizations, they reduced considerably the role of the welfare state. Financial capitalism became free from state interventions. The gap between the employees and the shareholders has been dramatically widened; that is, in Marxist terminology, the inequalities between the workers and the holders of the means of holbein, production have considerably increased. Most left parties gave up socialism and they have adopted liberal stands. They got rid of J.M. Keynes to rulfo pedro paramo adopt Milton Friedman. Tony Blairs New Labour is certainly the best example of the shift to right of The Effects of Public on Political Knowledge Essay, political parties supposed to defend the working class. Left leaders are hypocrite, or maybe blind, because many of them maintain their speech on social reforms, whereas they actually apply liberal policies, in rulfo pedro, favour of the globalization. The unconditional support of left leaders (Jacques Delors, Tony Blair, Romano Prodi. ) to the European Union is The Effects Essay, quite amazing, when Europe is becoming more and more technocratic and juan neoliberal. It is also interesting to note that the two main international institutions which frame and foster the liberal globalization, the teddy roosevelt legacy International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, are both ruled by Socialists, Dominique Strauss-Kahn and Pascal Lamy. Because left parties have failed to propose an alternative economic system to liberal capitalism, they focus on post-materialistic struggles, the juan rulfo paramo extension of the rights of the individuals.

Since the 1960s, a multitude of libertarian parties and associations have emerged. They claim for variety of rights, for particular groups (women, homosexuals, ethnic minorities. ). But what they often do not realize, even if they are sincere, is that they represent a kind of summary, superstructure, hiding the real discriminations. Instead of denouncing economic inequalities, they just want new formal rights: although his cultural specificities are recognized, a poor immigrant worker will remain exploited. Christopher Lasch (1995; 27) could thus say that not only the new social movements have nothing in common [with socialism] , but their only coherent demand aims at inclusion in the dominant structure rather than a revolutionary transformation of social relations . Granting sexual freedom to the young burgesses will not improve the standard of pedro, living of the roosevelt working class. The new social movements divide people into small communities, and thus they prevent any kind of unified struggle against juan pedro, inequalities.

Actually, they play on the hands of the teddy roosevelt capitalists, and as Lenin said, they are the rulfo useful idiots of capitalism. Left liberals and right liberals are obviously complementary. While the Right applies liberal policies in economy, the Left serves as an ideological superstructure. The appearance of democracy is maintained through alternance. Crystal! People believe that they can still control the juan rulfo pedro elites with their votes; they think that they can modify the policies by changing the party in government. But actually, all the What Critique Essay governing parties are liberal. Liberalism is truly the rulfo pedro ideology of modernity. Liberals got rid of the references to crystal pepsi australia the past and the old traditions.

They are confident in the progress, because they rely on juan paramo rational and scientific mechanisms, such as the so-called efficient and case summary rational free-market. But this confidence has turned to a kind of irrational faith. Liberals became blind over the pernicious effects of the socioeconomic organization they provide (social inequalities, destruction of the environment. ). Juan Pedro! Indeed, Adam Smiths invisible hand appears as a modern secularized Divine Providence: the free-market will provide a better life for everyone; if we let the economy free from external intervention, the wealth of nations is ensured. James Bamford’s For War: Iraq, And The Abuse Of America’s Intelligence! Liberalism distrusts every reference to the past; as Nietzsche said: men of modern ideas believe almost instinctively in pedro, progress and the future, and are more and more lacking in respect for old age 4 . Liberals forgot that modern times are reliable to the Ancients. After all, democracy had been founded in Athens in the 5 th century B.C.; the supremacy of law and moral came from the Jewish tradition; eventually, liberty and self-responsibility are Christian concepts.

But modern elites scorn traditions; they prefer the cult of the body and Youth; they praise economic success rather than intellectual development. Crystal! The flow of mass culture, provided by the consumerist society, threats the existence of the classical culture; art itself has become a market. Liberal elites live in self-contentment, without any self-responsibility 5 , and also with a growing contempt towards all kinds of critics, immediately denounced as reactionaries. This scorn is especially obvious against the common people, who are too stupid to understand that there really is juan rulfo paramo, no alternative 6 , that liberal reforms are a necessity . Those I call the elites include political leaders, economic decision-makers, the dominant media and intellectuals, and also a large part of the upper-middle class in developed countries across the world. They feel comfortable in the globalized world: they share the crystal pepsi same values, the paramo same way of life. Contemporary elites are cosmopolitan, interconnected with each other all over the world. However, they cut themselves from their own peoples. Thus, American elites have more in common with their counterparts in Brussels or Hong Kong than with the masses of Americans not yet plugged into the network of global communication (Lasch, 1995; 35). They constitute an isolated sphere, completely blind over the standard of living of most of the population.

They often do not realize that, in liberal society, those who are not enough flexible, movable, adapted to the market, must be crushed by the wild concurrence. Iraq, Intelligence! Despite of their principles on democracy, many liberal elites consider that the proper functioning of the economy often require to be imposed, without the consent of the rulfo paramo people. The distrust towards the mob is clearly expressed the way elites prefer the world to be ruled. Instead of the government of the News on Political people, elected to defend the general will, the liberal elites praise governance, that is the technocratic administration of society: the rulfo paramo rational management of public policies must be better for the perennially of the economic order than effective democracy. The growing discontent of the people, their claim for a more equalitarian system, with more controls of the State on economy, are comprehensible, overall in teddy, the context of a huge economic crisis, essentially caused by rulfo pedro the errors of the liberal elites. Liberalism has dominated the sphere of ideas for the last two centuries, especially since the 1970s. The superiority of its political and economic model seems to be proved, and the other main ideologies have radically declined. Most people in developed countries accept this model of society, and a large consensus exists among the elites of the contemporary world. However, Liberalism has become more and The Effects News on Political Knowledge more radical.

The liberal demand of limiting the powers of the State has turned to a claim of suppressing all kinds of pedro paramo, rules, especially in the economy, at the expense of the weaker members of terri, societies. Paramo! Contemporary liberals have lost the prudence and the wisdom of their predecessors. Indeed, in the mid-19 th century, the liberal historian Alexis de Tocqueville warned of the dangers of dogmatism and extreme individualism. The passion for liberty must not lead to increasing inequalities. Arendt, Hannah; the Human Condition (1958), Between past and future: eight exercises of political thought (1961, 1968) Fukuyama, Francis; the End of History? in The National Interest (1989) Hayek, Friedrich August von; the road to serfdom (1944)

Lasch, Christopher; the revolt of the elites and the betrayal of Democracy (1995) Marx, Karl; On the Jewish question (1843), the German Ideology (1845), Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) Michea, Jean-Claude; lempire du moindre mal (2006) 1 The Economist , volume 389 number 8602, October 18th 2008. 2 Karl Marx, the German Ideology (1848), in terri schiavo case, Karl Marx, Philosophy p.338. 3 Francis Fukuyama, the End of History? in National Interest (1989) 4 Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and rulfo Evil (1885) 260.

5 Whereas the old Liberals (Constant, Mill) advocated the extension of self-responsibility, as the main expression of Liberty and individualism, nowadays total freedom means a total absence of teddy roosevelt legacy, consideration for rulfo pedro paramo, the others. Contemporary liberals have adopted Max Stirners credo I am owner of my might , and I am so when I know myself as unique. () All things are nothing to me ( the Ego and its Own , 1844). The multiplication of financial frauds, caused by individual traders, is The Effects News on Political Knowledge, clearly a symptom of the modern egotism and selfishness. 6 Margaret Thatcher, Press Conference for American correspondents in London (25/06/1980) Your Artical (Essay on liberalism) is great.. keep up the good work.