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Audio Visual Technician Resume Samples. The best examples from place examples, thousands of real-world resumes. Handpicked by definition resume experts based on rigorous standards. Tailored for various backgrounds and experience levels. Place Examples. Audio Visual Technicians set up, operate, maintain and repair the definition art equipment that is used to enhance live events, such as microphones, video recorders, projectors, lighting and sound mixing equipment. Responsibilities shown on place examples example resumes in this field include managing eleven conference rooms for daily events in the headquarters building, performing light repairs to between weather, ensure maximum performance and longevity, and examples recording and editing internal video slideshows and their eyes god quotes presentations upon place examples request.

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How to be a fan of problematic things. I like things, and some of those things are problematic. I like Lord of the Rings even though its pretty fucked up with regard to place, women and race (any narrative that says this whole race is evil is fucked up, okay). I like A Song of my wife Ice and Fire even though its portrayal of people of colour is place examples problematic, and definite, often I find that its in-text condemnation of patriarchy isnt obvious enough to justify the sexism displayed. I like the place examples, movie Scott Pilgrim vs The World even though it is racist in its portrayal of Matthew Patel, panders to stereotypes in its portrayal of my wife Wallace, and trivialises queer female sexuality in its portrayal of place Ramona and Roxys relationship. For fucks sake, Ramona even says It was a phase! How much more cliche and Essay The Capital Punishment Debate, offensive could this movie be? Oh wait, remember how Scott defeats Roxy, his only female adversary, by making her orgasm?

Excuse me while I vomitand then keep watching because I still like the rest of the movie. Liking problematic things doesnt make you an asshole. In fact, you can like really problematic things and place utility, still be not only a good person, but a good social justice activist (TM)! After all, most texts have some problematic elements in them, because theyre produced by about Punishment, humans, who are well-known to be imperfect. But it can be surprisingly difficult to own up to the problematic things in the media you like, particularly when you feel strongly about it, as many fans do. We need to find a way to enjoy the media we like without hurting other people and utility examples, marginalised groups. So with that in mind, here are my suggestions for things we should try our darnedest to do as self-confessed fans of problematic stuff. Firstly, acknowledge that the sinopsis, thing you like is problematic and place, do not attempt to make excuses for it.

It is a unique irritation to art, encounter a person who point blank refuses to admit that something they like is problematic. Infuriatingly, people will often actually articulate some version of the argument It cant be problematic because I like it, and place examples, Im nice. What Difference Between Weather And Climate? Alternatively, some fans may find it tempting to place utility examples, argue Well this media is Essay The Capital Debate a realistic portrayal of societies like X, Y, Z. But when you say that sexism and utility examples, racism and heterosexism and cissexism have to be in cubism art, the narrative or the story wont be realistic, what you are saying is utility examples that we humans literally cannot recognise ourselves without systemic prejudice, nor can we connect to characters who are not unrepentant bigots. Um, yikes. YIKES, you guys. And even if you think thats true (which scares the hell out of me), I dont see you arguing for integration, an accurate portrayal of everything in utility examples, your fiction all the time. For example, most people seem fine without accurate portrayal of what personal hygiene was really like in 1300 CE in their medieval fantasy media. (Newsflash: realistically, Robb Stark and Jon Snow rarely bathed or brushed their teeth or hair). In real life, people have to go to the bathroom. In movies and books, they dont show that very much, because its boring and gross.

Well, guess what: bigotry is religon also boring and gross. But everyone is just dying to examples, keep that in the script. Especially do not ever suggest that people not take media so seriously, or argue that its just a tv show. Essay About The Capital Debate? The narratives that we surround ourselves with can subtly, subconsciously influence how we think about ourselves and others. Thats why creating imaginary fantasy and sci fi worlds that have more equal societies can be a powerful thing for marginalised people, who mainstream media rarely acknowledges as heroes. But even if you dont think that media matters, there is still no reason to focus exclusively on unequal or problematic fictional worlds and narratives. If it doesnt matter, why dont YOU stop taking your media so seriously and stop fighting us on examples this?

You with your constant demands for your narrow idea of realism (which by the way often sounds a lot like show me naked skinny ciswomen, and gore). If in what is the difference between and climate, your framework tv shows arent serious business, why does realism matter? Why cant you accept that it would be totally cool to place examples, have AT LEAST ONE BIG MEDIEVAL FANTASY EPIC WHERE WOMEN AND POC WERE LIKE, EQUAL TO WHITE MEN AND STUFF. STOP TAKING IT SO SERIOUSLY. Secondly, do not gloss over the issues or derail conversations about the religon, problematic elements. Okay, so you can admit that Dune is problematic. But wait, youre not done! You need to utility examples, be willing to engage with people about it! Its not enough to cubism definition, be like Ok, I admit that its problematic that the major villain is a fat homosexual rapist, but come on, lets focus on the giant sandworms!.

Shutting people down, ignoring or giving minimal treatment to their concerns, and refusing to utility, fully engage with their issues is a form of oppression. Implicitly, youre giving the message that this persons feelings are less important than your own. In fact, in this case youre saying that their pain is less important than your enjoyment of a book, movie or tv show. So when people raise these concerns, listen respectfully and sinopsis all about my wife, try to understand the views. Do not change the topic.

Thirdly you must acknowledge other, even less favourable, interpretations of the utility, media you like. Sometimes you still enjoy a movie or book because you read a certain, potentially problematic scene in a certain way but others read it entirely differently, and found it more problematic. Difference Between And Climate? For example, consider the scene in Game of Thrones where Drogo rapes Dany (which he does not do in the books). Utility? One of my friends feels that it was portrayed like rape fetish porn, sexualising the act and Danys pain. But I feel that the scene focuses on Danys pain and tears in a manner that is not fetishising them (though even so the Music Educators and Differentiated Essays, narrative is still totally fucked up because Dany and her rapist then go on to have a good, sexyfuntimes relationshipuh, no, HBO). Examples? I dont agree with my friends interpretation but I recognise it as a totally valid reading of the scene. Also, as a fan of integration problematic media, you need to respect the place utility examples, fact that others may be so upset or angered by cubism definition, media you love that they dont want to engage with it at all. In fact, one of my best friends wont watch HBOs Game of place utility Thrones because of the racism and misogyny. Thats a completely legitimate and valid response to that tv show, and me trying to convince her to give it another shot would be disrespectful and hurtful. If you badger others to see what you see in something when they are telling you its not enjoyable for them, youre being an integration rules, entitled jerk. Youre showing yourself to examples, be willing to hurt a real person over a television show.

That really is a sign youre taking things too seriously. As fans, sometimes we need to definition art, remember that the things we like dont define our worth as people. So theres no need to utility examples, defend them from every single criticism or pretend they are perfect. Really loving something means seeing it as it really is, not as you wish it were. You can still be a good fan while acknowledging the problematic elements of the things you love. In fact, thats the sinopsis my wife, only way to be a good fan of utility examples problematic things. Rachael is a queer, nerdy, aneurotypical, white cisfemale with a bachelor's degree in economics and a give 'em hell attitude. She has a culturally unacceptable amount of body fat but sometimes passes, and she accesses some forms of thin privilege but not others. And Differentiated Instruction? She believes in leveraging the privilege one has in order to smash the kyriarchy.

She is place utility examples a big geek, an atheist, a skeptic, and a fan of science. In her spare time she enjoys meditation, going to therapy, and shouting. View all posts by Rachael. 248 thoughts on “How to be a fan of problematic things” Reading this blog makes me a better person. Its also entertaining and funny #128578; Aw, yay. Best comment ever. Integration? #128578;

I agree with Olek. When it was pointed out to me that Firefly has very few (if any) asian actors and characters, despite the world supposedly being an amalgam of China and America, it made me feel funny. On the one hand I loved the show, but on the other felt sort of bad for liking it when it had this striking omission. But youre right, acknowledging and engaging with these problematic things is best I think if it were pointed out to Joss (and if the show had continued), he might have rectified this, because he is not a bad person, just maybe seeing through one type of privileged/blinkered lense. Thanks!

I have heard that about Firefly, although Im not a fan of the examples, show myself. As an definite integration rules, outsider, the experience of interacting with fans who are willing to engage with that issue is really different to interacting with those who try to make excuses or change the subject. Interacting with that second group is hard for utility, an outsider because when you ask questions you are often made to feel like youre attacking them or being really rude, when in fact youre just seeking information. I think these attitudes make fandom more tense, and less enjoyable. Regarding Joss Whedon and Firefly, it pains me to say (as someone who dearly loves his work) but I dont have a lot of confidence that he Would rectify it. He has written truly remarkable narratives problematising heteronormativity, misogyny, and the silencing or sexual abuse victims, but his racialisations are consistently problematic. Over the course of Essay about The Capital four television series and a feature film all with large ensemble casts he has had six major roles of colour: three of those were black men with short tempers and propensities towards violence (two heroes and one villain), a pliant and servile east Asian woman, a wise old magical negro man, and a masculine (by television standards) black woman with a strong sex drive. And all of utility these, All of them, are characters I love I dont think they are one-dimensional stereotypes, but the Educators, fact that they fit so nicely _inside_ their stereotypes and the general lack of critical awareness surrounding race-narratives in concert with the examples, really overtly problematic episodes (Anyone remember the Thanks Giving episode of Buffy?) makes it difficult for me to believe that hes even slightly done the Essay about The Capital Punishment, work to be ethical around racialisations. With Fireflys racial balance, Joss wouldnt have been able to utility, fix the issue, as FOX execs had pretty much ingrained it. The Tams were supposed to be Chinese, but the studio were all like two asian heroes? and aboriginal religon, neither of them does kung fu? (until the place examples, movie) naah, and history has shown that they were looking for ways to get out of funding the show before it even began as it was.

So, weak on religon the issue, but not actively racist in this instance. This does not excuse the final product, but it shouldnt be on Joss alone that it happened. So, weak on the issue, but not actively racist in this instance. Yes actively racist, but perhaps not intentionally so. This is the perfect example of institutionalised and systematic racism. Whedon probably cant be blamed for the whole issue, but thats exactly the point. Utility Examples? Systematic oppression is when prejudiced actions go through a number of gatekeepers and pass every single one without someone raising the issue. Systematic oppression is when prejudiced actions go through a number of gatekeepers and pass every single one without someone raising the issue. This is an excellent definition.

I shall be making reference to it elsewhere, I have little doubt. This would probably have been that same fitting-inside-the-stereotype issue, though. Two Asian major characters who are also the art, two smart, nerdy, highly educated characters? Um. Well, in the case of Firefly, the show was already pushing its luck by having two prominent minority cast members (who actually had something to do other than being a minority) anyway. They also didnt play the card of having a minority that was atypical of what mainstream audiences think of when they picture that minority ; i.e. Keanu is part- Asian, so he can be a Meiji era samurai.

It also had strong female characters, and more than one. Yeah, lack of any strong Asian presence, especially given the premise is noticeable, but one show cant solve all ills, which we tend to want movies, books and art to do. Its a problem all creative people deal with in a society like ours where there is such a startling omission in the representation of certain cultures in media. If the show were bad, basically no one would care, but if its halfway decent it will get slammed for not being progressive enough. I almost didnt approve your comment but considering the amount of Firefly apologism Ive been hearing lately, Id like to point out that your argument is essentially This show is not as bad as it couldve been and that makes it okay which is a terrible line of argument. I find it perplexing that people seem to think there is a line at examples, which a show is and Differentiated racist enough to criticise, but anything before it reaches that line is utility somehow protected by creative license or something. And FYI I actually mostly like Firefly.

Actually that was a rather poor attempt at sarcasm, but probably didnt come across that way because its actually rooted in Punishment, fact. A bad show can be host to a ton of problems and no one really cares, but a good show can always be better. For instance, BSG can be said to be a Sci Fi blessing for giving a Latino actor a role as good and iconic as Captain Adama; however BSG gets lambasted for examples, its depiction of Blacks. Firefly has not one, but two well written Black characters, but skimps on prominent Asian characters. Thing is the lack of Blacks in integration, BSG and the lack of place utility Asians in Firefly are both problematic, but in Hollywood it would have been very easy for either of those series to have gone the sinopsis, route of least resistance and given the viewing public what they expected which was no Blacks, and no Latinos in prominent roles.

Many shows are really only problematic because of the utility examples, dearth of shows that balance them out. People for instance dont get bent out of what is the shape about films without a LBGT character in them (even when chances are such a character would be there), because now you can find shows with such characters if you look. Said show is problematic, because it doesnt reflect real life, but could still be a well written show regardless. Thing is, you can take it or leave it because you have options of other things to watch. Its only when the options arent there that the examples, spotlight falls on Essay The Capital Debate the few gems, and we notice the flaws. I understand what youre saying, but people are singling out Firefly in place examples, particular because its been explicitly stated that the fictional world is one where China and the USA have merged into one government. Not only cubism definition are there a great many visual elements from place utility examples, Chinese culture, but the characters frequently speak (very mangled) Mandarin. Given all this background, the fact that there almost NO Asian characters in the show is pretty fucking dismal.

Its funny that Firefly gets nailed with this because I had the same question about Bladerunner back in 1982. Ridley Scotts, Bladerunner seems to integration, take place on an Earth where some Asia has clearly become the dominant culture, yet there are no Asian replicants, no Asian scientists that we see. I cant even recall seeing an Asian law enforcement officer, yet I do remember seeing Asian street vendors. None of utility examples this is in the book, it was added because I guess the production designers thought it would look cool and exotic, yet they didnt follow through with the cubism definition art, idea to its logical conclusion. I still like Bladerunner, as its a superior example of SF filmmaking, but Scott loses points for the Asian omission. Still I have to say looking back over all the media Ive watched over the decades while I find obvious omission problematic, Ill take being blatantly omitted from a story where youd expect to see more of my culture than being included with a stereotypical and dismal portrayal. Right now for at least two seasons this has been a big problem with the series The Walking Dead.

Set in Atlanta, youd expect thered be a lot more people of color as survivors (or even zombies for place utility examples, that matter). but I could take that if they didnt treat the Black characters they did include so retchedly. Thing is cubism definition there are few shows that are not problematic in some ways, but the point of this article is really about how you/me as a person who likes the show deals with it when someone brings up the issue. If the issue is valid, you really cant debate it, and 99% of the place utility, time the issue is Essay about Punishment completely valid. I find that fans of Sf/fantasy seem to utility, be pretty lacking in this ability to integration, admit that a show/movie they like has issues to the point of being belligerent, and hostile. Utility? Just look at religon, all the crap Anita Sarkeesian went through just because she made a statement that a lot of video games were sexist. This is fanboyism taken to an obnoxious level, yet since the time this article was written, Ive noticed that its increased and not decreased. Id really like to utility, know if any of the people reading this might have any idea as to why that is? @goldenboy62 Blade Runner featured beloved character actor James Hong as the cybernetic eyeball scientist for the Tyrell Corporation: Youre absolutely right!

Guess its been a while since I saw one of the versions of Bladerunner. Good reason to go back and revisit it : ) @goldenboy62 James Hong is aboriginal pretty prominently featured in place utility examples, Blade Runner as a cybernetic eye creator/scientist. Sadly, it has been pointed out to what is the weather and climate, Josh more than once at least once in public at a convention by place, an Asian person. Definite Integration Rules? His response: Well, those were the utility, actors we hired. Id love to see him rectify it. Id love to see a second season full of Asian people because then I could watch the first season, which I havent out of Essay about Punishment Debate respect for how much it hurts my husband to see a show that is place all about Essay The Capital, everything in his culture except him. Theres also the problem that the Chinese-language consultant was apparently his wife, who studied it but isnt fluent and taught in China for a while (but not years). When I watched it at first, the Chinese in place utility examples, it made me wince, and when I eventually found out their source for the Chinese, it all made since. I think that was something controllable. I do think it reflects a lack of investment in all about my wife, the Asian aspects as anything other than window-dressing or flavor in place utility examples, the show, and discussing this with other fans has brought me nothing but kneejerk reactions and excuses that reflect no willingness at all to cubism, really think about it. Its frustrating. I like something thats flawed, and examples, that doesnt mean that Im a bad person is sinopsis hard for place utility examples, people to accept, and I think that A f/sf work is aboriginal flawed, but that doesnt mean it has less merit than a similar mainstream work. We genre fans are often very defensive.

Combining a whiff of does this mean Im racist/sexist?! with does this mean it might be bad?! is place examples too much for a lot of people to handle. We need to work on religon it! Thanks for this article! You bring up some very good points. Thanks for this! I always feel guilty about being a fan of something problematic, and after having read this article, I will now think about why I feel guilty and place utility, hopefully transform that guilt into definite integration a productive dialogue about the medias portrayal of oppression. Thank you, thank you. So much. The worst is place utility examples when people act like the WORST thing that can happen to their shows is for Debate, them to be called racist/sexist/etc. They dont understand that real people get hurt. Could you explain to me, please, how Scott Pilgrim panders to stereotypes in place, its portrayal of Wallace?

Im a gay man, and Wallace resembles many people in my community. To me, he was a character, not a stereotype. I mean, the reason I ask is all about that many times, portrayal of utility examples particular types of gay men will be tarred as stereotypical when particular other types often more privileged ones on oppression axes are not so tarred despite how well or how poorly the characters are fleshed out. Thanks for bringing this up! Wallace is my favourite character too and I dont think he was just a stereotype, but it was pointed out to me that Wallaces having casual sex with multiple partners buys into one of the big stereotypes about gay men. So portraying the difference between weather and climate, only named gay character (Jimmy is maybe bi?) as someone who sleeps around a lot will reinforce this as the dominant cultural narrative around gay people. Not that its problematic to sleep around of utility course, but its harmful when only one narrative is Essay about Debate woven around a group. I felt that I should acknowledge that fact, even though I love Wallace and dont find his character offensive. I think you make a good point though (although I have to admit Im very ready to jump on place utility examples board with that because, like I said, big fan of Wallace). This is really the problem I have. Speaking as a gay man who is is the between weather promiscuous (and also effeminate, something else that gets gay male characters tarred as stereotypical), I think its not enough to go Hes a gay male character!

And hes promiscuous! That means hes a stereotype! By that logic, the only gay characters who are permitted to exist are non-promiscuous ones, though we might grant a dispensation to place utility examples, promiscuous ones as long as theyre accompanied by cubism definition, a non-promiscuous one to take the curse off. (If anything, I would find that kind of Will-and-Gracey shit more stereotypical than the alternative.) To me the determining factor when looking into stereotypes that are morally neutral in their character (e.g. promiscuity and effeminacy) is: is this character like this out of lazy, caricatured characterization based wholly on their minority status? Or is examples this character like this because theyre like this, because theyre an accurate and well-brushed depiction of real people who are like this? Its not very cut and dried because having it be cut and dried is hurtful to real people. Heres some discussion of this w.r.t. Cubism? effeminacy, another characteristic that gay characters are frequently attacked as stereotypical for having: Im not saying no homosexual men should ever be portrayed as effeminate and utility, promiscuous I dont think thats the Instruction, endgame of the utility, logic.

The logic is that there is an cubism definition art, overabundance of these portrayals and place examples, that we are dangerously close to building a single representation of gay men in mainstream culture and thats not acceptable: we need more representations that are diverse. Wallace isnt contributing to the diversity we wish to cubism art, achieve. (I agree that neither are Will and place, Jack from Will and all about my wife, Grace, who are both somewhat promiscuous and have feminine traits played for laughs.) The fact that it is reinforcing the dominant narrative, and that there should not be one single dominant narrative, is really the only criticism theres nothing wrong with who Wallace is or with portraying gay men that way. I dont feel like its wrong to portray gay men this way, but I feel like there are issues here that should be acknowledged. I hope that Im communicating this correctly because I really dont want it to place, seem like I oppose representations of gay men as promiscuous and effeminate. Aboriginal Religon? I think we need to acknowledge that other narratives about gay men are given less attention and that is something that, as a culture, we should try to remedy.

Thats the full extent of the problem theres nothing wrong with the portrayal itself. If the dominant representation of gay men was of place utility a monogamous youth pastor, or it would be the same level of problematic. Thanks for bringing this up Llyr and also for the link you provided! I definitely see your point, which I think is that we require more positive representations of definite integration effeminate (and possibly promiscuous) gay men in the media to counter the real world marginalisation that effeminate men experience. Place Examples? And I agree especially with respect to cubism definition art, how many people seem to take the notion of a sassy gay friend seriously (SATIRE PEOPLE, ITS SATIRE). But I dont think thats necessarily inconsistent with an examination of the trends of how gay men are portrayed in the media over utility examples, all. I can wish for both better portrayals of effeminate gay men specifically, and Educators and Differentiated Instruction, also a better variety of place portrayal of Educators Essays gay men generally. Im gay as well and I totally agree with you! I didnt find Wallace stereotypical at place, all.

Hes like the only character from the The Capital Punishment, comics that Edgar Wright didnt fuck up in the movie adaptation. Just commenting to utility, say that there are some excellent points being made here, and we want to cubism definition art, thank everyone for their contributions. Its often difficult to voice nuanced dissent even within SJ circles. Were definitely re-evaluating our thoughts about this; just give us some more time to mull it over. #128578; @Rachel: As a femme-slut-fag myself,I really really dont think theres an place examples, overabundance of Wallaces in about, the media. On the place utility examples, contrary, seeing an f-s-f who is intelligent, self aware, ethical, and confident is definitely in the Unicorn range of frequent-sightings. What And Climate? The cautionary tale provided by mainstream media is that f-s-fs are pathetic imbeciles (jack) or lifeless accessories (queereye *shudder*), and the only place way to save ourselves from being that is to butch up and cubism, go monog. Were supposed to whine interminably about not having a boyfriend, but then cheat on him when we get one because we cant keep our legs closed, but then have pathetic (and hillaaaaaarious) girly melt-downs over place examples, the inevitable break up, diet like crazy, possibly get plastic surgery, and Music, go out slutting again in search of a man lather rinse repeat until we get Herpes! *Laugh track!* Also, the butch-monog-fag is not a non-existent image, its the stereotype of the _Acceptable_ gay man.

We prove were allowed to exist by place examples, saying its possible for us to straighten up and fly right. And yes, some of us _Do_ have normative-masculinity privilege, some of us do have relationship patterns that are more acceptable to dominant cultural mores, but promiscuity and variation in gender performance have been crucial rallying points in the formation of all about my wife our culture, these arent wholly externalities being imposed on us. It was the examples, drag queens and sex trade workers who fought for all of us at Stonewall. It is our sex that dominant Western culture has tried to erase and cubism, eliminate, so its the sex we have that became such an important site of resistance. Place Examples? We are othered because the sex we have is not gender-normative, so the ways we fail to be gender-normal have become our sites of identity and resistance. I would much rather see us shown as competent and real human beings while still possessed of that cultural identifiability, rather than simply white-washed and made into aboriginal religon the fag thats sympathetic to mainstream audiences because hes been invested with the normative privileges (gender-normativity, monogamy) which are enforced throughout Western society, but with particular emphasis on queers. Thanks for this awesome comment. Im really glad people feel this way about Wallace because I love him, and I am glad to see that others do not find him problematic but indeed empowering. Place Utility Examples? I am not sure that the The Capital Punishment, dominant representation of utility a gay man really is butch and monogamous though its hard to think of Educators and Differentiated Instruction many except maybe that dude from Six Feet Under, and I guess Will from Will and Grace was usually monogamous but he wasnt really butch.

Jack was femmeish and place utility examples, promiscuous (and also an idiot, yes), so was the character played by Zach Quinto in So NoToriousactually, youre definitely right that femme and promiscuous is not close to being the single narrative. I dont think butch and monogamous is either, but yes, I agree with you that femme and promiscuous is not as dominant as I thought it was. The other thing about Wallace is that hes the only character who has his shit together (well, his boyfriend/s also seem to Instruction, have their shit together) so thats pretty great. Um, so, first of examples all, THIS IS GREAT. Like, this discussion, the Essay, blog, everything. I just discovered the blog today (I already forgot how, thats the place utility examples, power of the internet) and its bookmarked. I especially liked this post and will be linking everyone to it. So, THANKS FOR BEING AWESOME.

Basically. Then I wanted to rules, add my two cents! Rachael, you say: I am not sure that the dominant representation of a gay man really is butch and monogamous though. I think the tension in this discussion is that there is a growing gap in representations of utility examples gay men on Essay about Punishment TV. On one side, youve got the promiscious effeminate fag, we shall call him Comic Relief because thats basically his #1 purpose in place utility examples, the movie/show/comics. Hes been around for fucking ever and were tired of him because were tired of Punishment being told fags are hilarious when in real life, being a fag gets you beat up after school. In response to this caricature, theres been an increase in media representations of examples Real Gay Man (TM). Difference Weather And Climate? I think youre right, Rachael, that theyre still fewer of them (Comic Relief has a long history of place utility being popular so hes not going to go down without a fight after all, we do still love to laugh at aboriginal, gender nonnormativity). But the strength of Real Gay Man isnt in numbers its in how much every liberal LOVES him. Its in place utility examples, how much many people (on the more liberal end of the spectrum, granted) WISH he was the more popular representation. Definition Art? Hes the portrayal of gay people that hetero people, the place utility, masculine guy who Just Happens To Be Gay and reassures us that gay people really dont have to rock the heteronormative boat.

Ever. I think the Real Gay Man is sinopsis especially common in gay rights discourses amongst people who (most likely) self-identify as liberal and have a basic understanding of stereotypes are bad so they love patting themselves on the back for loving non-stereotypical representations of gay men. For some reason Im having trouble generating examples this morning, but hes definitely out there. Like think of how Brokeback Mountain was acclaimed I think the movie is excellent, but I also think that normative masculinity was a huge part of why a lot of people liked the movie. Ironically, instead of place utility helping us explain why Comic Relief is my wife a problematic representation, Real Gay Man often continues the work started by Comic Relief of demeaning effeminacy and promiscuity, except it judges it instead of examples mocking it.

Like you said, the problem with Comic Relief isnt that hes promiscious and/or effeminate; I dont think its even that we mostly see gay men as effeminate and/or promiscuous, although diversity of portrayals never hurts. The real problem with Comic Relief is that hes a joke; if his character himself isnt a joke, his effeminacy and religon, promiscuity definitely are. Utility? To respond to Comic Relief by wanting more of Essay Real Gay Man has done little to challenge heteronormative standards; Id argue its probably reinforced them, by place examples, confirming that they are what were striving for. That these heteronormative standards are real representation. Wow, maybe I should check out the sinopsis, rest of place utility examples this site. I am really impressed by this comments discussion. Sinopsis My Wife? Now re-evaluating my thoughts about stereotypical portrayals. Sorry to jump in examples, here, but nobody else has pointed this out: Wallace is not the only named gay character. (Aside from Roxy, and I may never forgive Edgar Wright for what he did to religon, Roxie.) His boyfriend, Other Scott, is also gay and named. They sleep with other guys and then have threesomes with said other guys, are in the back of group shots checking out guys and clearly discussing who theyd have a threesome with. Im not saying that Wallace isnt promiscuous, he is; Im not saying hes not somewhat of a gay stereotype, because he is, somewhat; I just didnt want Other Scott to examples, be ignored in this discussion. Especially since their relationship is the only one Ive ever seen in a movie that reflects my own. (Well, Im in a triad and there isnt cruising for casual sex, but two of what difference weather us do talk about guys wed love to have threesomes with, so its close enough.

And we date outside the triad, so. Hooray for positive depictions of poly relationships, is my feeling on Wallace and utility examples, Other Scott.) (Also in the comics [SPOILERS!] Stephen Stills is gay, and theres nothing in cubism definition, Mark Webbers performance to place, negate that, since Im pretty sure Bryan Lee OMalley told him. [/SPOILERS!]) Cool! I did not know this thanks for contributing! Other Scott wasnt his boyfriend.

Hes his best friend. Art? They werent having sex when they were together in the bed since Scott was there and is averse to seeing other peoples penises. The issue for utility, me (moreso in the comics than the Essay about Punishment Debate, film) is that Wallaces sexuality is place utility examples highly tokenised. I think hes a great character though, and what between, its possible that hes tokenised because Scott Pilgrim is a bit of a douchey narrator. I would agree, Scott is examples a douchey narrator.

I would also suggest its part of the whole point. Scott is definition art not a perfect person, and in many ways commits micro aggressions against Wallace. I believe Wallace is tokenized, but I also wonder if its because of the writer, or the way he is understood by Scott. (I also wonder how much I am not defined by being Queer dynamic impacts this discussion. I find myself very troubled by I am gay/lesbian/bi/trans/queer but I dont let that define me kinds of dialogue, in that I dont feel it speaks to the experience of myself, and actually devalues that experience as a whole. To explain a bit more clearly, many times this dialogue arises out of treat me the same as someone not gay/lesbian/bi/trans/queer and that if we were to examples, be highly impacted or defined by our queer experience, we would be somehow less good. Im concerned that there is a suggestion that people would be the same if they werent queer, and I dont think thats the case.

If I wasnt queer, I wouldnt have the religon, politics I have, the job Im interested and the kinds of relationships Im interested in having. While obviously extremely against the idea that being highly impacted by our queer experience some how devalues us, Ive never actually read I am gay/lesbian/bi/trans/queer but I dont let that define me in that way. I think people like to categorise other people. To put them in boxes, fix labels and think theyre done with all the utility, necessary understanding. I think I am gay/lesbian/bi/trans/queer but I dont let that define me is an attempt to stop that, to and Differentiated Essays, demand that you see the place utility, whole person.

To quote Whitman I contain multitudes and I refuse to be defined by only one. I am not just bisexual, a feminist, blonde or a bookworm, I am all of them and more and Id like to be seen as that. On the other hand, I recognise your point and I too think theres something very wrong with the fact that queer people even need to Music and Differentiated, ask to be treated the same as straight people. There shouldnt be a difference. I feel that Ive become a little more aware of my entitlements and advantages in the last few years. Place Examples? Ive had a number of doh moments and Im glad for this. What Difference Between Weather? I hope to continue expanding my understanding, but I doubt Ill ever be anywhere close to just-society acceptable. Regardless, this comment has highlighted a difficult-to-articulate thing that makes me uncomfortable when it comes to social activism. Not even activism, just generally trying to be more aware, and place examples, having conversations online about it. I cant help but see, underlying much of the aboriginal religon, dialog, the idea that the advantaged group cant add much to the conversation.

They cant say what the marginalized experience is like, or understand it, or solve it, because they ARE advantaged, always have been, and always will be. Its cultural appropriation, heavy on the negative connotation, for a representative of the advantaged group to speak with any authority in matters of marginalization and bias. So how is it acceptable for me to utility, be offended on someone elses behalf. It seems to me that being offended on someone elses behalf can be as offensive as being completely blind to the potentially offensive. By finding something offensive that has nothing to do with me, I think I might be implicitly acting as if I can authoritatively state what a marginalized group ought to be concerned with or offended by. Which seems, well, smugly advantaged. Catch-22 or just being advantaged and my wife, missing the place utility, point?

People who are privileged but want to help marginalised people are generally called allies in social justice circles. I would suggest Googling How to be an ally and The Capital Punishment, reading the place, resources that pop up there, and hopefully theyll provide an answer to some of your thoughts. But to address your concern specifically, the issue is not really one of offence. Sinopsis? We use the word problematic here a lot because offence suggests a kind of deep emotional reaction, whereas, to be completely honest, some of the most problematic representations of marginalised people make me feel kind of empty because Ive just seen it so many times. Problematic on the other hand gets to the heart of the matter that a representation in utility, some way creates problems for marginalised groups and thats why its bad, not because people have a strong emotional reaction to it (ie. What Between Weather And Climate? people often use the place, defence of being offended by swearing as a reason to not consider these issues, but swearing on the whole is not something problematic). That way you can discuss the ways in which a representation can be detrimental to a marginalised group (which is a lot more objective) and hopefully you wont feel or seem as if you are appropriating marginalised experiences. I think it is possible (to some degree at least) to be offended on someones behalf, or in your words have a deep emotional reaction to something problematic, the important part being that one recognizes that their taking offence is not nearly as important as a marginalized person taking offense and is an /entirely/ different experience. For instance, I as a white person may have a strong emotional reaction to something racist that affects my friend who is a POC, but its important for me to recognize that it is Music Educators and Differentiated Instruction their feelings, not mine, that are at issue, and that because it does not affect me directly, there is examples more of an Music Educators Essays, escape, so to speak, for me than there is for them..So, yes, perhaps offense isnt the correct word to describe negative emotional reactions of place examples allies, but there certainly isnt anything wrong with being emotionally affected by things that dont apply to you as long as you keep in mind a reasonable amount of definite integration perspective about where your feelings sit in the grand scheme of things. Great post!

I liked the Scot Pilgrim movie, but it still really bugs me that, as well as the other problems you pointed out, Ramonas ex-boyfriends dictated who she dated, instead of her getting to choose. I disagree. Her exes tried to dictate who she dated, but at no point did she actually care what their opinion of Scott was. She dated him cause she liked him, and examples, dumped him cause he was a douche. The exes objections were soundly ignored by Ramona the entire time. Good point! I did not think about this! Um, wow.

I wish to definition art, take your hand in marriage. Place Examples? This post is amazingly beautiful. You have no idea how much that makes my day! Thanks for such a nice comment. I love this article! As someone who grew up in the 70s and 80s, I admit I still have this fondness for the Brady Bunch and Little House on the Prairie and CHiPs.

I also watch a lot of old movies. Art? On the one hand I really enjoy these things, and on the other, well, do I really need to point out the utility examples, sexism, the racism, the heterosexism and Music Instruction Essays, the speciesism involved? (fur coats and old movies go together like Beavis and place, Butthead which I also watch.) Im really glad you wrote this, in difference between weather and climate, fact, because I sometimes get actually stressed out by the fact that I do enjoy some of these things, and I am very aware of many problems in them. Re: Game of Thrones. Drogo does, in fact, rape Dany in the books its not the wedding-night scene, but theres a couple lines (the only time this is mentioned) that states that he basically raped her every single night until she sort of got used to it and utility, started feeling it was pleasurable.

And thats half the sinopsis, problem I had with their relationship right there. But I totally agree with everything else that you said. Hm, I read those lines differently but now that you point it out place examples, I agree it seems like he rapes her. Music Educators? Though he doesnt rape her the first time (although of course shes under a huge amount of pressure, its consent under duress) in utility, the books. But yes, I think youre right about this on all about the whole. Through the filter of our (theoretically) sexually enlightened culture- yup, shes raped.

Through the filter of arranged marriage? Not so much. Doesnt make it any less non-consentual, but a woman in that situation is likely to be thinking cultural expectation of wifehood rather than Im being raped- and their actions reflect that. So when we look at examples, it though our filter of definite integration it was rape- we cant understand how Dany could develop love and utility examples, respect and a comfortable sexuality with her rapist, it just doesnt happen in our conceptualization. Even Dany learning how to be an active sexual participant confuses us, because we cant imagine her wanting to have sex with her rapist. But, it really is possible that a marriage that started out as an definition, arrangement with an utility, unwilling, confused wife and a dominant male could develop into a consenting sexual relationship- it has happened, it still does happen in cultures where arranged marriages are still the norm. Aboriginal Religon? Im reminded of the place examples, scene in Fiddler on sinopsis all about the Roof, where Tevye asks his wife if she loves him; you learn they first met on utility examples their wedding day- obviously she was a scared, probably unwilling virginal girl.

25 years later, they have a settled domestic life. Did she cave in to her rapist, or did she adapt to what life expected of cubism definition art her? Should we be outraged that she didnt hate him forever? Even Dany learning how to be an active sexual participant confuses us, because we cant imagine her wanting to have sex with her rapist. I havent read any of the books. I assumed that Dany was trying to take some control of place examples her life. Essay Punishment Debate? It also looked like she fell in love with the people and her husband because even after the raping they still treated her better than her brother did, in the arranged marriage kind of context. Place Examples? She did what she had to do to survive. Also, baby dragons, squeeee!

Im sorry, because I like most of this, but parts bugged me. Definition? Mostly because I feel that insensitivity to place examples, particular social topics can be used well in characterizationof the villains. It doesnt have to integration rules, be overdone, obviously, and even subtle pokes can be enough. But sometimes it is place examples necessary. What I always use as an difference between weather and climate, example is examples Captain Hammer from Dr. Horribles Sing-A-Long Blog. Despite being the is the and climate, hero, hes the antagonist, and has to be characterized as such. So Mr. Examples? Whedon writes him as an insensitive, egocentric oaf. Sinopsis All About? Lines like I might just sleep with the same girl twice (after entering a relationship with the examples, woman) and If youre not a friggin tard you will prevail cement this.

Was it necessary? Id argue it was necessary for insensitivity of Essay about The Capital Punishment Debate some kind. How else can you make a hero the bad guy? As for the realism thingmost of the time I agree that realism can be loose. It just has to be visually realistic in examples, what we see, as long as there isnt to much important action offscreen. But in Medieval stories, Id argue that it IS necessary for the women and POC to be unequal to cubism definition art, white men. Because thats what happened, thats reality.

However, thats not to examples, say there cant be strong women present. Definite Rules? Though now that I think about it, I cant honestly say I remember seeing a Medeival-era movie even featuring POC. But, a fantasy story, as you said? There I agree, theres no reason not to place utility examples, have women in power. Aboriginal Religon? Though any POC typically have to place utility examples, be travellers, since most fantasy is Essay about Debate knights/castles/dragons in Europe inspired backdrops; and its my hope that thats the only reason there arent important POC in most fantasy. But, to utility, make a long post shortI think all of the bad things can serve a good purpose, sometimes being necessary. And that to me is progress, even. When its the bad guys who are rapists, the cubism art, bad guys who are sexist, racist, cissexist, mysoginistic, the list goes on, when these things are constantly present in utility, movies but they are the about The Capital Punishment, bad guys, I think thats a step forward.

Before we can move on from something, be in a place where it can be so ingrained in us that hating a particular person for being a different colour, a different orientation, is bad, we have to be in a place where were being shown that its bad. Having this all constantly present in movies but utilized primarily by the bad guys is necessary. I agree that when the place, narrative shows bigotry as being the trait of all about my wife a bad person, it is effectively condemning the bigotry. I think this can mean that such a portrayal is in fact beneficial! However sometimes I feel like people are trying to do this, but because their audience actually is utility racist/sexist/heterosexist/ableist etc, the Essay, narrative condemnation is not strong enough to be able to stop the audience from liking the place, bad character and thinking they are great. So that can be a problem, although its not the authors fault. Sometimes though I think subtley tends to me more powerful than an aesop.

Game of Thrones to me always seemed to portray the way some of its characters viewed women as reprehensible. This gets shown even more so in subsequent novels especially in the Arrya chapters. Usually Id agree and definitely from an artistic viewpoint but I think sometimes in the case of all about systematic prejudice sometimes a subtle message against utility, it wont actually penetrate the consciousness of aboriginal those who are mired in the prejudice. So for we feminists, we perceive the place utility examples, subtle feminist messages of ASOIAF, but a sexist can ignore them very easily its less easy to ignore an definition art, aesop. But it can be a tradeoff, although I feel some media can make it obvious without being too preachy (take for example the Avatar: the Last Airbender series, which has strong feminist messages without being totally aesop-y about it!). Im actually in the midst of writing a post about this.

In short: just because a character in place utility, a show is aboriginal religon bigoted doesnt mean the show is utility examples problematic. However, the bigoted character and their actions needs to be clearly condemned by the narrative and what weather and climate, the other characters for place examples, the media to rules, be sending the message that bigotry is not okay. Yes, of course, the most important thing for utility examples, art of any kind is to Send A Message. Weather? Fuck subtlety or moral ambiguity, right? This is completely irrelevant to the discussion at hand. Whether a book or film intends to send a message or be morally ambiguous and subtle is place utility clearly unrelated to whether it is cubism problematic. Plenty of morally ambiguous films contain fewer harmful tropes than films that intend to send a message.

That distinction is really not what this post is about. Aside from an place utility, obvious mastery of the sinopsis all about my wife, irrelevant, I am not sure what you have to contribute to the discussion here. Future comments in this vein will not be approved. Though now that I think about it, I cant honestly say I remember seeing a Medeival-era movie even featuring POC. Does Men in Tights count? I really dont mean to place examples, sound judgmental here, but it jumped out at me quite strongly when reading your comment that you chose to highlight the one passing ableist line in an /entire song/ whose purpose is to illustrate Hammers classism, in which he calls homeless people scary and says they smell like poo.

Though now that I think about it, I cant honestly say I remember seeing a Medeival-era movie even featuring POC. Costners Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves had Morgan Freeman playing Robins sidekick, Azeem. Though there he was largely playing the what is the difference between weather and climate, Magical Negro. But yeah Im struggling to think of examples another. Even 13th Warrior which is ostensibly about an Arab in Viking lands had Antonio Banderas playing Ibn Fadlan. Youve gotten quite popular on Tumblr!

Beautiful article and religon, very helpful. I had to utility, think about this a lot because most media is still pretty problematic, even media that claims to be progressive. By the way, while Scott Pilgrim, both the my wife, books and the movie, do suffer from the utility examples, problems you mentioned, I just wanted to note that in the books, Roxy and Scott actually had a very decent sword fight, he even had to get over being too moral to sinopsis, fight women. On the other hand, when he defeated her, she left bunnies and birds instead of coins. Yeah -_- The whole orgasm thing was used by Ramona against Envy in the books. I have one disagreement, though, which seems to have been already mentioned; I dont believe Scott Pilgrim panders to gay men stereotypes. Place? Its true that the movie focused on Wallace since hes a main character but, in the books, therere a lot more gay men, and only Wallace(and maybe his boyfriend Mobile) are the only promiscuous ones. I completely agree about the portrayal of rules women queernes, though. I might be wrong about this but, Scott Lynchs Gentleman Bastard is an utility, example is an example of a medieval fantasy that has women as real equals and queer sexuality as normal.

Yes! I was hoping someone would mention Scott Lynch. His series is part of a new movement in sinopsis all about my wife, fantasy to bring an end to the tired old tropes of place utility examples medieval-era European fantasy for one thing, his books are actually set in a Renaissance era, and POC and non-hetero characters abound. Another example is the rules, writing of Patrick Rothfusss he deals pretty directly with racism, class elitism, discrimination and misogyny. Place? Hetero chacters are everywhere, but there are a few gay and bisexual minor characters, and cubism definition, its Not A Big Deal, Guys. Its really heartening to see my favourite genre moving in such a progressive route. Weve come a long way since the utility examples, days of Grandpapa Tolkien! The most problematic thing about about Punishment, Wallace in the Scott Pilgrim movie is how he says I dont make up the gay rulebook, implying that stealing your friends boyfriends is place utility examples totally okay for homosexuals and he just has to follow the rules.

Still love the movie though. (The comics are more problematic, but in a sexist way, and therefore I like them way less) This was really a fantastic post to read. Definition? Ive been considering similar concepts myself for the past year and place, a half or so. My husband and rules, I have set out to place utility examples, watch every movie we own ( 640) and review them all. Watching things with a more critical (and more aware of privilege) eye years after first seeing them and enjoying them has been an interesting and Debate, sometimes troubling experience.

I know I can enjoy something while still acknowledging that it has problematic elements, but sometimes its a difficult balance inside my own head. This is a great post. Ive been writing an original fantasy story for place examples, my NaNo, and one of the things Im trying to be conscious of is how gender and inequality are handled (in my society, people arent treated differently based on their gender, but rather on how their magic manifests), as well as different cultural portrayals in my story. And the idea that the culture some of my protagonists hail from sinopsis all about my wife, has issues just as problematic as others in the story. Place Utility Examples? Its a challenging thing to religon, balance sometimes, but I hope by reading posts such as this one I can be aware of such things. Not to be problematic, but if the media we surround ourselves with influences us subconsciously, how is it okay to surround ourselves with _____ist media? Being influenced and surrounded by (problematic) media is a fact of life. One way to be aware of examples subconscious media influences is to is the difference, engage in utility examples, dialogue and talk a lot about all about, it. Short of place utility living as a hermit, no one can get away from the kyriarchy and the products it produces. And just because media is Music and Differentiated Essays problematic in one way doesnt mean its devoid of place utility examples all artistic merit. Sinopsis My Wife? It may actually have good things to say in utility examples, one particular area of marginalisation (intersectionality!). (There may be some media that are devoid of all artistic merit because they only contain problematic things but I would say these are a minority of cases.)

I understand that all media is definite a mix of positive and place, negative. However, since some things are more positive/progressive than others, wouldnt it be better to leave behind, say, Eminem and Scott Pilgrim, and focus on things that dont reinforce the status quo so much? Why not *minimize* the rules, amount of utility examples negativity around you? How do we gauge progressiveness? How do we gauge what reinforces the status quo so much versus just a little bit? Even consuming media that is devoid of outright stereotypes and problematic elements, if were consuming something with a protagonist that is privileged in some way (white, straight, cismale, able-bodied, etc) then were probably reinforcing the dominant narratives of privilege in religon, some way, simply due to the fact there arent as many narratives about marginalised people. Place Utility Examples? From the a pragmatic point of view policing what media other people like is unrealistic and, in my opinion, unhelpful, especially when some people may not understand what is problematic about that media. On the religon, other hand, creating spaces where works can be critically discussed is highly educational and utility examples, more likely to succeed, because fans love discussing media. Im not interested in policing other people and I dont care about being a fan. Im just pointing out definition, that if media affects us on a subconscious level, then we should take some control over place, what type of media we consume. Its pretty simple. What Is The Difference And Climate? Yes, talk about what is examples offensive in the work, but, hey, if the movie/song/book isnt chocked full of Essay Punishment Debate stereotypes and place utility examples, negativity, theres less crap seeping into is the weather our brains.

Clearly, individuals have different tolerance levels for place, intolerance and ignorance, and mine tends to be kind of low. Do I love gaming culture so much that Im willing to inundate myself with the isms that are tied to some of Educators and Differentiated Essays it? Is crunk so great to dance to that Ill let the dehumanization of place women pound its way into my head? Is the entertainment value of Pulp Fiction greater than the de-valuing of human beings it propagates? I understand that most entertainment contains isms and phobias. That doesnt mean I should drown myself in that sort of definite rules thing. Place? There is some media out there that isnt so bad. And, actually, there is life outside of cubism definition media. At this point Im not sure what point youre trying to make that hasnt already been covered by my previous comments. Im not interested in policing other people and I dont care about being a fan. Considering this post is about being a fan your advice about having a life outside of media comes off as extremely condescending (and in fact, policing of what other people should do with their lives and free time).

Contrary to what this site might suggest, everyone at SJL are living extremely busy and fulfilling lives concurrent to running this website. Utility? Whether fannish activities make up a large part of someones life is entirely the choice of each particular person. Most people who consider themselves to sinopsis, be progressive *do* make some effort to leave behind the negative stuff and focus on utility examples the positive, dont they? Its impossible to do completely, as almost everything has some problematic elements, but speaking for myself I avoid films and TV shows without any decent roles for women, for example, or which are overtly misogynist, racist and/or homophobic. As Connie has said, its not an either/or though. Many programmes do very well in some areas and what difference between weather, not so well in others. Everything is problematic. Everything.

I find both these comments very problematic. There is place something that deeply bothers me about this post. Not about recommendations or pointing out difference and climate, problematic aspects of certain movies/shows/etc. Yes, Im a fan of pointing them out and talking about them. In no way do I believe these topics should be glossed over or avoided. Its more a reaction to utility examples, two things: (1) how to interact with people who think differently from you; (2) the nature/purpose of art.

Maybe its just my perception, but I found it a bit hypocritical to implore people to respect being hurt by something while at the same time telling them dont make excuses and dont change the between weather, subject. Shouldnt discussions of examples something problematic have a certain amount of back-and-forth? What you call making excuses could open a discussion about society X, Y and Z. I agree that trying to silence someone when they point out something problematic is not the right approach but why not try to about The Capital Punishment Debate, engage the reaction instead of simply telling someone not to react that way? It seems to me to be just as much imposing your views on place utility someone else if you dont try at least to understand their reaction. Also, as an religon, artist, I find some of the hidden and not-so-hidden assumptions about the purpose of art extremely troubling. In the comments, people openly discuss bigotry being used effectively for villains.

So youd rather completely wash away the complexities that all HUMANS have? A movie about Malcolm X shouldnt show the problematic aspects of the Nation of Islam? A movie about FDR shouldnt discuss the internment camps? But more fundamentally you seem to be assuming that media in the broad sense should be used to educate people and advance the cause for social justice, asking for one fantasy epic that doesnt reinforce stereotypes/inequality. Maybe this isnt an audience that will agree with me, but I say this is ONE purpose for media one in which you participate and utility, that you enjoy. It is also a way to express some of the darkest and least flattering parts of what it means to Music Educators and Differentiated Instruction, be human. This is the art that I personally find compelling. Violence, inequality, subjugation they are all both real and powerful. It is place utility possible to aboriginal religon, have a desire/drive and utility, disagree with it on moral grounds at the same time. In fact, I would go so far as to say that EVERYONE experiences this or is lying to my wife, themselves.

I dont think avoiding this is going to utility examples, do much of anything to advance social justice. I think youre using a slightly different definition of problematic to the one I used. I dont think displaying the Educators Instruction Essays, cruelty of which humans are capable is problematic. We need media that explores sexism, heterosexism, abuse, inequality etc those stories need to be told and its not problematic to place utility examples, tell them. What is problematic is when they are told without fully exploring the Music and Differentiated, traumatic consequences of place these horrible things, and aboriginal religon, thus, without giving full weight to the victims. It becomes problematic when the narrative subtly reinforces the place utility examples, bigot or the about The Capital Debate, abuser rather than exploring the pain of the victim. So for example I dont consider True Grit problematic even though it portrays a deeply sexist society, in place, fact I think its the best film of the past few years precisely because it explores how a young girl experiences that society during her revenge quest. I dont consider films about Reuben Carter problematic if they focus on Reuben Carter etc. I feel like we probably agree on art this as a whole. I also agree that a back and forth can be part of this as long as its respectful. Its definitely fine to listen to examples, the other person and then say Thats interesting, I think thats a totally valid reading of the text, heres how I read it.

But dont say No you read it wrong, heres why they did this! thats making excuses. I dont see how this is hypocritical? The question that arises, Rachel, and about Debate, I ask this sincerely, is what if you think they -are- reading it wrong? What if it IS a totally ridiculous assertion? Are we supposed to utility, simply decide ok, something is problematic and thus Bad the moment that -anyone- gets upset by integration rules, it? For example. I was recently playing the PSN game Journey. My sister, who is not a gamer but is a political science student from a progressive-to-radical-leaning university, watched, and then said: You know, I think this is Orientalist. Of -course- the protagonist looks like a woman with a burkha on to invoke the Other! I found this quite ridiculous, and frankly at best a misreading.

Am I not allowed to say, no, it was an aesthetic choice? There are absolutely times when I think someone is reading something wrong. Utility Examples? In that case, I find it best to Educators, say something like I do not understand how you read that from the text, but I respect your interpretation of the text as problematic. After all, I do not suffer from place examples, a crushing need to force everyone to Educators Instruction, agree with me (contrary to what my detractors would say, I think!). However, theres something else at work here. It is possible that you cant understand someones interpretation of the place, text as problematic because your privilege blinds you to the messages being sent by the text. For example, I find I must be suspicious of myself when I, a white woman, do not read a text as racist while a non-white friend does. Is it really likely that *I* am a better judge of racism than a POC? No. In fact, as a white person, I am socially conditioned to be blind to racism.

You will meet many white people who claim its not racism until the KKK hoods go on. Dont be that (white) guy. This is a general problem, Im just illustrating with my own example. And I must say, the example you gave is really unfortunate: it sounds like your sister is right. Our aesthetic choices are never made in a vacuum your sister is applying critical thinking to the choice. Integration Rules? And what is more, a burqua is a highly politicised item of clothing, so I very much doubt it appeared in place utility examples, a video game *purely* as an aesthetic choice anyway.

Having seen the art, game in question, I think the anecdote about place, Jamess sister is fascinating as is your willingness to accept his sisters reading as clearly right on the basis of a single sentence. I thought the game clearly referenced Islamic art and culture in its visual style, in what is the difference between weather and climate, a way that had a flavor of this is exotic and Other! and place, thus could be inherently problematic. But there was nothing to indicate the sex or gender of the protagonist (or any other character), who never speaks and cubism, is always fully covered in pants and a knee-length cloak topped with a neck scarf and a cornered hood which shadows the face but was, to me, little reminiscent of the place utility, round silhouette and draped face of a burqa in particular any more than any number of desert garments intended for sand exclusion and shade. The Otherness was, to my eye, created by the speechless, wordless design of the game, and by its nonviolence, and by the completely ambiguous presentation of the protagonist (which seemed at times catlike), and more problematically, depending on your reading of the game and cubism definition art, of the value of creating Otherness with elements drawn from reality by its mostly-desert setting, architecture full of pillars and complex geometric windows and meshes, and by place utility, the ambiguity of the setting, which changed seamlessly between snow and sand and integration rules, water, and color scheme maybe meant to utility examples, be reminiscent of native North American art bolstered by what is the difference between, the occasional woven blanket tapestry motif. This doesnt make Jamess sister wrong, but I guess I find your acceptance of a third party judgement without apparent application of context problematic. For reference, heres a screenshot of the game, since Im not sure my description is sufficient: I know this is more detail than was necessarily merited, especially so long after the comments were posted, but Im curious to place examples, hear your thoughts about this imagery in its own context, if you have thoughts to religon, share. Im fairly torn myself on the apparent equation (and amalgamation) of desert peoples with the examples, project-your-own-deep-meaning feel I got from the game, and with what felt like haphazard mixing of disparate, tenuously related cultural signifiers, but I really liked the is the, ambiguity of the place examples, game and its conflicts and story. Well this post was amazing, and your comments/replies are fantastically even-handed and level-headed.

Definitely going to forward this on to Everyone. Everyone I know. #128512; This is one of the most well-worded, expressive, thoughtful pieces Ive read in a long while, and I loved every bit of is the weather it, from the place utility, post itself to every comment and discussion. I appreciate the mention of Dune, because this is something Ive discussed on multiple occasions with my best friend. What Is The Between Weather And Climate? Its her favorite book, and utility examples, I absolutely cannot stand it because of the obviously homophobic quality in sinopsis all about my wife, the writing. Place Utility Examples? However, and this is the important thing, we both respect each others opinions. I wish other people would realize that, just because someone else might find something offensive or hurtful in something you might love, doesnt mean that you should become defensive or even ashamed of liking it, as long as you understand where the other person is coming from. All it comes down to Music Instruction, is understanding. I think that you have to realize that in order for some story structures to work such as Adventures Quest, Hero with a Thousand Faces or Ship of Fools you have to have to condemn entire races (mythological or real) to less-than-human status. If you dont then you end up with Star Wars droids as the utility examples, enemy..

Why do you think there are so many WWII movies, cause Nazis are okay to pick on. Im not sure which story structures you mean since I havent heard of any of the ones you mentioned, and Essay Punishment, Im finding it hard to understand why any story structure would need an place, entire race of Essay about The Capital Punishment Debate people to be evil and utility, subhuman. What Is The Between Weather And Climate? I mean, Star Wars is a great example of a narrative that didnt do that! I dont see why youd ever need to have every single member of utility examples a fictional race be evil. In LotR it certainly was not necessary and the story would not have fallen apart if there had been a few good orcs or even a lotor in is the difference between weather, fact if Saurons army had been made up of men, elves, dwarves etc as well as orcs. What structure are you referring to? Saurons army was not a race, it was constructed from parts of place examples dead people from other races, hince why they were called orochi This comment makes no sense on any level, and I am publishing it so everyone can gaze upon it in wonder. I googled the Essay Debate, word orochi but I still have no idea where you got it, so I shall assume you refer to the uruk-hai. If so, they are indeed a race! They are bred by Sauron and then later bred to be even stronger by place utility, Saruman (the fighting uruk-hai).

They are not constructed from Essay The Capital Punishment, dead parts of place other people. Indeed, their name does not hint at them being constructed from dead people, but rather highlights that they are part of the orc race because the word uruk-hai means orc folk in the language of Mordor. And what colour are these evil monsters? Black. And what colour are our heroes? White.

Also, the uruks were more associated with Sarumans army by the time the LotR books took place, although we can assume they formed part of Saurons too. Saurons army was made up of orcs (uruks and others) for the most part, although it also included trolls and is the weather and climate, evil men. [So I was wrong before when I said there were not men in utility, his army]. Still, my major claim is that in LotR the trope this whole race is evil is true of the orcs, and thats a problematic way to represent race. This comment wins the blog. Perhaps Redpen was getting mixed up with the origins of Orcs I seem to remember that their forefathers were Elves, tortured and deformed into something evil. Uruk-Hai were Men who had undergone the religon, same process, hence why they were stronger and examples, faster and able to withstand the Sun (as this work is all about the ending of the age of Elves and the beginning of the Essay about Debate, Age of utility examples Man, which we are still living in.)

There are so many ways that could be discussed in Essay The Capital Punishment Debate, terms of race but Redpens comment doesnt really seem to utility examples, fit into any of them. Between Weather And Climate? =/ They must have got mixed up with something else. no, id agree that orcs were essentially tortured and mutilated elves, and you could mix uruk-hai into that as well. you have the black and white issues, largely because of shadow/night and light/day, BUT the place utility, descriptions of definite integration rules uruk hai were basically dreaded and place examples, with descriptive that would describe black men in an unflattering way. and obviously however they were created, essentialism is problematic, though you could say they were brought up to kill and not value their lives. what i do find problematic is that the bad guys or the men most likely swayed into integration rules evil, time and time again, are those of the southern and eastern origin. in the films, it seems like there was an effort to make the ababian/oriental look combined with western paleness for balance, but i think thats the place utility, bigger issue. Sinopsis All About My Wife? obviously if you read the silmarillion books youll see its due to a mix of which gods they interacted with and their racial qualities (can be read as cultural) but its still problematic that theres a strong romanticism about the west and utility examples, the white fair folk. I always thought of orcs as a species, not a race, and didnt find their portrayal problematic in and of itself.

However all of Tolkiens bad guys come from the south and the east (on his maps), and they are definitely imbued with real life details from sinopsis all about my wife, South East Asia, the Middle East and India. The kind of army they have (oliphants are clearly justbig elephants) and armor they wear and place, all the dudes riding on them in eyeliner- far more problematic than the goblin-y orcs in my opinion. Redpen is confused and Instruction Essays, needs to re-read their Silmarillion. Orcs = evil Elves. Uruk Hai: Orcs :: Marines : Army.

/super LOTR geek-out. Also, I really love this article and Im forwarding it to like, the universe. Why do you think there are so many WWII movies, cause Nazis are okay to pick on. You do realise that Nazis are not a race of people right? Im not sure why you imply that any story structure would require an place utility examples, entire race be condemned. Can you explain why in clearer detail? Pretty much any story could leave room for good members of a race, a culture, or even mythical creatures. Many stories dont, for aboriginal, a few likely reasons: 1) Its far easier to just demonize the race/creature/culture because you need to write less, and only have to outline the examples, bad characteristics and deeds. Definite? Paining with a broad brush is easy.

2) It keeps stories shorter and more concise, because the writer wont have to place examples, expand on secondary characters, or work to fit in exceptions into the narrative. Between Weather And Climate? This reason seems to me to be the likeliest. 3) Its a natural fallout of the conflict/war narrative that we humans tend to live by: fear of the other. Its easier to justify war when you can just say the orcs are evil or the huns are evil or the nips are evil. Place Utility? See what I did there? Easier to get a platoon of men to Essay The Capital, open up on the Huns, than on place examples Dieter, Frank, and Hans. Those are some reasons why it isnt a surprise these kinds of broad-stroke views of races/creatures happen. Easier storytelling, trained tendencies, etc. It does not mean that those techniques are at all necessary for definite integration rules, a good story. As everyone has said, this is a very well written and important post its not what we enjoy, but how we use what we enjoy. So thank you Ive been able to finish off a post I was fiddling with in part because of this.

only criticism of this article, although i havent seen the show GOT, as far as Im aware a grown man (drogo) having sex with a 13 yr old girl (dany) is rape whether its portrayed like it is in examples, the books or not. An excellent point! I should have said this in the blog post. And Differentiated? Thanks for that very important reminderIm rather sorry (and shocked!) that I did not think to include this in the post. I think you agree with me on this point, but I wanted to reiterate: theres an examples, important distinction between bigotry in fictional characters and society and Educators and Differentiated Essays, bigotry in place utility examples, a narrative itself. To say that we should avoid characters who are racist or sexist or homophobic etc. on principle is to cubism art, bar ourselves from a large part of the human experience. I agree that egalitarian fantasy worlds are wonderful settings, and utility, that bigotry is not some essential part of what difference weather reality that must be included in all stories. Utility Examples? Yes, but the bigotrys only realistic! is used as a cop-out all the time. Yes, there should be dialogue about prejudiced characters. But bigoted characters are not inherently problematic; only and Differentiated Essays bigoted narratives are.

By bigoted narratives I mean instances in which the utility examples, work itself is bigoted. Is The Difference Between? Its the difference between characters who think that a whole race is place examples evil and a work that really presents a whole race as evil. Its a very fine line, often dependent on religon reading, especially when you start getting in to third-person limited or first person narrators, but an important line. There should always be dialogue and acceptance of different readings, of course, on everyones part. Thank you so much for saying that fans need to acknowledge when their fandom is hurting other people, and utility, there also has to be acceptance of people who acknowledge that they like problematic things. The guilt and fear people have around liking problematic things is a large part of what freezes the social justice dialogue. Simple take away for me was, be reasonable and balanced, weigh up the over all value of the Essay about Punishment Debate, media tackle the wrong in a non reactionary way. You need to be willing to examples, engage with people about it!

No, actually, I dont. Cubism Definition? Internet social-justice warriors dont get to dictate to me what I can and place examples, cannot enjoy, kthx. Youre right, of course. I was trying to dictate to what difference between, you what you can and place utility examples, cannot do. This post was a clear attempt to create pop culture Einsatzgruppen that come to definition art, your house and force you to engage with social justice issues.

Actually, as Im sure youre aware, this post was a list of suggestions for how to enjoy problematic things without hurting other people. Place Utility? If you dont care about Music Educators Essays, hurting other people, then this post obviously does not apply to you. Thanks for the site traffic anyway! Haha I would like this post if it were Facebook. #128578; Thank you for utility, writing this. My main fandom is Firefly, and I have spent much time on aboriginal religon the fan forums and at place examples, fan gatherings and conventions and the like, and just want to say in defense of Browncoats, that we talk about Joss failure to religon, cast Asian actors quite frequently. We adore the place, show and Music and Differentiated Instruction Essays, the movie, but also give it the place, MST3K treatment in acknowledgement of where it becomesproblematic.

There are many fandoms I subscribe to art, (Firefly was just my gateway drug) and they are all problematic, as someone above said. Utility? And the more I view them and the more I discuss them and consider them, the more I understand where they could improve, but that doesnt mean I dont enjoy them. We just have to keep trying and asking for better content in our books, movies, comics, music, et cetera. Actually, nowhere does Lord of the Rings say This whole race is evil. It was actually a topic that Tolkien gave a lot of thought to. Originally he had planned for cubism art, the Orcs to be Elves that had been kidnapped and corrupted Morgoth (the original enemy to whom Sauron had been but a servant) but this conflicted with Tolkiens concept of free will, and he was trying to come up with origin that better fit his beliefs when he died. All of the children of Iluvatar, Elves, Humans (Hobbits being a type of human) and the adopted children, The Dwarves had Free Will, and no one was irredeemably evil. Examples? This may not have come through particularly well in The Lord of the Rings, but it rarely does in war. Regardless of Tolkeins intentions, the and Differentiated Essays, narrative clearly condemns the Orcs as an examples, entire race.

There is not one single Orc who ever does anything good or kind. All Orcs are evil. This kind of presentation of race, as though it creates uniform character traits, is highly problematic. When you add to this the about The Capital Debate, fact that the Orcs and examples, Uruks have dark skin in fact, in sinopsis all about, many cases they have black skin (all Uruks do) and it is utility clearly racist regardless of the intentions of the author. Orcs are also a problem from a classism standpoint. They are a metaphor for Essay about The Capital Punishment Debate, the moral degradation war and industrialization inflicted on soldiers and utility examples, workers, including English workers and soldiers many depictions of orcs seem to have cockney accents. (To be sure there is no misunderstanding, the what between weather, idea that the orcs represent the English working class of cities and armies rather than an Other of Color does not ameliorate the problem of using racist imagery to characterize them.) While war and utility examples, industrialization certainly have those effects, Tolkien was really unsympathetic to the class of aboriginal religon people who ended up as the orcs in having them be irredeemable and wholly evil. Tolkien identified with the agrarian middle class of the towns and villages (as should be obvious from the whole idea of place hobbits) and apparently the Essay The Capital, urban poor were as big a threat to his ideal society as the place examples, forces that created them. One aspect I never see brought up when talking about Tolkien racism is the Essay Punishment, fact that all the minorities who appeared in the story were mercenary invaders. Examples? Not exactly the sort of folks who would provide normal examples of other kinds of humans. There were normal members of other human cultural groups around, they just get no focus as its a nationalistic focused story.

Personally, Ive always seen Saurons mirror races as the evil side of the natural races. Orcs represent the worst in elf, Uruks the worst in humans, etc. Also keep in mind black skin means black, not human brown. Theres a bit of svartalfar in their description, which makes sense in regards to the light/dark polarization. Norse magical creatures, like fairies, arent meant to describe people, but anthropomorphized aspects of nature. It is one hell of a big coincidence that among the anthropomorphised aspects of definition human nature, the bad orcs had black skin and place, the good elves have white skin. What Is The Difference Between And Climate? Except of course that its subconscious racism, not a coincidence at all.

And no, it doesnt matter what the exact colour swatch of the orc skin is. Also, the idea that This entire race are ALL INHERENTLY EVIL is inherently racist. It encourages readers to see race as a natural and sensible divisor of people, and utility, will therefore enhance and entrench real-world racism. Rules? It doesnt matter what kind of place utility allegory this idea is being used within. Its harmful and religon, also frankly its boring. Just to throw my two cents in. I thought it was a great article and place utility, I agree with it entirely. I do however believe it could have been worded better. Take out the between weather, swearing and you have a piece you could certainly get into place utility examples news papers.

I understand people believe swearing shocks people out of their apathy to quote someone I debated this exact issue with, but I believe the rules, message could be so much more effective without cursing. Kyle, your point may have been valid in 1992, but today no one is trying to get published in newspapers because theyre all pointless and place utility, stupid. In 2012 the reality is not that blogs should swear less so that they might get into print. Educators And Differentiated Instruction Essays? Oh no. The reality is that newspapers should swear more so that someone might *deign* put their inane bullshit up on a blog. Its wonderful to place utility examples, know I can count on rules you to defend my love of profanity.

3 We should get you a little wordpress icon of a bulldog or something. I believe that my point is still valid today. Place Utility? #1 i never suggested that bloggers are trying to get into print. I was mearly trying to enphasize the quality of this article. #2 obviously news papers are not pointless and my wife, stupid, yes they may bend the truth or sometimes be caught out right lieing. But they are still an excellent source of place information. #3 The reason there is no cursing in definite integration, news papers or magazines is because it offends people. For example if you were a union rep on a construction site and place, you cursed every other word, the workers would be offended because the rep assumed everyone talks like that. Because I see you take everything you read as 100% literal I feel I should mention that there are many other reasons the workers would be offended by that.

I just realized that comment might confuse certain people. I mean to say bloggers are bloggers because 9 times out of 10 they need the security of hiding behind an anonymous title. Again I feel I have to explain, the author of this one is not the subject of my comment being I believe she wrote an article that was completely accurate. Sinopsis My Wife? Also it blows me away that people get so offended and defensive because someone suggested cleaning up the language. Is it that important that people swear for, what most people believe and place examples, studies have been done, no good reason. Alrighty folks, this discussion thread is inane, pointless, and all about my wife, laden with inaccurate bullshit. It is now over, and no further comments on this subject by anyone will be published. Love the place examples, article! Ive thought about this topic a lot myself, but Ive never been able to Educators and Differentiated, articulate some of utility those thoughts as well as you did in this post. Ive especially considered comedians who utilize identities in their jokes, and heteronnormative RB music that I love.

I think its so important for me to be a conscious consumer, and act upon what I am conscious of. However, I think its important to also highlight that I am still a consumer of these things, and that I am either directly or indirectly supporting things that are problematic. So thats where I still have a dilemma. I can be conscious about Essay about Punishment, Ne-Yos heteronormative lyrics and engaging with my fellow RB lovers about it, but if Im listening to his music on Pandora or buying his album on iTunes, Im supporting him generate even MORE heteronormative music. Thats all Ive got for now. Id like to keep engaging in utility examples, this conversation and cubism definition, broadening my thought about this topic.

Thanks again for examples, the post! The problem is that we make so many microtransactions and Music and Differentiated Essays, decisions every day and we cannot properly evaluate whether we are transacting with ethical people or entities. Its possible that a local shop treats its employees unfairly and the manager routinely sexually harasses the women. The problem is that I simply dont have the time to find out and research the place examples, background of the Essay about Punishment Debate, shop if Im going to be buying groceries there every so often. Place Utility? And even if I found this out, it may require a long time for me to research an art, alternative shop or perhaps I dont have the transport or time to place utility examples, go to an alternative shop. But imagine having to go through this process for every single entity you had to hand money over to. What Is The Difference Between And Climate? It would be impossible.

People seem to be more concerned with conscious consumerism with respect to art over other products such, say, vegetables (although of course there are some people that are very particular about the latter as well). In one sense, art is, at place, its heart, about ideas and more intangible concepts which may be more closely related their attitudes towards marginalisation whereas a vegetable is pretty much going to sinopsis all about, give you the place, same nutrition no matter where you get it from. Sinopsis? So I suppose giving money to artists sends a message that condones the beliefs of the place, artists moreso than buying vegetables. Ultimately its always going to be your own choice about how choose to engage with media and which transactions you think are important to warrant your concern. However I think its also important to acknowledge that other people may make different personal choices and that conscious consumerism is The Capital not an activity that can be applied to every facet of a persons life. Well said. I was recently thinking (and blogging) about utility examples, how hard it is to live ethically, and is the difference weather and climate, how an ethical life is utility not one size fits all, but more about making the choices that you feel are most meaningful and all about, sustainable for your life and lifestyle. Also, Rachael, this is utility examples a great post, and Im glad somebody wrote it, because I think about it all the time but couldnt say it as well as you did. About The Capital Punishment? If we never watched/read/listened/engaged with media again as soon as we found something problematic, not only would we be totally media-less in about a week, but it also wouldnt solve the place examples, problem. The best part of media is coupling your general SQUEE-ness with thoughtful analysis.

I will also admit here that one of my top problematic-but-I-cant-turn-it-off television shows is Say Yes to aboriginal religon, the Dress. And thanks to you, I now feel more equipped to both keep watching and defend myself more strongly. Thank you for this article, so enlightening yet so entertaining. Im going to re-read your article and think about my BL manga fandom very, very hard. No pun intended, seriously. As fans, sometimes we need to place, remember that the things we like dont define our worth as people.

Anyone who is NOT A FAN should remember that too, especially if they dont want fans to act super defensive about their problematic media. Nothing will shut down fan interest in fully engaging with issues faster than defining their worth as people based on their fandom. Unfortunately in some social justice circles engaging with social justice critiques becomes an excuse to what is the between weather and climate, feel morally superior to place examples, people who are fans of problematic media. Religon? I feel this is actually pretty detrimental because it encourages oppression Olympics and place, complacency in examining in the media that the person does consume. Yes, yes, yes, yes. Music Educators And Differentiated Instruction? I find I absolutely cannot discuss certain problematic media with one of place utility examples my closest friends because of this exact problem.

To her, anyone who likes said media is Educators and Differentiated Instruction Essays clearly stupid and worthless as a human being so anytime we discuss it it automatically puts me on the defensive because I feel like I have to argue my own intelligence. Utility? Grar. As a fan of many, many problematic things do you know how difficult it is to explain your love for Conrads HEART OF DARKNESS? I must say: Bravo. I like #1 and aboriginal, #3, but Im unsure about #2. Im perfectly aware that a lot of the things I like are problematic and have made my peace with why those things are problematic, but I really dislike the idea that I have an obligation to engage in place examples, conversation about those problematic elements with anyone who wants to all about, whether I have the energy to do it or not. I dont care if other fans of the things I like want to have their own conversations about those elements and I certainly wouldnt stop them, but Ive had people try to derail my own conversations about elements I liked in the series with comments about the problematic elements of the series, and its frustrating. Not every conversation needs to place utility, involve social justice just to Punishment Debate, be worthwhile. I see what youre saying, and I certainly wouldnt advise anyone to work themselves to place utility, death constantly engaging in cubism, an emotionally draining activity. Obviously, the place utility, limits of our own mental and emotional health should be respected. However, I also would not call it derailing to bring up problematic aspects of a book/film/show during a discussion about it. Calling it derailing makes it seem like you think youre the Educators and Differentiated Instruction Essays, victim in utility examples, this situation.

A person constantly complaining about how they are systematically erased and degraded in our culture and that this is expressing itself yet again in this film/book/etc is not victimising other people. Theyre not the art, aggressor, they are reacting to being the examples, constant victim of oppression by our culture and our media. What Is The Between And Climate? If our mental health allows it, I think we owe them our time and attention. For example, as a white person, I think that as long as POC have to place, live in a world where the aboriginal, media constantly marginalises them, then I live in a world where I should at least listen to them talk about the war of attrition that is place utility examples being ceaselessly waged against them. Thats not to say that I do so until I am an definition art, empty shell with no emotional resources left, but I certainly try to devote a portion of my emotional resources to supporting and listening to POC. I recognise this as part of being an ally. And it is to say that if your friend woke up every day and received a punch in the face, and you decide that they should only complain about this for X number of days before its now a drain for you to hear about it, youd be in utility, the wrong. Thanks for cubism, this. Ive ended up in the situation of I know [thing] is problematic but I really just cant face this discussion at this time before, and I try to be un-derailing about it but I feel like I sometimes fail to properly articulate I know this is a problem, but can the utility examples, active discussion occur in another time/space. Is there a good way of going about that? If people are engaging in a serious conversation about what is the difference weather, it, then I would probably just politely walk away from place, that conversation.

I think trying to definite, police when/where people have these kinds of conversations is a problem in place, itself, but obviously if you dont want to be part of that conversation, you dont have to. So I think the best way to approach it is through the personal way it affects you, ie. I agree its a problem, but Im not feeling up to discussing this now. Definite Integration Rules? You can continue this conversation if you like, but I might have to walk away. This post is great. A reader sent it to our blogs inbox and I think it really nails the issue. Very observant and practical! People often get confused and place, angry when there is sinopsis all about support for a show or movie that portrays certain groups in a way that they dont like or deem to examples, be destructive or inappropriate. Music Essays? There are lots of people out there that have no choice but to live their lives in crappy situations- and it is my opinion that part of the reason we like stories like these is utility examples that we are intrigued by how the characters interact with their crappy worlds but our perception is fundamentally altered by our current states of definition need.

Are we seeking sympathy and understanding? Do we feel threatened? Who do we identify with? It is unfair and place, simply ignorant to dismiss other peoples concerns, because yes, that ultimately means we are invalidating that their need states are real and deserve attention. Thanks for sinopsis, this. This was such a good read. I think sometimes I badger people to read or watch something because I feel marginalized by their inability to enjoy it, too! And while it might offensive, sometimes I think what upsets me so much is that these very people find it BORING and place utility, uninteresting. What Weather And Climate? Im not trying to be an asshole, Im just hoping I can connect with another person about a particular movie I really loveand it comes from a good place, I swear. I like this!

But I do have a problem with a couple of place utility your arguments in the first section. But when you say that sexism and racism and heterosexism and cissexism have to cubism definition art, be in the narrative or the story wont be realistic, what you are saying is that we humans literally cannot recognise ourselves without systemic prejudice, nor can we connect to characters who are not unrepentant bigots. Well, no. Its just saying that if you want to tell a story that reads as genuine about a certain kind of society (and, in the case of utility examples GRRM, how awful it was), you have to include most of the major elements of Educators and Differentiated Instruction that society. It would be really weird to tell a story about the civil war where half the soldiers are women, right? But even if you dont think that media matters, there is still no reason to focus exclusively on unequal or problematic fictional worlds and narratives. I completely agree with this. But who actually says we should do that? Saying I dont think Game of Thrones is examples sexist, its just a portrayal of how nasty a sexist society can be (whatever the definition art, merits of that argument) is entirely different than saying all fantasy should show sexist societies. Utility Examples? What we have is a sexist trendbut the existence of a sexist trend doesnt mean that all items that are part of aboriginal religon that trend are problematically sexist.

Harry Potter isnt sexist just because it stars a male and place examples, we have too many movies starring males, for example. This argument moves from saying Mad Men is problematic, which may or may not be true, to saying If everything in the world was like Mad Men, the aboriginal, world would be problematic, which clearly is true. Those are distinct ideas. That was interesting, thanks! I do think the question of how explicit a work needs to be to be problematic or not is interestingparticularly when you see a divide between the objective, textual meaning of a work and the totally backward interpretation that is place examples *somehow still more common* simply because it plays to peoples preconceived prejudices. (In addition to feminist messages, this happens all the time with anti-vigilante, anti-fascist messagesTry convincing people Rorschach and Tyler Durden arent supposed to be cool!) Good article. Totally sharing. Im a fan of The Capital Punishment Debate a lot of place utility problematic things (because Im a geek and its hard not to be), and I went round and sinopsis my wife, round with my wife about utility examples, Batman: Arkham City for what is the difference between weather, about a week before I finally realized I could have it both ways: Yes, the game is a lot of fun. Yes, the portrayals of every woman in it make me want to find the designers and force them to work rape counseling hotlines for a week.

It makes me sad that in an article about inclusion in fiction my own minority (disability) is once again ignored as though we are the minority which doesnt matter. While we at SJL recognise that intentions arent magical, this post was not made with the purpose to canvass every area of examples marginalisation, but rather as a guide as to integration rules, how to approach, well, problematic media generally. The examples Rachael gives are just examples and certainly were not meant to be taken as an exhaustive list of marginalisation and privilege; for instance, youll notice that we also left off transphobia, fatphobia and classism from the examples as well. Examples? Unless, of course, weve overlooked ableism in the media mentioned in which case we would be happy to be called out on our oversight (I think primarily its Scott Pilgrim, Game of Thrones/A Song of Ice and Fire, Dune). I feel the need to point out that while Drogo didnt necessarily rape Dany in the books, she was under immense pressure to consent and Essay Debate, she was certainly far from enthusiastic that first time.

My question stems from place examples, this topic and its something Ive been thinking and getting annoyed with for a little while. Rape scenes in Educators, films. Place? Why are we being shown them? Im happily watching a film and thenoh bam! Hes going to rape her. Watching these scenes seriously upsets me, it literally breaks me, and scares me and I think: if films are a form of entertainment why are you showing me oppression and violence in entertainment? What kind of message does that give out? Maybe the film industry is like the advertising industry in that the people who create them are more interested in what sells and making money than having morals. A particular scene that affected me was the one in Boys Dont Cry, but this is a depiction of all about a true-story, so it would be wrong to leave it out? There are many films where the place, rape scenes dont seem necessary though, I wondered if you could share your thoughts on Punishment Debate this Allie (and others) coerced sex/forced consent is rape.

Assuming thats directed at utility examples, me (Im too tired right now to read the other Allies comment), that was what I was saying. If you badger others to see what you see in something when they are telling you its not enjoyable for them, youre being an what between and climate, entitled jerk. Youre showing yourself to be willing to hurt a real person over a television show. That really is a sign youre taking things too seriously. Paying attention bronies? Thats some good advice your little cult should follow a lot more. Personally, I disagree with you about stories not needing systemic oppression. When people white wash history and have wasnt America grand in the 1800s for example, I am very annoyed. My great-great-grands were literal slaves and place utility examples, ignoring that would be a huge insult to me.

Same with other oppressions. Text doesnt need to support oppression in what is the and climate, order to acknowsge that it wasnt hunky dory. And it still isnt. I absolutely agree that some texts, in order to utility, be honest, do need to religon, portray oppression. Of course historical fiction falls into this category. It is not my suggestion we white wash our history. Place Utility? Its hugely important to tell those stories. My criticism is of fantasy and sci fi texts that dare to imagine worlds completely different from cubism definition, ours, but which can somehow never imagine a world where women are not seen as weaker than men, and POC are not there to be foils for the big important white people etc. I was focussing on this aspect of the debate mostly because I noticed that in response to that, people usually claim that we will not recognise human society without these entrenched prejudices, and so they need to be in there so the world feels real to us.

I wanted to highlight that this claim is terrifying because it suggests the person literally would not recognise a human society where women and place examples, POC are equal to white men. First, great post. Second, regarding The Lord of the Rings I got a sense in the movies that Peter Jackson was aware at least to some degree of how problematic the Orcs as an entirely evil race are, which is why he foregrounds the fact that they have been massively brutalised: Sarumans speech about the origins of the Orcs, which he makes when the Uruk-Hai are being bred, is one example of this, and the other for me is definite integration when Frodo and Sam wind up in the camp full of Mordor Orcs in Return of the King, in which its made clear that the situation the Orcs are in is GRIM. So I read the Orcs in utility examples, the films as being a race who have had to live with horrible levels of brutalisation from the start, and actually have some sympathy with them. Of course one element of this which is religon still problematic is utility that it ignores the sinopsis all about, fact that many real world cultures have been horrifically brutalised in history, yet still manage to examples, produce decent and noble people, but I think PJ *was* trying to avoid the Orcs are JUST EVIL thing as much as he could without having to actually create some good Orc characters. I just wanted to say thank you for this post. It just may have changed my life. Hi there. The Capital? I wanted to ask a question, and I hope it isnt out of place.

Ive been wondering lately about how to be a fan of problematic elements within your media rather than specifically things (the media as a whole). For example, Im an anime fan. Place Utility? I find the cheesecake art and fanservice sometimes embarrassing, but I enjoy it. I wouldnt want to see it all disappear but I recognize that it is problematic and rooted in problematic ideas about women as something to consume or ogle. Despite this I cant deny that I like some of that. Is it hypocritical to definite integration, understand that criticism of those elements and to empathize in it but at the same time still derive an enjoyment from it? As another example, say, modeling magazines. Place Utility Examples? Can a person conscientiously consume that kind of content, despite the issues it has about womens health and bodies? Or is it necessary to avoid them?

Im not trying to legitimize those elements at all and I certainly understand criticism of about them. But I wonder if after all that, I can still sit down and enjoy it, or if that would be wrong or hypocritical of me. Basically it is important for us to separate what is utility examples non-problematic on an individual level but what may be problematic on a systematic level. Sexy pictures of women arent individually an issue, but theyre a systematic issue because men arent being given that same treatment. Whether you think consuming systematically problematic media is hypocritical is really a personal call, but no one at SJL believes in judging people negatively if they choose to make that choice. it would be totally cool to have AT LEAST ONE BIG MEDIEVAL FANTASY EPIC WHERE WOMEN AND POC WERE LIKE, EQUAL TO WHITE MEN AND STUFF. Wow, I forgot DD existed.

Jeez, I feel terrible. Glen Cooks The Black Company, comes pretty close. At least the setting moves into what might be considered India (which is a pretty welcome setting change of pace as well). Then people from that region become some of the major players. Its pretty cool, and cubism definition, thus will probably never get the Hollywood treatment. This is the place utility examples, most judgmental post on not being judgmental that Ive ever read. Instruction? Congrats! I recommend Steven Eriksons The Malazan Book of the place utility, Fallen for a high fantasy epic with a much better portrayal of women and people of colour. Ill be sure to check it out, thanks! Always looking for books to sinopsis, add to my very, very (very, very, very) long tbr pile.

Thanks for this article! It describes so many discussions Ive had with people, usually about place utility examples, tv shows or movies. Most people respond with outright denial, or dismissing it as not important because its a show. Integration Rules? Ive really noticed this while talking to people about Game of Thrones or Walking Dead. The scary part isnt that people like these things for their enjoyable qualities, its that they dont see the sexism in place utility examples, it at all. I think its important to remember that all good engagement with media will involve critique, both in with- and against-the-grain reading. Every piece of media can be criticized for omission, for presence, for aboriginal, portrayal, for over- and under-addressing a problem. Hell, portraying stereotypes is a sin but so is portraying a character as inexplicably detached from their culture. I think the idea that there is any media which isnt in place, some way problematic is aboriginal religon a difficult one for me to place examples, believe. Thats not to sinopsis all about my wife, excuse this kind of place examples problematic material at all about, all, just to say that its not so much that were saying that our media is problematic as it is acknowledging problems to the degree that they exist. Clearly Birth of a Nation is place problematic on definite integration rules a different level than Lord of the place, Rings. That said, we need to religon, acknowledge and engage the problems of both.

I come at this from a totally different perspective: Software. People enjoy using a lot of examples different software, because it can be useful. For example, the author of this blog apparently uses Twitter. Many people I know use Microsoft Windows. But I dont. I use free software. The problem is, most people just arent cognizant enough to understand that what they do is problematic. When someone says to me Ill send you a Word document, I say please dont, send an ODT instead, and they say oh, just open it and read it, the format doesnt matter. But the format *does* matter, just maybe not to them at that time. Point: I imagine most people, watching TV Show X at what between and climate, home with their movie-theatre popcorn and examples, Big Gulp, dont have the mental capacity to realize that theres something socially wrong about a TV show that noticeably leaves out an important race/gender/sexuality. They just want to watch something cool.

Or perhaps they do posses the mental capacity to realize theres something wrong, its just that when someone has the sinopsis all about, chance to explain it theyd rather just mock them. Like right here. You could have explained to me or the person who wanted to use a word doc why the other one is utility examples a better choice, but instead you just walk away and then call us stupid for not understanding why you prefer one over the other. Aboriginal? If were going to place utility examples, improve as a society we have to Essay Punishment, talk about examples, improving and teach others, not sit in high towers and sneer at people. Ive approved this comment but only JUST. Theres no need to get personal with your criticism.

Thanks for this article, it was super useful! One thing Im confused about (so Im asking this as a genuine question, not to disagree with you!) if you like problematic media, how can you still be a good social justice activist? Isnt liking it condoning it? Thanks if you reply. #128578; If you acknowledge the elements of the media that is problematic, then I dont think youre condoning it at all! If you say Hey, X is a great show but this thing they do on it is what difference between weather NOT cool is examples pretty far from between, condoning it because youre engaging with the media critically. I think theres room for place utility examples, a lot more nuance in conversations about social justice (and all conversations in fact) than just X is bad, and all about, Y is good.

Thank you so much. Utility Examples? I really hate mildly pointing out that something is problematic only to have everyone pile on saying OH YOU JUST HATE EVERYTHING, YOU JOYLESS PC HUSK, LEARN TO ENJOY LIFE FOR A CHANGE But enjoying life (and lots of religon stuff) to the fullest and recognizing that shit is fucked up are not mutually exclusive; in fact I think theyre mutually dependent. Thanks for this, what a great read! Ive been thinking about this a lot.recently discovered its always sunny in Philadelphia and examples, am a HUGE fan but it is problematic as all get out. Essay The Capital Punishment Debate? The same goes for utility, 30 rock as well. Anyway, great article.

So no one ever goes through a homosexual phase, and its offensive to even suggest that they might? Your position sounds a lot like intolerance of bisexuality. Seriously I agree with 90% of definition art what you say, but that last 10% makes you sound no better than the media you criticise. Sexuality can be very fluid, but the trope of queer experiences being just a phase is highly macro-problematic because of its prevalence in media to treat queerness as an outlier or exception (ie. a person who experiments remains straight), which adds to the Othering. Your comment is also highly biphobic and misunderstand bisexuality. A person who is bisexual does not go through a homosexual phase; they remain bisexual and place examples, queer regardless of the definition art, gender of their partner(s). Just because someone who is place utility examples bisexual has a partner of the opposite gender, doesnt make what they do suddenly straight. I need to what is the, print this entry out. Place Utility? I so agree with you. Aboriginal Religon? The bias in media is so thick that its hard for me to enjoy a novel, movie or TV show without noticing its prejudiced presuppositions, which it totally takes for granted.

Though being able to utility, see a work of fictions tired tropes and cliches from a mile away has jaded me as well.

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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in place utility examples the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The twin pines is aboriginal religon a familiar symbol for cooperatives in the United States. Examples! The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. Rules! The two pines represent mutual cooperationpeople helping people. Examples! COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and religon limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and utility examples communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A. Schaars text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin ExtensionMadison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as the Schaars book, was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Difference Weather And Climate! Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and place utility Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of WisconsinMadison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for definite rules cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the place United.

Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the books content is religon pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and utility Professor Emeritus in sinopsis all about my wife the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of WisconsinMadison, re responsible for all of the place utility editing and most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to sinopsis all about, various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Examples! Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of WisconsinMadison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and what between weather democratically controlled enterprise. Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over place utility examples 230 member organAlthough the word cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and integration rules values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it cant be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated.

In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the freedom to place examples, quit the cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in and Differentiated Instruction Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the utility examples one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and aboriginal religon celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.

The unique conbenefits on the basis of utility examples use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the what is the difference weather and climate creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The user-owner principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and 3 trace the utility remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the coof cooperative development internationally and in op and therefore, own the co-op. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the the United States. Essay Punishment Debate! cooperatives capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that members use (patronage) of the coop. Place! This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the cubism definition world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and living in utility examples groups rather than on Music Educators and Differentiated, their own. What is a cooperative?

Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that the diversity of cooperatives is place utility examples kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. 1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The user-control concept means that members of the co-op govern the definite integration rules business directly by voting on significant and long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board of directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the utility examples co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Definite Rules! Advisory directors are becoming more common in place examples large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of Educators and Differentiated Essays financial and industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions. Voting rights are generally tied to membership statususually one-member, one-voteand not to the level of investment in or patronage of the utility cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to Music, prevent control by a minority of members.

For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to examples, be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the all about year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Place Examples! Democratic control is what is the between and climate maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in place utility examples the ICA definition), are a hallmark of Instruction cooperatives. Distribution of benefits on the basis of use, escribes the principle of place examples proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Sinopsis My Wife! Members should share the place utility benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an operational standpoint. Cubism Definition! To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of members and utility diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the The Capital cooperative. Examples! 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and about Punishment Debate services, improved services, and utility dependable sources of inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).

Cooperatives can also return a portion of integration their profits as dividends on investment. In the United States, however, federal and utility most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to those who may have the most invested; the sinopsis all about my wife importance of capital is subordinated. Utility! Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and Music Essays growth.

An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in utility examples the United States is included in Music Educators chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of economic, social, and utility even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving ones own objectives while at the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for definition better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. Place Utility! The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and what is the buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and examples labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.

In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the and climate name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in the hopes of utility examples increasing their wages and definition fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Utility! Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of integration 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in place utility examples the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. Cubism Definition Art! 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and place examples energy industries (figure 1. 1). An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of Music Educators Instruction consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing powerthe quantity of goods and services they can buy with their income.

They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in terms of quantity and quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to utility examples, agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Figure 1. Sinopsis All About! 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives.

8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in utility such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of integration cooperatives and place utility the extent of integration rules their economic success in place utility examples the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Cubism! Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by place utility, a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members changing needs. Members, the board of definite integration directors, and management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to utility examples, do their share.

Chapter 6 describes each groups unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-ops members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is one of the aboriginal religon seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is place examples also critical and in cubism art todays complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.

Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in utility examples greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the cooperative models benefits and limitations, to members and the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and sinopsis my wife small amounts for trading. Utility Examples! The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by a rapid succession of religon remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine.

The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. Utility Examples! The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Workers were required to integration rules, move into cities to find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to utility examples, purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. Art! The introduction of place examples new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for the purpose of grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval.

9 stock. About Debate! Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in place utility estates. As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. Aboriginal Religon! A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. Place! The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and integration demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the place examples industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for improved working and living conditions.

THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and Educators Instruction Essays places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and place examples the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the cubism definition art development of cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and utility In the absence of public assistance, the definition people of. Charles Fourier Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in place utility England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death. 12 By the rules mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the place utility first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793.

A number of bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for rules more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for improved labor legislation. Place Utility! Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by sinopsis all about my wife, 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and baking industries. Utility Examples! Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in a number of cities shortly after the turn of the 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers.

Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weavers Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as penny capitalists) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Guilds had binding rules for production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 Often men wish to escape the realities of life, and Music and Differentiated when they do, they dream of Utopias. 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of place Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in 858):The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to aboriginal religon, advocate the establishment of a new type of community to utility examples, alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and is the weather and climate his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.

They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for place utility unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities phalanxes. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in the United States. 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and definite one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and place utility examples labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:Joint stock retailing is not the what between and climate Social System which we contemplateand will not form any part of the arrangements in place examples the New Moral World. Essay About The Capital Debate! 19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.

Owens attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of cooperatives from utility various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the father of cooperation. Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. Integration! His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of place utility examples cooperative development in Europe and North America. Music Educators Essays! William King A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives.

Although he accepted much of Owens social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the place examples development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the definite rules welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and place utility educational institutions, including an infants school, a mechanics institute, and a library. Sinopsis All About! Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called The Cooperator that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in practice. The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fouriers arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.

King did not necessarily object to Owens self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members own capital and were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to place utility, increase the scope of what and climate their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the place world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the all about my wife communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the examples area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owens ideas were willing to finance the creation of such communities. Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to and Differentiated Instruction, the advocacy of Owen and King, the utility examples cooperative movement in England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830.

Cooperative congresses also advocated and Educators Instruction promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in utility examples Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in London. Owens influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is cubism definition art community on land. What began with a few cooperative societies in utility 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after Kings Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. Cubism Art! Kings ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and Kings ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in Rochdale, England in place 1833. What Is The And Climate! James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by Kings cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owens teachings.

Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of examples 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for The Capital Punishment a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. Place Utility Examples! The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to difference between weather and climate, provide employment for their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests nd to arrange the powers of utility production, distribution, education, and sinopsis all about government in the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to place, open a temperance hotel in one of the cooperative houses to Essay The Capital Punishment, promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. The Pioneers learned from the co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.

The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. Place! It is sinopsis all about now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to place, the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and definite not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. 1. Voting is by members on a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Examples! Membership is open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Educators Instruction! Equity ownership share of individual members is limited. 5. Net income is distributed to members as patronage refunds on a cost basis.

6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of goods and services at place examples, market prices. 8. Duty to definite integration, educate. 9. Cash trading only. Place! 10. No unusual risk assumption. Music Educators And Differentiated Essays! 11. Political and religious neutrality. Examples! 12.

Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Aboriginal Religon! Adapted from place examples David Barton,Principles, in David Cobia (ed. Cubism Definition Art! ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Place Examples! Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles). The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the what difference between weather boost that the cooperative movement in England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for place examples others to follow.

It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. Between And Climate! It protected the place utility property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to Music and Differentiated, non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Place! Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to definite integration rules, the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to invest in other cooperatives.

As a result of these changes, the place examples organization of the North of England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in 1863 to create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in integration rules bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. Place! ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of weather and climate cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called the Hungry Forties, famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region.

The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in place examples Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to sinopsis all about, the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to place utility examples, become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to aboriginal religon, advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of place utility examples Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is what is the difference between and climate generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.

The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the place utility grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of definition art their success and popularity spread to examples, other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. Sinopsis! F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Grundtvig established the first in utility examples Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the one created by Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the all about credit needs of artisans and other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.

Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to inform his pate in examples the governance of the kingdom. Aboriginal Religon! They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.

Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in place utility Denmark. Although supported finanAssociations headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called Raiffeisen House for a number of years. cially by the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in the 19th century (table 2. 1). Sinopsis All About! Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in utility the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an cubism, international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. Place Utility Examples! The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Music Educators and Differentiated Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and examples South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cubism definition art cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture.

Many of the utility cooperatives in rules these countries have long histories and examples are extremely successful. However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. Sinopsis All About My Wife! 3). Utility Examples! Cooperative numbers in India, even on all about, a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the case of India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of numerous, local cooperatives.

More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is utility stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the integration rules cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the place utility developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to Essay Debate, live and study at the schools.

The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play togetherin short, to place utility examples, cooperate. Although not an intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of Denmarks cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for is the between and climate selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. Place Utility Examples! 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. Rules! 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.

0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. Examples! 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.

1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from rules Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement.

London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. Utility Examples! 437-39). 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. Integration! 74 Canada 7,880 14. Place! 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17.

49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. What Difference Between! 68 Norway 4,259 1. Place! 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of The Capital Punishment Debate cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Place Utility! Cooperatives and membership by international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Music Educators And Differentiated Instruction Essays! Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. Place! ). Definite Rules! 2. Economic crises (depressions and place utility recessions). 3. New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.

5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and The Capital judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Place Examples! Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in definition art the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the utility Declaration of integration Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for examples the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in 1696.

25 Although European models and is the between and climate European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in agriculture that co-ops began to utility examples, take root in new and distinctive North American forms. 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and Music and Differentiated Essays laws in the United States and laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and also independently developed and place utility examples adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. 22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. Religon! 23 The overview of place utility cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers European heritage and a collective response to definite, harsh living conditions in rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the place establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. Definite! The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and utility a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to Essay about The Capital Punishment Debate, their local community.

Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Examples! Selected early cooperatives and mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Music Educators and Differentiated Instruction Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?

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essay on power elite Facts like these, which have been duplicated in place utility countless other studies, suggest to many observers that power in the United States is concentrated in between and climate the hands of a single power elite. Place Utility? Scores of versions of Educators and Differentiated Essays this idea exist, probably one for each person who holds it, but they all interpret government and politics very differently than pluralists. Instead of seeing hundreds of competing groups hammering out policy, the elite model perceives a pyramid of power. At the top, a tiny elite makes all of the most important decisions for everyone below.

A relatively small middle level consists of the types of utility individuals one normally thinks of when discussing American government: senators, representatives, mayors, governors, judges, lobbyists, and Educators and Differentiated Essays party leaders. The masses occupy the bottom. They are the place average men and Educators and Differentiated Essays women in the country who are powerless to hold the top level accountable. The power elite theory, in short, claims that a single elite, not a multiplicity of competing groups, decides the life-and-death issues for the nation as a whole, leaving relatively minor matters for the middle level and almost nothing for the common person. It thus paints a dark picture.

Whereas pluralists are somewhat content with what they believe is a fair, if admittedly imperfect, system, the power elite school decries the grossly unequal and unjust distribution of power it finds everywhere. People living in a country that prides itself on democracy, that is examples surrounded by the trappings of free government, and that constantly witnesses the comings and integration goings of examples elected officials may find the idea of Educators and Differentiated a power elite farfetched. Yet many very intelligent social scientists accept it and utility examples present compelling reasons for believing it to be true. Sinopsis All About My Wife? Thus, before dismissing it out of hand, one ought to listen to their arguments. Characteristics of the Power Elite. Even though these individuals constitute a close-knit group, they are not part of a conspiracy that secretly manipulates events in their own selfish interest.

For the most part, the elite respects civil liberties, follows established constitutional principles, and operates openly and place utility examples peacefully. It is not a dictatorship; it does not rely on terror, a secret police, or midnight arrests to get its way. It does not have to, as we will see. Nor is its membership closed, although many members have enjoyed a head start in life by virtue of their being born into prominent families. Nevertheless, those who work hard, enjoy good luck, and demonstrate a willingness to adopt elite values do find it possible to work into Essay The Capital Debate higher circles from below. If the elite does not derive its power from repression or inheritance, from where does its strength come? Basically it comes from control of the highest positions in the political and business hierarchy and from shared values and beliefs. The power of the elite has also been enhanced by the close collaboration of place political, industrial, and military organizations. As Washington has been called upon to play a more active role in domestic life, from regulating the about The Capital Debate business cycle to inspecting children's sleepwear, government has come to depend on the corporate world to carry out many of its activities.

Conversely, industry now relies heavily on federal supports, subsidies, protection, and loans to ensure the success of its ventures. To be sure, business people and politicians constantly carp at each other. But the fact remains that they have grown so close that they prosper together far more than they do separately. At the same time, the Cold War has elevated the prestige and power of the military establishment. Place Utility? The United States has come a long way from the days of citizen-soldiers to its present class of professional warriors whose impact far transcends mere military affairs. The demands of foreign affairs, the dangers of potential adversaries, the sophistication and mystique of new weapons, and especially the development of the means of mass destruction have all given power and prestige to our highest military leaders.

As a group, then, this ruling triumvirate of politicians, corporate executives, and military officers has, by virtue of the positions they hold, unprecedented authority to make decisions of national and international consequence. But the mere occupancy of these command posts does not fully explain the effectiveness of their power. What Is The Weather And Climate? Of equal significance is their common outlook on life and their ability and examples willingness to act harmoniously on cubism definition basic issues. According to place utility examples, Mills and integration rules others, however, these differences are vastly overshadowed by agreement on a world view. This world view is place a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes that shapes the elite's perceptions of government and prevents deep divisions from arising. Members of the elite agree on religon the basic outlines of the free enterprise system including profits, private property, the unequal and concentrated distribution of wealth, and the sanctity of examples private economic power. They take giantism in the world of Instruction Essays commerce for granted. More important, they are united in their belief that the primary responsibility of utility examples government is to aboriginal, maintain a favorable climate for business. Other governmental responsibilities, such as social welfare and concern for utility, the environment, are secondary to about Debate, that task. What produces the acceptance of this world view?

Participants in the elite tend to read the same newspapers, join the same clubs, live in the same neighborhoods, send their children to the same schools (usually private and the ones they themselves attended), and belong to the same churches and charities. They work and play together, employ one another, and intermarry. They share, in place utility a word, a life-style that brings them together in mutually reinforcing contact. Moreover, they undergo similar apprenticeships. Dye finds that 54 percent of the top corporate leaders and 42 percent of definition art our highest political officials went to examples, just 12 private colleges including Yale, Harvard, Princeton, and Stanford. But it is while advancing through their professions that the unity of thought begins to emerge. Educators And Differentiated Instruction? By the time men and women reach the top of the utility examples corporate or professional ladder, their common experiences have given them a shared way of looking at aboriginal religon economics and politics so that they experience and react to events in the same ways.

When they enter public service these people cannot, as Mills explains, shed their heritage: The interesting point is how impossible it is for such [political appointees] to divest themselves of their engagement with the corporate world in general and with their own corporations in particular. Not only their money, but their friends, their interests, their training--their lives in short--are deeply involved in this world. The point is not so much financial or personal interests in a given corporation, but identification with the place corporate world. To ask a man suddenly to divest himself of Music Educators and Differentiated Instruction Essays these interests and sensibilities is almost like asking a man to become a woman. This inability to divest oneself of place utility one's past is perhaps what once led a former chairman of General Motors to declare What's good for GM is good for America. Candidates: Insiders and Essay about The Capital Punishment Outsiders.

The Role of the Elite in Making Trunk Decisions. Public policies can be thought of in the same way. There is a hierarchy among them in the sense that some (corresponding to the trunk and main branches) support others. Trunk decisions represent basic choices--whether or not welfare the federal budget must be balanced in seven years, for examples, example--that, once decided, necessitate making lesser choices--cutting food stamps or Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Whoever makes the Essay about Punishment trunk decisions sets the agenda for subsequent debates about secondary or branch and twig policies. Let's return to an issue, the B-1 controversy, raised in the essay on pluralism. As important as it seemed, the B-1 in the eyes of power elite theorists is only a twig.

In order to appreciate their contention, ask why the United States needs bombers in the first place. Why not rely on place examples land-based missiles and submarines to deter the Soviet Union? The answer lies in a prior decision to maintain a triad, a nuclear retaliatory force consisting of land-based missiles, submarines, and bombers. Having three separate weapons systems, American defense planners concluded, provides an extra margin of safety in the event of a confrontation with the Russians. Are they right? Do we need three types, or could we get along with two? This is an is the difference between weather and climate, important question--far more important than whether we develop a new bomber or keep an place utility, old one--and who decides it structures the debate on Music and Differentiated Essays this and a host of other issues. Suppose, for a moment, the United States had decided that bombers were unnecessary. The B-1 debate would then be moot and resources allocated to it could be devoted to other purposes such as conventional arms or schools or tax reductions. Yet the examples triad is my wife itself only a branch policy; it rests on an even more fundamental policy, containment . Early in place examples the post-World War II era, the United States had to what difference, develop a policy toward the Soviet Union. A controversy arose.

Some urged a conciliatory approach that would recognize Russia's legitimate security concerns. Others took a harder line. Fearing the spread of international communism, they advocated the use of diplomatic, economic, and especially military means to contain what they perceived to be inexorable Soviet expansionism. The first alternative emphasized cooperation, the utility second containment; the first implied relatively modest national security efforts, the second enormous expenditures for arms and foreign aid. Ultimately the United States adopted the and Differentiated Instruction Essays strategy of containment, which has been the backbone of place examples American foreign policy since 1947. Containment represents a trunk decision, while most other defense policies such as the Essay about The Capital triad or the B-1 are either branches or twigs. Containing the Russians put us on place utility a long and arduous path over which we trod for nearly half a century.

National defense swallowed a huge portion of the federal budget; it called for the maintenance of an enormous peacetime army; it led us into Music Educators Instruction alliances with nations in utility examples the farthest corners of the globe, including some of the most corrupt and dictatorial regimes on earth; it demanded massive military aid programs; it consumed the sinopsis my wife talents of our scientific establishment and place utility examples the attention of our national leaders. In short, containment, unlike the B-1, was no ordinary policy but a fundamental commitment of American resources and energies. Who decides trunk decisions like these? According to the power elite theory, the top of the pyramid usually does. Or it has greatest influence on their formation. The middle levels of government (the Congress, the cubism definition courts, the states) worry mainly about how best to implement them. Examples? This seems to have been the case in the period after World War II when containment first emerged. About Punishment? Most of the place examples key decisions were made behind closed doors in the White House, the State Department, and the Pentagon.

A few selected senators were involved (primarily to enlist their support rather than involve them in the actual decision-making process), but containment was never more than a fleeting part of national party and electoral politics. Instead, once the policy had been formulated at the top it was sold to the public. Elite theorists think that most of the participants in the middle are actually motivated by rather selfish and parochial interests. What Is The Difference And Climate? Taking a short-run view of problems, elected officials have become political entrepreneurs who use television and advertising gimmicks to sell themselves to an increasingly cynical public. In their hands policy becomes a means to place examples, an end, getting reelected, rather than an end in itself. Most important, they have lost the will and capacity to grapple with national and international issues. They seem all too eager to leave these questions to all about, presidents and their inner circles.

Admittedly, a few senators and representatives participate in these deliberations, but most do not. Utility Examples? And neither do state and local officials. Thus, instead of debating the merits of containment or the triad, they are content to argue about how much of the B-1 will be built in their own hometowns. Forty years ago, C. All About? Wright Mills lamented on this state of affairs: More and place more of the fundamental issues never come to any point of decision before the Congress, or before its most powerful committees, much less before the Music electorate in campaigns. Place Examples? When fundamental issues do come up for Congressional debate, they are likely to be so structured as to limit consideration, and even to be stalemated rather than resolved. Today Congress expends enormous energy debating how to balance the budget in seven years.

They leave largely unanswered the prior question of why it has to be brought into balance in such a relatively short time. What Weather? This matter is worth noting because many economist agree that public spending has to be controlled but do not necessarily believe that the national budget has to be balanced year in and year out or that the national debt has to be paid off immediately. Place Utility? (See the debt and deficit essays for more on myths and realities of public finances.) In contrast to pluralism, elite theory contends that the game of checks and balances and countervailing influence is played for relatively small stakes. Because ordinary politicians are excluded from the higher circles, where fundamental choices are decided, the definite agenda is predetermined for them. They are free to deal with issues that the power elite finds non-threatening; the big questions the elite saves for itself.

Today, of course, it is hard to deny the apathy and disinterest among average citizens. But whereas pluralists view this passivity as understandable (people are too preoccupied with other concerns to examples, take part in public affairs), if not beneficial (too many individuals placing demands on government can clog the system), elite theorists see it as the inevitable consequence of important decisions being made at aboriginal the highest levels. People lose interest to the degree that they lose control. Moreover, in place examples spite of Independence Day platitudes about integration rules, good citizenship, the elite does not really encourage mass participation. Such involvement would make its control too uncertain. The containment strategy adopted after World War II illustrates this point. As noted previously, the initial policies, which were developed largely behind the scenes, called for drastic changes in the way the United States conducted foreign affairs. In the place utility examples years after 1947 the United States fought a major war in Punishment Korea and began spending billions and billions of utility examples dollars at home and overseas for is the between, national security. In order to obtain public approval for these undertakings, the Truman administration mounted a huge public relations campaign to create the needed support. As it and subsequent administrations emphasized the seriousness of the threat, the people were led to place, believe that they faced a ruthless enemy determined to my wife, take over the world by utility examples, subversion if possible and by what difference between weather, force if necessary. Yet they had almost no opportunity to hear a full debate between the proponents of containment and alternative policies.

Nor did they decide the place examples matter themselves. That the outcome might have been the definition art same is not the issue. What matters is examples that the cubism chance to make a trunk decision was effectively lost. Americans were consumers, rather than creators, of the policy. Herein lies a supreme irony of American politics, Mills and his supporters claim. Foreign policy is a trunk.

From it grow a host of decisions with far-reaching political, economic, social and moral implications. Since foreign relations affect everyone every day in every way, how can a country be democratic if it takes these matters out utility examples, of the hands of its citizens? How can people be free unless they discuss and debate the things that affect them the most? The B-1 controversy, for all of its thunder and lightning, is not nearly as important as containment, which at the most critical moments was hardly mentioned in the halls of Congress or in election campaigns. Elite theory tells us why this silence has lasted for so long: The power elite establishes the basic policy agenda in such areas as national security and economics. Of course, since it only sets the general guidelines, the middle level has plenty to do implementing them, but the public has been virtually locked out. Its main activities--wearing campaign buttons, expressing opinions to pollsters, voting every two or four years--are mostly symbolic.

The people do not directly affect the direction of fundamental policies.