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anomie theory essay *The sociology of Crime and ftse 100 wikipedia, Deviance * *Is anomie a useful concept to Essay on Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior explain and understand criminal and. The concept of anomie was first posited by the French social theorist Emile Durkheim in ftse, his 1893 publication, The division of Labour in What of Life, society. For Durkheim anomie was a condition in which society was unregulated, lacking coherent moral norms, which could be seen to 100 wikipedia lead to are the children mary clark deviant behaviour. In particular, Durkheim was concerned that the transition from ftse, mechanical to organic solidarity, an evolutionary shift from traditional to friedman vs keynes modern industrial was an anomic process. Moreover, central to ftse this anomic process was the What is The Purpose complex nature of the ftse division of labour.

Still, Durkheim held that crime, and deviant behaviour actually performed a crucial function within society in that it set moral boundaries, and friedman vs keynes, brought people together. Whilst we shall expand upon the above assumptions, our task will also involve the consideration of how these assumptions have influenced subsequent theories of ftse deviancy. It is to these ends that we shall focus our attention on of confederation Robert K. Mertons Strain Theory, and ftse 100 wikipedia, other comparable theories of friedman deviant behaviour, in ftse 100 wikipedia, order to roe v kingerlee critically assess the concept of anomie, as an explanation of criminal and deviant behaviour. Ftse! Durkheims conception of anomie must be set in the context of his theory of social evolution. (Downes #38; Rock, 1995:118) Specifically, Durkheim set out his theory of milton friedman vs keynes social evolution in his initial major work, The Division of Labour in Society, whereby he distinguishes between two very different types of ftse 100 wikipedia social organisation. Army! That is, mechanical solidarity, which was representative of an ftse earlier, more traditional form of Essay Warrior social organisation, and organic solidarity, the form by ftse 100 wikipedia which modern, industrialised societies take. On the where are the children mary higgins one hand, mechanical solidarity does not have a developed structure that we would call society, in ftse, the modern sense of the word. It is primarily based upon Essay on Hektor: The Dutiful, the similarity of individuals who share a uniform way of 100 wikipedia life and have an identical belief system. And on environment the other, organic solidarity is ftse brought about by a wide-ranging social differentiation whereby individuals are interdependent on one another for Essay on Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior, the exchange of services. 100 Wikipedia! Nonetheless, to develop Durkheims concept of anomie we need to illuminate the on Hektor: The Dutiful link between the 100 wikipedia division of milton labour and ftse 100 wikipedia, the collective conscience, in the transition from mechanical to organic solidarity. Milton Friedman! (Pearce, 1989:60) For Durkheim, the ftse 100 wikipedia lack of where are the mary clark complexity and structure within mechanical solidarity justified its primitive status. What is 100 wikipedia more, and key to understanding Durkheims concept is the thought that the division of labour was also at a primitive status, after all this was social evolution. Still, Durkheim held the division of labour to have a functional quality in where higgins clark, that people attained their roles/ positions by 100 wikipedia way of vs keynes natural ability, this in ftse 100 wikipedia, turn was vital to prisoner both system and social integration. Moreover, social integration was part of what Durkheim referred to ftse 100 wikipedia as the roe v kingerlee collective conscience, a social fact that explained the ftse unifying essence of and shmuel society. In a society held together by mechanical solidarity, the conscious collective exists over and above individuals and 100 wikipedia, becomes implanted in bruno, them. (Craib, 1997:65) Before we go any further, it will be a useful exercise to ftse expand upon environment, what is actually meant by collective conscience.

We have hitherto explained that the basis for 100 wikipedia, mechanical solidarity was built upon and shmuel, shared social existence and underpinned by ftse 100 wikipedia a single belief system, religion for where, instance. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! However, such a belief system not only influenced the division of of confederation army labour, but would have been the 100 wikipedia key to articles of confederation army social integration, and ftse, the collective conscience. In so being, it holds sway not only over The Dutiful the morality of ftse mechanical solidarity, but actually forges it, and to on Hektor: Warrior an extent that any behaviour that deviates from 100 wikipedia, it may be seen as deviant and/or criminal. What Is The Purpose Essay! We can, thensay that an ftse act is roe v kingerlee criminal when it offends strong and defined states of the ftse collective conscience. (Durkheim, 1968:80) Nonetheless, for Durkheim deviancy was not only prisoner of war definition, a universal phenomenon, but performed a vital social function in that it strengthened solidarity by defining moral boundaries through the punishment of offenders. (This is a position that was to later influence proponents of ftse 100 wikipedia labelling theory, as it draws a clear distinction between the act of deviancy, and the reaction to it.) In turn this would lead to Essay The Dutiful Warrior creation of law which he thought would have a stabilising effect on ftse 100 wikipedia society. Having defined what is meant by the collective conscience, we shall now link it to definition Durkheims concept of anomie. We first see the ftse 100 wikipedia use of where are the mary Durkheims concept of ftse anomie in the transition of mechanical to organic solidarity. Roe V Kingerlee! That is, transition from a primitive solidarity, governed by moral regulators such as religion, and with a primitive division of ftse 100 wikipedia labour, to is The Purpose of Life Essay a rapidly expanding industrialised society. its purpose was to signify a lack of integration and adjustment that threatens the cohesiveness of contemporary industrialised societies (McCaghy, 1976:53) For Durkheim thought that such a rapid expansion was not accompanied with appropriate regulation, either economically, or morally, and could not be regulated within, or by, the traditional collective conscience.

This led to people having aspirations that exceeded the ftse 100 wikipedia opportunities available to them, and environment, that would ultimately manifest in 100 wikipedia, deviant behaviour such as greed or jealousy. Moreover, the division of labour that was based on What is The Purpose Essay natural ability had now no means of being legitimized. In short, labor is divided spontaneously only if society is constituted in ftse, such a way that social inequalities exactly express natural inequalities. (Durkheim, 1968:377) Instead we find in the transition to organic society, a forced division of labour whereby external inequalities suppress people from attaining the positions that best suit their natural abilities. In particular this is the case with the articles of confederation army stratification of individuals whereby it inhibits the chances of large numbers of 100 wikipedia people attaining positions that fit their abilities. (Downes #38; Rock, 1995:119) A symptom of this would be class conflict. Durkheims concept of roe v kingerlee anomie then, was a state of normlessness that allows for ftse 100 wikipedia, the disorganisation of society. And Shmuel! Furthermore, Durkheim held that these anomic processes clogged the ftse arteries of friedman vs keynes a healthy and natural division of ftse labour, which if not corrected, would inevitably situate society in a pathological condition excessive deviance. The basic criticisms that we can apply to Durkheims concept of nike environment anomie, in ftse, terms of friedman deviancy, is that firstly Durkheim thought that a healthy division of ftse labour was beneficial to of war definition both society and 100 wikipedia, individual. Of War Definition! However, it may also be suggested that the division of labour could equally result in anomie.

That is, a developed division of ftse labour is roe v kingerlee detriment to the worker and to society because it removes skill, thus motivation from the workforce, and ftse, may result in deviant behaviour such as refusal to work, or even strikes. And secondly, the army notion that anomie was a result of people having aspirations that exceeded the opportunities available to them is also problematic. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! This statement suggests a certain degree of determinism about the structure of society and the causal links to deviant behaviour. Specifically, we could say that the deviant behaviour tells us more about the dynamics of the on Hektor: Warrior structure of society. This is a criticism that we shall exploit further now as we contrast the above concept of 100 wikipedia anomie with that posited by Robert K. Merton. American sociologist Robert K. Milton Vs Keynes! Merton borrowed Durkheims concept of anomie to form his own theory of deviancy.

The Strain Theory was situated in an article entitled Social Structure and ftse 100 wikipedia, Anomie, which was published in 1938. However, it differs from Durkheims concept in two fundamental ways. Children Mary Clark! First, Merton held that the real problem is 100 wikipedia not created by where are the mary higgins a sudden social change, as Durkheim proposed, but rather by a social structure that offers the same goals to all its members without giving them equal means to achieve them. Merton attributed deviance to a contradiction in ftse 100 wikipedia, the structure of What of Life modern society. (Katz, 1996:148) Secondly, converse to Durkheims assumption that individuals aspirations were limitless, Merton proposed that anomie results from the strains within the social structure that forces the individual towards unachievable aspirations. We shall now consider these points in question as we determine their relationship in ftse, association to Mertons theory of deviancy. Among the elements of articles of confederation social and cultural structure, two are important for our purposesThe first consists of culturally defined goals, purposes, and interests. It comprises a frame of aspirational referenceThe second phase of the social structure defines, regulates, and controls the ftse acceptable modes of are the children mary higgins clark achieving theses goals. 100 Wikipedia! (Merton, 1938:672673) First and army, foremost we need to understand that Mertons theory is 100 wikipedia set in Purpose of Life Essay, the context of American society, and more specifically it was concerned with the American dream. 100 Wikipedia! For it is in this context that the above elements which Merton calls culture goals, and institutional norms, are best understood. It is the bruno American Dream that everyone, regardless of ftse class origin, religion, or ethnic characteristics can succeed in Essay The Dutiful Warrior, acquiring material wealth. (McCaghy, 1976:55) However, whilst the American Dream is ftse 100 wikipedia assimilated with cultural goals, the means by which to achieve it, institutional means, are not homogeneously distributed throughout society.

For instance, not everybody in milton vs keynes, society, especially individualistic societies such as America and Britain will be able to access higher standards of ftse education because of the articles of confederation cost it entails. Predictably then this becomes a handicap in attaining success as one is 100 wikipedia lacking the roe v kingerlee institutional means needed. It then follows, the ftse lack of success in a society that materially rewards success, will bring about nike environment, a sense of worthlessness and despair. It is ftse 100 wikipedia here that we can appreciate Mertons proposal of strain between cultural goals and environment, institutional means and the link to anomie. For Durkheim, deregulation led to infinite aspirations; for Merton, infinite aspirations led to deregulation. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! The result, for both, was the friedman vs keynes same: high rates of 100 wikipedia deviation. (Downes #38; Rock, 1995:127) Nonetheless, Merton then applies to roe v kingerlee his theory a typology of 100 wikipedia differing forms of behaviour in terms of conformity, or non-conformity, to cultural goals and institutionalised means.

These being: 1.Innovation. The accounts for those who except cultural goals but employ illegitimate means to achieve success. For example, embezzlement, or racketeering. 2.Ritualism. And Shmuel! This refers to ftse 100 wikipedia those who adhere to institutional means, but ignore the goals. For example, working for an employer even though the money and prospects are poor. What Is The Of Life! 3.Retreatism. Withdrawal from ftse, societys goals and nike environment, means. In this category we may place those who have opted out 100 wikipedia socially desirable behaviour. For instance, drug addicts, or alcoholics. Or people like hippies who have chosen an alternative lifestyle.

4.Rebellion. Here we find those who not only reject societys goals and means, but who actively try to replace them. Of Confederation! For example, political revolutionaries, or religious prophets. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Although Merton was to nike subsequently re-adapt his typology, what his goals-means schema offers us is an alternative perspective on how to understand deviant behaviour other than Durkheims regulation of the ftse social system. That is, it illustrates how individuals adapt to environment the situations to which they find themselves. Merton thus not only 100 wikipedia, explains the source of rule-breaking behaviour, but also suggests the motivations and forms that comprise such behaviour. (McCaghy, 1976:57) More importantly Merton presents a concept of on Hektor: The Dutiful anomie that places the 100 wikipedia emphasis on the strain between human agency and social structure, thus adding a social dimension to Essay on Hektor: Warrior Durkheims biological framework. 100 Wikipedia! Still, although Mertons concept of anomie was for many years a major discourse regarding deviancy, and prisoner of war, was subsequently improved by ftse sub-cultural theorist Albert Cohen, it was nonetheless, to provoke a variety of criticisms, some of friedman vs keynes which we shall consider now. As with Durkheim, Merton came from a positivist tradition, in that the cornerstone of 100 wikipedia his theoretical work were empirically based. Moreover, the is The Purpose of Life statistics that Merton used were compiled by the police, and often pointed to ftse 100 wikipedia the lower economical classes, as the predominant category for deviant behaviour. However we can say that such statistics are ambiguous for a number of Warrior reasons, we shall pinpoint two.

Firstly, the way police statistics are compiled may not reflect neutrality, that is, given that crime is ftse 100 wikipedia police business then some form of manipulation may occur, either for clark, departmental reasons or political. Secondly, policing of inner city areas will take priority over suburban areas; it then follows that the compilation of 100 wikipedia crime statistics will reflect this. This is not to say that crime is bruno and shmuel more abundant in inner city areas just that it is more likely to be encountered if there are more police in 100 wikipedia, the area, leaving suburban areas relatively un-policed. It is for milton, these reasons that we can say Mertons reliance on police statistics is ftse problematic because it would have misguided his theory. A second criticism of Mertons theory concerns his assumptions of common culture goals and institutionalised means. (McCaghy, 1976:59) Lemert, (1972) points to What is The of Life Essay the fact that because America is not homogenous, it is ftse 100 wikipedia difficult to roe v kingerlee actually define what constitutes a success, or the American Dream. Specifically, America has a multitude of ftse 100 wikipedia conflicting moral sentiments that far from represent commonly approved goals as is inferred in Mertons anomie theory. Bruno And Shmuel! Nonetheless, it is fair to say that America is ftse 100 wikipedia a capitalist society, and this has an overarching effect on its members no matter how diverse they may be. For example, the Warrior Hip Hop culture has blossomed in 100 wikipedia, America since the 196070s, and is known for its specific creative/ artistic agenda, that has taken inspiration from Afro American, Jamaican, and Puerto Rican communities. Articles Army! Nonetheless, increased popularity, and corporate interest in Hip Hop has drawn many of 100 wikipedia its leading proponents away from their roots in definition, search of ftse 100 wikipedia material gain. Are The Children Mary! Just as with countries, many people within hip hop forgot their history and their objectives. Hip hop had been uplifted from its community and ftse, artistic agenda and poisoned with capitalism. (Cavazos, 1997) What is more, we may say that this seems to and shmuel fit in ftse 100 wikipedia, with Mertons Strain theory, but it is unsure what category a Rap artist would fit into in milton, his typology. Still, this brings us closer to ftse 100 wikipedia our final criticism as posited by Ian Taylor, Paul Walton, and Jock Young. Essay On Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior! In, Advances Towards a Critical Criminology, 1974, Taylor, Walton, and young confirm what they originally claimed in The new Criminology, 1973 that the processes involved in crime-creation are bound up inthe material basis of contempory capitalism and its structures of law.(Taylor, et al, 1974:441) This approach, which has its roots in traditional structural Marxism, was concerned with deconstructing the established paradigms of ftse 100 wikipedia deviancy theory.

Nonetheless, although Taylor et al accept that Merton recognised that concept of friedman vs keynes anomie results from social processes rather than biological, as held by Durkheim, for 100 wikipedia, them it lacked any real concrete explanation of deviancy. Specifically, they charged Merton with not acknowledging the capitalist dynamics behind cultural goals and institutional mean. The analysis of particular forms of crime, or particular types of criminal, outside of their context in children higgins, history and society has been shown in our view to ftse 100 wikipedia be meaningless activity (Taylor, et al, 1974:462) In sum, Durkheims concept of anomie reflected the irregular transition from roe v kingerlee, mechanical to organic society. Wherein, the lack of a division of ftse labour based on natural ability halted the functional integration of society. For Durkheim, anomie was deviant behaviour resulting from unlimited aspirations. Is The Purpose! Conversely, Merton held that unlimited aspirations led to deviant behaviour. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! This was particularly true of roe v kingerlee American society whereby cultural goals far outstripped the 100 wikipedia institutional means of achieving the roe v kingerlee American Dream. Whilst Both Durkheims and Mertons perspectives on anomie offer us useful concepts of deviant behaviour, one that emphasises human ability, the other, social, neither offered a concrete explanation of 100 wikipedia crime and deviance. Moreover, it may be suggested that any concrete understanding of milton friedman vs keynes criminal and deviant behaviour would need to posit a materialistic explanation of ftse society. Cavazos, R. [1997] The Hip-Hop Culture and Essay Warrior, a Common Challenge, League of Revolutionaries for a New America. Online. 100 Wikipedia! Available from: link [accessed 14/11/04].

Craib, I. 1997. Classical Social Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Downes, D. and Rock, P. 1995. Of Confederation Army! Understanding Deviance. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Durkheim, E. 1968. The Division of Labour in ftse 100 wikipedia, Society. Trans. G. Simpson.

New York: The Free Press. Katz, J. 1996. And Shmuel! Seductions and ftse 100 wikipedia, repulsions in Crime. Of Confederation! In J. Muncie, E. McLaughlin, M. Langan. (eds.) Criminological Perspectives: A Reader. 100 Wikipedia! London: Sage. 145160. Lemert, E,M. 1972. Human Deviance, Social Problems, and Social Control. 2nd ed.

New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2661. McCaghy, C,H. 1976. Deviant Behaviour: Crime, Conflict, and Interest Groups. Roe V Kingerlee! New York: Macmillan. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Merton, R,K. 1938. Social Structure and Anomie.

American Sociological Review 3 (5): 672682. Pearce, F. Of War Definition! 1989. The Radical Durkheim. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! London: Unwin Hyman. Prisoner! Taylor et al. 1974. Advances Towards a Critical Criminology. Theory and Society 1 (4): 441476. Taylor et al. 100 Wikipedia! 1973. Prisoner Definition! New Criminology For a Social Theory of ftse 100 wikipedia Deviance. London: Routledge and roe v kingerlee, Kegan Paul.

This is a well structured and well written essay. You follow a logical and clear argument, dealing in a clear systematic fashion with the key issues in ftse, this debates as well as with the where are the children mary main critical perspectives. The work is very well presented throughout, and the referencing system is good. Ftse! Be sure to reference all of your critical points, otherwise the work can sound a bit opinionated. I partcilularly enjoyed the connections you make to articles army contemporary social phenomena and the links to critical thinking about anomie.

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Nov 17, 2017 Ftse 100 wikipedia,

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Legal Issues in Academic Research (2003) Legal Issues in Higher Education. 13th Annual Conference. Donna Euben, Staff Counsel. A variety of ftse 100 wikipedia, policy and legal concerns are triggered as industry becomes ever more involved in academic research. Federal government regulation of academic research is where are the clark, also an issue, including how such laws apply post-September 11. In addition, there are concerns about the scope of institutional review boards (IRBs), and ftse conflict-of-interest policies. I. Corporations and Academic Research. The involvement of corporations in higher education has led to threats to academic freedom in research when corporate interests clash with the unfettered pursuit of truth. As Johns Hopkins University general counsel Estelle Fishbein predicted in 1985: During the next twenty-five years, the lure of the articles of confederation, corporate dollar may just as insidiously lead to the surrender of ftse, important academic freedoms to on Hektor:, big business. . . [and] there may be no satisfactory mechanism to obtain relief from provisions of contracts with industrial giants which prove destructive to 100 wikipedia, academic freedom.

Strings on the Ivory Tower: The Growth of Accountability in Colleges and roe v kingerlee Universities, 12 J.C. 100 Wikipedia! U.L. 381, 398 (1985). As AAUP declared in 1915, The distinctive social function of the scholar's trade cannot be fulfilled if those who pay the milton friedman vs keynes, piper are permitted to call the ftse 100 wikipedia, tune. AAUP, 1915 Declaration of Principles on environment Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure , Policy Documents Reports (hereafter Redbook) 291 (2001). See generally Donna R. Euben, Corporate Interference in Research, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 2000). A. Some Background on Corporate Funding Issues. Some administrations and faculty have raised concerns about the increased reliance of ftse, higher education institutions on roe v kingerlee corporate sources of ftse 100 wikipedia, funding. There is concern that research will focus more on the commercial benefits to the sponsoring companies than on the advancement of knowledge and the pursuit of truth. There is also escalating concern about the suppression of research results with which corporate funders are displeased.

As one scholar noted, these outside funds often come with strings attached, and such externally funded academic research can threaten academic values by distorting the viewpoints, claims, and research agendas of scholars and by insisting that research results be kept secret. Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Academic Freedom and Academic Values, 66 Tex. L. Rev. Milton! 1363 (1988) (hereafter Academic Freedom and Academic Values). The American Council on Education and the National Alliance of ftse 100 wikipedia, Business, in a 1998 report, estimated that corporate funding of university research was nearly 9 percent (nearly $2 billion). Seventy percent of funding for clinical drug trials now comes from industry.

Virginia Ashby Sharpe, Oversight, Disclosure, and friedman vs keynes Integrity in Science, in 100 wikipedia AAAS Science And Technology Policy Year Book 2003. www.aaas.org/spp/yearbook/2003/yrbk03.htm . The need for industry funding must be considered within the context of the milton friedman vs keynes, mission of a college and university. One researcher summarizes some of the institutional considerations: In seeking support from industrial and corporate sponsors, the institution needs to be aware of the range of significant issues that must be addressed relative to such sponsorship. For example, support from industrial sources is ftse, generally of shorter duration and less stable for long-term basic (or fundamental) research projects than from federal sponsors. The work tends to be more directed than funding via grants and The Dutiful Warrior cooperative agreements from the federal government (although not much different than the restrictions placed on some contract activities supported by the government) and there tend to be more deliverables required (including more frequent progress reports). Although there are fewer cited regulations than in ftse 100 wikipedia federal awards, certain terms and roe v kingerlee conditions (notably related to 100 wikipedia, ownership and management of intellectual property and to restrictions on publication) are far more difficult to negotiate and often cause extensive delays in finalizing research agreements.

Julie T. Norris, Research and Sponsored Programs (hereafter Research and Sponsored Programs) at 18-10 http://research.musc.edu/gca/forms_pdf/18resear.pdf . The outgoing editor of the New England Journal of Medicine , Dr. Marcia Angell, recently called for reforms to mitigate the effect of the Faustian bargain that medical schools have had with the drug industry: When the boundaries between industry and academic medicine become as blurred as they are now, the business goals of nike environment, industry influence the ftse 100 wikipedia, mission of medical schools in multiple ways. She wrote: Why shouldn't clinical researchers have close ties to nike environment, industry? One obvious concern is that these ties will bias research, both the kind of work that is done and the way it is ftse 100 wikipedia, reported. Researchers might undertake studies on the basis of whether they can get industry funding, not whether the studies are scientifically important. . . Of Confederation Army! . Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Of even greater concern is the possibility that financial ties may influence the outcome of research studies. . . . [C]ooperation [between industry and academia] should be at arm's length, with both sides maintaining their own standards and ethical norms. The incentives of the marketplace should not become woven into nike, the fabric of academic medicine. Ftse! We need to remember that for-profit businesses are pledged to articles of confederation, increase the value of their investors' stock. That is a very different goal from the mission of medical schools. See generally David Bollier, The Enclosure of the Academic Commons, Academe: Bulletin of the ftse, American Association of University Professors (hereafter Academe ) (Jul.-Aug. 2002).

AAUP's Statement on Corporate Funding of Academic Research provides some guidance to institutions generally, and to faculty in particular, on how to ensure that conflict-of-interest policies are properly developed and implemented. Suggestions include: faculty should have a major role in developing and implementing the Essay on Hektor:, institution's policy with respect to research undertaken in collaboration with industry; faculty should work to ensure that the source and purpose of all corporate-funded research contracts . . . can be publicly disclosed and that research results are not subject to the sponsor's permission for publication; faculty should participate in the periodic review of the impact of industrially sponsored research on the education of students, and on the recruitment and ftse 100 wikipedia evaluations of milton vs keynes, researchers . Ftse 100 Wikipedia! . . and postdoctoral fellows; and faculty should regularly review conflict-of-interest policies and the instruments for conducting the assessment of such policies to ensure that they are responsive to changing needs. C. Corporate Funding of Academic Research: Confidentiality Provisions in Contracts. Issues that arise in terms of the types of roe v kingerlee, contracts entered into between universities and ftse industry include: who owns the friedman, intellectual property created by the funding? what kind of pre-approval, advance review, or preliminary review is sought by 100 wikipedia, the funder? who owns the equipment purchased under the project? Negotiations on these points are generally time consuming and may be acrimonious. Research and Sponsored Programs at 18-17. A 1998 working group of the are the mary higgins, National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported to 100 wikipedia, the director that contracts received by universities from industry present just about every type of clause that universities cite as problematic. www.nih.gov/news/researchtools/ . A 2000 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that only 12 percent of university conflict-of-interest policies tried to limit delays on the publication of research demanded by corporations. Often contracts for academic research funded by roe v kingerlee, industry include confidentiality clauses. Ftse! While delays in publication of research for limited amounts of time to secure patent rights30-60 dayshas been the practice, significant time delays and blanket gag rules are uncommon. University of vs keynes, Toronto : Dr.

Nancy Olivieri, a professor of 100 wikipedia, medicine and pediatrics, had her research funds cut, was removed as director of the department of haemoglobinopathy, and was threatened with a lawsuit by Essay on Hektor:, Apotex, a corporate sponsor of her clinical drug trials, after she attempted to 100 wikipedia, reveal her findings about unexpected risks to her patients. She was later reinstated after an international outcry from roe v kingerlee academics. After a two-year investigation a faculty committee of the Canadian Association of University Professors (CAUT) concluded that the hospital and the university should have defended vigorously the right of clinical researchers to disclose risks to research subjects and ftse 100 wikipedia patients. They had a responsibility to protect the public interest and academic freedom from inappropriate actions by Apotex. The CAUT committee's recommendations included that [c]ontracts involving industrial sponsorship of clinical trials should never prevent researchers from informing patients or the scientific community of any risks. Olivieri noted that the children higgins clark, nondisclosure agreement she signed was permissible under the guidelines of the hospital where she practices, but not under those of the university, where she teaches.

A Drug Company's Effort to Silence a Researcher: The Case of Nancy Olivieri, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 1999). University of California at San Francisco: In 2001 Immune Response Corp. dropped its demand that the university pay it up to $10 million in ftse 100 wikipedia damages after university researchers published in friedman the Journal of the American Medical Association their findings that the 100 wikipedia, company's drug was ineffective in treating HIV. The company initially insisted on the right to approve the proposed paper before its publication and demanded that an additional set of data, prepared by the company, be included in the analysis. Martin Van Der Werf, University Prevails in Dispute with Pharmaceutical Company Over HIV Drug, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept.

13, 2001). University of California at Essay on Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior, San Francisco : Dr. Betty J. Dong, a pharmacologist, discovered that her work called into question the effectiveness of a thyroid medication taken by millions of patients. 100 Wikipedia! She had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the drug manufacturer which prohibited her from revealing the results of her $250,000 study. In 1997, seven years after her discovery, Dr. Dong presented her research in an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association . She was quoted in the Los Angeles Times as saying that she was not aware that University of California guidelines would have prohibited the nondisclosure agreement she signed. Robert Lee Hotz, Secrecy Is Often the Price of Medical Research Funding, L.A. Times (May 18, 1999). Brown University: In 1998, David Kern, an associate professor at Brown University, was dismissed as director of the university's occupational health clinic. The hospital affiliated with the university released him after he presented a paper at the American Thoracic Society, over bruno, the objections of the hospital and ftse Microfibres, Inc., a Rhode Island textile manufacturer, about a lung disease he claimed to on Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior, have discovered in the company's workers. The university also ended its occupational health program.

Kern had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the ftse 100 wikipedia, manufacturer and the hospital in 1994, but he contended that it did not govern subsequent consulting work that resulted in the controversial findings. A university committee report observed that the public health concerns raised by Kern's research must be addressed and may, in fact, override the terms of the confidentiality agreement and other legalities associated with this situation. The president of where are the mary higgins clark, Brown University stated that the ftse, school chose not to intervene in environment the matter because the university was not a party to the breached confidentiality agreement. See Jon Marcus, How Researchers Are Silenced by 'Pact with the Devil,' The Times Higher Education Supplement (June 11, 1999). See generally Selected Troublesome/Unacceptable Clause Related to Information Release and Foreign Nationals, Office of Sponsored Programs, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/osp/www/OSP_Booklet_2003/troublesome_clauses.htm . For another perspective on this issue, see Shirley Ann Jackson, Corporate Funding of Research Brings More Benefits Than Pitfalls, Trustee Magazine 5 (Sept./Oct. 2001). Some institutions have established policies that prohibit such gag clauses in contracts between corporate sponsors and the researcher or the ftse, academic institution. A 1985 study of 39 universities found that all but 6 had some policy against accepting sponsor-imposed restrictions on publication of research results beyond short time delays. Academic Freedom and Values . University of Maryland : The University of Maryland does not enter into agreements to carry out research if the grant, contract or other award instrument restrains the freedom of the University and its faculty to articles, disclose the existence of the grant or contract, the general nature of the inquiry to ftse 100 wikipedia, be conducted, and the identity of the sponsor. The University reserves for its faculty the right to publish the results of the research without the prior approval of the sponsor.

Harvard University : Agreements may permit industrial sponsors thirty days to examine manuscripts for Essay, potentially patentable material or to ensure that the sponsors' confidential or background information is ftse, not being disclosed, and allow an additional thirty days to undertake patent protection. However, agreements may not allow further publication delay, nor give sponsors the authority to prevent or to where children mary, alter reports of research conducted at the University. http://www.fas.harvard.edu/ To ensure appropriate financial relationships between industry and academe, institutional policies should not only cover full-time faculty, but contingent faculty as well. University of Minnesota Academic Medical Health Center : Warner-Lambert apparently paid an adjunct professor, Dr. Ilo Leppik, close to $50,000 between 1994 through 1998 to ftse 100 wikipedia, promote the drug Neurontin. The company also reportedly paid a textbook publisher over $300,000 to print Dr. Leppik's epilepsy textbook, which is provided to all medical students at the school for free. Dr.

Leppik serves in an unpaid position on campus. Of Confederation Army! The administration is now reviewing the ftse, personnel files of all its adjuncts. Part of the controversy arose because [a]djunct professors are not required to articles, submit annual forms that list their outside sources of income, the way full-time faculty members are, and 100 wikipedia some university officials believe that should change. Katherine S. Roe V Kingerlee! Mangan, Drug Company's Payments to Adjunct Prompt Review at U. of Minnesota, The Chronicle of ftse 100 wikipedia, Higher Education (June 10, 2003). In addition, as David Korn has written, institutions must make greater efforts to vs keynes, educate their faculty and be certain that the faculty understand all applicable institutional research policies. Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Colloquy Live) (July 25, 2003) www.chronicle.com/colloquylive/2003/07/medical/ . D. Institutional Restrictions on Corporate Support.

At the same time, restricting sources of funding for academic researchby faculty senates and administrationsshould be avoided. University of California : Faculty senates at the San Francisco and San Diego campuses of the University of California recently voted to reject money from manufacturers of tobacco products or their subsidiaries. Apparently no current researchers at 100 wikipedia, this time receive tobacco funds for their research on of confederation army either campus. The faculty votes do not constitute official policy because the UC Office of the President has not issued a mandate to the campus's Contracts and Grants office to refrain from accepting funds from the tobacco industry. The issue has been raised because the American Legacy Foundation awards approximately $25 million a year in research grants, but only to those researchers at institutions not in current receipt of ftse 100 wikipedia, any grant monies or in-kind contribution from any tobacco manufacturer, distributor, or other tobacco-related entity. In addition, the foundation expects that a grantee will not accept any grant monies or in-kind contribution . . . over the duration of the Essay on Hektor: Warrior, grant. The foundation reports that about 15 universities have debated its funding restrictions. Rex Dalton, Academics Fume as University Refuses to ftse 100 wikipedia, Reject Tobacco Dollars, Nature 361 (Mar. 27, 2003); UCSF Faculty Vote to Refuse Tobacco Industry Funding (Feb. Nike Environment! 27, 2003), http://pub.ucsf.edu/today/print.php?news_id=200302262 . AAUP Advisory Statement: In June 2003 AAUP's Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure considered the 100 wikipedia, issue of academic freedom and the rejection of research funds from tobacco corporations. It first observed, based on a 1992 advisory opinion, that numerous legitimate reasons may exist for administrations to Essay on Hektor: Warrior, disapprove funding sources: for example, because the external agency was insisting on too large a commitment of the university's own resources to the research project; or because there was a history of the agency's failure to honor its commitments; or because the agency was imposing preconditions on the research that violated academic freedom. . Ftse 100 Wikipedia! . . At the same time, the AAUP concluded that.

[a] very different situation obtains . And Shmuel! . . when a university objects to a funding agency because of its corporate behavior. The distinction between degrees of corporate misdeeds is too uncertain to sustain a clear, consistent, and principled policy for determining which research funds to accept and 100 wikipedia which to reject. Bruno And Shmuel! An institution which seeks to distinguish between and among different kinds of offensive corporate behavior presumes that it is competent to distinguish permissible corporate wrongdoing from 100 wikipedia wrongful behavior that is acceptable. A university which starts down this path will find it difficult to resist demands that research bans should be imposed on other funding agencies that are seen as reckless or supportive of repellant programs. AAUP, Academic Freedom and Rejection of Research Funds From Tobacco Corporations (2003); see also An Issue of Academic Freedom in Refusing Outside Funding for milton, Faculty Research, Academe 49 (Sept.-Oct. 1992) (in response to a University of 100 wikipedia, Delaware prohibition on the receipt of funding from the Pioneer Fund, which one faculty member described as an organization with a long and continuous history of supporting racism, anti-Semitism, and other discriminatory practices).

E. Industry Efforts to are the children mary higgins clark, Gain Access to Confidential Academic Research. Companies that do not necessarily fund academic research sometimes try to gain access to researchwhich can have the impact of a different kind of gag rulethrough subpoenas. See generally Court Ordered Disclosure of Academic Research: A Clash of ftse, Values of Science and Law, 59 Law Contemp. Probs. 1 (1996) (a series of articles on the topic). Beverly Enterprises v. The Dutiful! Dr. Kate Bronfenbrenner (Cornell University) : Beverly Enterprises, a national nursing home chain, sued Professor Bronfenbrenner for defamation allegedly caused by her testimony at a town hall meeting called by legislators. Dr. 100 Wikipedia! Bronfenbrenner had stated that, based on her research, the corporation was one of the nation's most notorious labor law violators. In pre-trial discovery, Beverly sought Dr.

Bronfenbrenner's confidential research data, including notes of personal interviews. AAUP filed an amicus brief, arguing that the corporation's suit violated Dr. Bronfenbrenner's First Amendment right of Essay The Dutiful, academic freedom. Cornell University's associate counsel stated, The Beverly lawsuit was an attack on academic freedom that sought to 100 wikipedia, punish Dr. Bronfenbrenner for presenting the results of her research in a public forum. The court dismissed the nike environment, suit on 100 wikipedia the grounds of legislative immunity. Beverly appealed but then withdrew its appeal. Cornell University Says Dropped Lawsuit Against Labor Professor Was Attack on Academic Freedom and Without Merit, Cornell University News Service (Aug. The Dutiful! 4, 1998); see Julianne Basinger, Judge Dismisses Suit Against Scholar Accused of Libeling Nursing-Home Chain, The Chronicle of ftse, Higher Education (May 28, 1998).

United States v. Where Children Higgins Clark! Microsoft (Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology): Two professors successfully defeated efforts by Microsoft Corporation to compel disclosure of their confidential research. Ftse! The company, in defending itself against an antitrust action, sought to force the professors to nike, turn over ftse, their research materials, including taped interviews with employees of Netscape, a Microsoft competitor. David Yoffie of Harvard University and Michael Cusumano of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology planned to use the interviews in a book that had yet to be published. Mary Higgins Clark! Both Harvard and MIT represented the professors in an effort to quash the subpoena. They argued, in part, that forcing [the professors] to disclose the [research] would endanger the values of 100 wikipedia, academic freedom safeguarded by the First Amendment and jeopardize the future information-gathering activities of academic researchers.

The First Circuit ruled that the district court properly quashed the Microsoft subpoena. The court opined: Just as a journalist, stripped of sources, would write fewer, less incisive articles, an academician, stripped of sources, would be able to provide fewer, less cogent analyses. Accordingly, allowing Microsoft to obtain the notes, tapes, and articles of confederation army transcripts it covets would hamstring not only the [professors'] future research efforts but also those of ftse 100 wikipedia, other similarly situated scholars. Friedman Vs Keynes! 162 F.3d 708 (1st Cir. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! 1998). Dow Chemical v. Allen (University of Wisconsin): University researchers were studying the effects of children clark, a certain chemical on monkeys. Ftse! In the middle of the roe v kingerlee, research, the Environmental Protection Agency cancelled its contract with Dow Chemical to produce the pesticide containing this chemical.

In challenging the EPA's decision, Dow Chemical sought preliminary data from the researchers' study. The district court denied the company's subpoena request: To force production of all information . . . is likely to jeopardize the study by exposing it to the criticism of those whose interests it may ultimately adversely affect, before there has been an opportunity of the 100 wikipedia, researchers themselves to make sure the on Hektor: The Dutiful, study is the result of their best efforts. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! . . . Putting this study in jeopardy would be a heavy burden not only on those involved in the research, but also on the public which has helped to fund it through tax money and which ultimately stands to gain from knowledge of the final results. The Seventh Circuit affirmed the lower court, observing that inadvertent disclosure of subpoenaed data could jeopardize both the army, studies and ftse 100 wikipedia [the researchers'] careers. Clearly, enforcement of the subpoena carries the potential for chilling the on Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior, exercise of First Amendment rights. The court acknowledged that peer review and publication of the studies [were] crucial to ftse 100 wikipedia, the researchers' credibility and career and would be precluded by whole or partial public disclosure of the information.

494 F. Supp. 107 (E.D. Wis. 1980), aff'd , 672 F.2d 1262 (7th Cir. 1982). The tobacco industry has been particularly aggressive in wielding the subpoena tool to seek access to roe v kingerlee, confidential academic research.

Johns Hopkins University and Others : Tobacco companies recently subpoenaed ten universities to turn over all documents concerning tobacco-related government-funded research since the 1940s. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, New York University, North Carolina State University, four University of California campuses, the bruno, University of Arizona, and the University of Kentucky have received subpoenas. 100 Wikipedia! Greg Winter, Tobacco Industry in Fight to Get Universities' Data, New York Times A16 (Jan. 20, 2002). Nine of the 10 institutions reportedly filed objections to the very broad discovery requests. See Beth Currie, Tobacco Companies Seek Documents From 10 Universities on bruno Research Dating Back to the '40s, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Jan. 21, 2002). R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company v. 100 Wikipedia! Fischer (The Medical College of Georgia): In 1992, R.J.

Reynolds subpoenaed the materials of a number of bruno and shmuel, academic researchers, including Dr. Paul Fischer, a professor at the Medical College of Georgia. The company demanded that he turn over his research, including the ftse, names and telephone numbers of where are the higgins clark, all the children that participated in 100 wikipedia a study of the Joe Camel advertising campaign and its effect on roe v kingerlee children. A state trial court quashed the ftse, subpoena and the tobacco company appealed. The state appellate court upheld the lower court, finding Dr. Fischer's deposition and materials irrelevant because the tobacco company's suit, which was in California, was not based on a contention that the Joe Camel advertising campaign influences young children, but on an allegation that the omission of the roe v kingerlee, federal warning from the logo is an unfair business practice. 207 Ga. App. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! 292 (Fulton County, 1993). Later, the company sought Dr. Fischer's records under the state public records act, and joined in the suit the college and the attorney general.

The medical college then turned over to the company all of Fischer's materials in its possession. In 1994 a state judge turned over all of Fischer's materials to the company. For a discussion of the case from Dr. Fischer's perspective, see Paul M. Fischer, Fischer v. The Medical College of Georgia and the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company : A Case Study of Constraints on Research, in New Directions For Higher Education, No. 88, at 33 (Winter 1994) (reviewing chronology of the legal case and finding unfortunate changes that have taken place in the nature of American universities and their relationship to the political and corporate world); Paul M. Fischer, Science and roe v kingerlee Subpoenas: When Do the Courts Become Instruments of Manipulation?, 59 Law Contemp. Probs. 159 (Summer 1996). II.

The Government and ftse Academic Research. The federal government provides about articles of confederation army 59 percent of financial support for academic research, according to the National Science Foundation. www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind00/c6/c6s1.htm#c6s1l2 . In addition, many colleges and universities receive substantial state funding. A. Concerns About National Security. Federal lawsenacted before and after September 11, 2001also affect academic research. This section relies extensively on AAUP's new report, Academic Freedom and National Security in a Time of Crisis (forthcoming, 2003) (hereafter Academic Freedom and National Security ). For a well constructed, albeit dated, discussion of national security and academic freedom, see M. Christina Ramirez, The Balance of Interests Between National Security Controls and 100 wikipedia First Amendment Interests in Academic Freedom, 13 J.C. U.L. Children Higgins Clark! 179 (Fall 1986). Academic research that is funded by the government can, under specified conditions, be classified. An issue that has long vexed universities and researchers is whether, and if so how, they can carry out classified research without impairing freedom of research and 100 wikipedia scientific progress. Classified research is generally developed in secret. To enforce secrecy, institutions often create stand-alone facilities for such research, separate from other on-campus laboratories and buildings.

The AAUP recommends that fewer restrictions [on academic research] are not only better than more, but restrictions on research, to the extent that any are required, must be precise, narrowly defined, and applied only in exceptional circumstances: these seem to be the lessons the academic community has drawn from of confederation army its experiences with classified research. George Mason University : Sean Gorman, a graduate student at the university's National Center for Technology and Law, has written a dissertation that maps the fiber-optic network that connects businesses in the United States. 100 Wikipedia! The federal government has suggested his work should be classified. Gorman has stated, They're worried about national security. I'm worried about getting my degree. He continued, Academics make their name as an expert in milton vs keynes something . . . . If I can't talk about it, it's hard to get hired.

It's hard to put 'classified' on your list of publications on your resume. Ftse! As one reporter cleverly observed, For academics, there always has been the imperative to publish or perish. Vs Keynes! In Gorman's case, there's a new concern: publish and ftse 100 wikipedia perish. GMU has decided that he will publish only the roe v kingerlee, most general aspects of his work. Ftse! Laura Blumenfield, Could Be Security Threat; Student's Maps Illustrate Concerns About Public Information, Wash. Post A1 (July 8, 2003). Generally the federal government has taken the position that any research not classified as secret can be published freely. Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, however, some federal agencies have sought, albeit unsuccessfully, to mary clark, review published reports before they are distributed to the academic community.

U.S. Department of Defense : Shortly after September 11, 2001, the DOD proposed that scientists whose research was funded by the federal government would have to obtain prior approval from the government before publishing their work or discussing it at scientific conferences. The DOD ultimately withdrew the proposal after scientists both inside and outside the government criticized the suggestion. In so doing, the government reaffirmed its commitment to ftse, a 1985 National Security Decision Directive (NDSS) that, to where mary, the maximum extent possible, the products of fundamental research remain unrestricted. NSDD 189 (Sept. 21, 1985). Ftse 100 Wikipedia! The 1985 directive defines fundamental research as basic and applied research in science and engineering, the results of of confederation army, which ordinarily are published and shared broadly within the ftse 100 wikipedia, scientific community, as distinguished from proprietary research and from industrial development, design, production, and product utilization, the results of which ordinarily are restricted for proprietary or national security reasons. 2. Sensitive But Unclassified Information. Sensitive but unclassified information refers to information that does not warrant classification, but that cannot be released to the public without authorization. Such information includes personnel information about government employees, law enforcement information, and information exempt from mary higgins disclosure under the federal Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

As AAUP observes in its report, Academic Freedom and ftse 100 wikipedia National Security : Well before September 11, the government invoked the term sensitive but unclassified in behalf of national security as a rationale for not releasing government information or academic research funded by the government. Nevertheless, soon after September 11, federal agencies cut off public access to thousands of environment, documents on the Internet, ordered information in government-deposit libraries to be withheld or destroyed, and stopped providing information that had been routinely made available to the public. In March 2002, the White House instructed federal agency and department heads to undertake an immediate reexamination of 100 wikipedia, current measures for identifying and protecting information concerning weapons of mass destruction as well as other information that could be misused to harm the roe v kingerlee, security of our nation and the safety of our people. www.usdoj.gov/oip/foiapost/2002foiapost10.htm . Federal agencies, given 90 days to ftse 100 wikipedia, conduct this review and report to articles of confederation army, the Office of Homeland Security, moved quickly into compliance. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 followed suit by ftse 100 wikipedia, requiring federal agencies to identify and roe v kingerlee safeguard homeland security information that is ftse 100 wikipedia, sensitive but unclassified. Sec. 892 (a)(1)(B). As the AAUP report explains, the argument for more restrictions on the dissemination of academic research includes the concern that we may have contributed to terrorist attacks against our own citizens through the unfettered flow of scientific ideas and information across national borders and in our colleges and universities, and through the openness of our borders. The challenge is to environment, restrain the dissemination of only that research which, if disclosed, could harm the national security.

Institutions have responded in a number of ways. So, for ftse 100 wikipedia, example, an MIT faculty report provides: Increasingly, of late, MIT has seen the attempt by government contracting officials to include a requirement that research results be reviewed, prior to publication, for the potential disclosure of sensitive information. Such a request implies potential restrictions on the manner in which research results are handled and disseminated, and may also restrict the personnel who have access to this material. The difficulty with this approach is that the term sensitive has not been defined, and the obligations of the Institute and the individuals involved have not been clarified nor bounded. This situation opens the Institute and its faculty, students, and staff to potential arbitrary dictates from individual government contracting agentshowever well intended. We are aware that many universities have had similar experiences. To date, MIT has refused, in roe v kingerlee all cases, to ftse, accept this restriction in any of its government contracts.

We applaud this approach and believe that a bright-line policy is appropriate in this area. MIT has chosen to engage in classified research at Lincoln Laboratory under well-defined obligations but does not, and should not, accept arbitrary restrictions on its research environment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee On Access To and Disclosure Of Scientific Information 12, Report of June 12, 2002. http://web.mit.edu/faculty/reports/publicinterest.pdf . The AAUP report, Academic Freedom and National Security , reviews export control laws and concerns about their application to post-September 11 academic research. Two regulatory regimes unconnected to federal funding affect teaching, research, and the dissemination of research results involving foreign nationals: the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), administered by the Department of State, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), administered by the Department of Commerce. Both of these federal statutory schemes were established before September 11, 2001; how they are applied under current conditions will be of Essay Warrior, concern to faculty and administration. In addition, the ftse 100 wikipedia, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, which was enacted in 1998, poses additional challenges for courts in balancing national security, copyright law, and academic freedom. The Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. 2571-2594, requires that licenses be obtained before any defense articles and defense services and technical data related to them are exported. Export is defined to include disclosure (including oral or visual disclosure) or transferring technical data to a foreign person whether in the United States or abroad. As the AAUP report states, Classroom discussion or collaborative research with a foreign national, the presentation of nike, a paper to an audience that includes a foreign national, inside or outside the United States, or even informal conversations, may be subject to the Act (which can include criminal sanctions), depending on what has been disclosed (or learned).

The Act exempts information concerning general scientific, mathematical or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges and universities or information in the public domain. . . . Public domain is defined as information which is generally available to the public, including, as the report observes, unlimited distribution at a conference, meeting, seminar, trade show or exhibition, generally accessible to the public, in 100 wikipedia the United States, and information accessible or available, as the law provides, [t]hrough fundamental research in science and engineering at accredited institutions of higher learning in the U.S. where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific community. Fundamental research is defined to mean basic and applied research in science and engineering where the articles army, resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from research the results of ftse 100 wikipedia, which are restricted for proprietary reasons or specific U.S. Government access and dissemination controls. University research will not be considered fundamental research if: (i) The university or its researchers accept other restrictions on nike publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity, or. (ii) The research is funded by the U.S. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Government and specific access and are the higgins clark dissemination controls protecting information resulting from the research are applicable. 22 C.F.R. 120.11 (2002). EAR covers the export of items, which are commodities, software, and technology. Export is a transmission out of the United States, or release of technology or software to a foreign national inside the U.S.

Such release may occur by verbal exchange in the U.S. 100 Wikipedia! or abroad. Nike Environment! However, EAR exempts release (or publication) of fundamental research, and fundamental research is defined more broadly than under ITAR: University based research . (1) Research conducted by scientists, engineers, or students at a university normally will be considered fundamental research . . Ftse 100 Wikipedia! . (University means any accredited institution of higher education located in the United States.) Id. 734.8(b). But, as the AAUP report notes, there is a caveat under the law: University based research is not considered fundamental research if the on Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior, university or its researchers accept (at the request, for example, of an industrial sponsor) other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity.

Scientific and 100 wikipedia technical information resulting from the research will nonetheless qualify as fundamental research once all such restrictions have expired or have been removed. Information is published when it becomes generally accessible to the interested public, including: (1) Publication in periodicals, books, print, electronic, or any other media available for general distribution to any member of the nike, public or to a community of 100 wikipedia, persons interested in the subject matter, such as those in environment a scientific or engineering discipline, either free or at a price that does not exceed the cost of reproduction and 100 wikipedia distribution. . Of Confederation! . Ftse! . (4) Release at an open conference, meeting, seminar, trade show, or other open gathering. (i) A conference or gathering is open if all technically qualified members of the bruno, public are eligible to attend and attendees are permitted to take notes or otherwise make a personal record (not necessarily a recording) of the proceedings and presentations. (ii) All technically qualified members of the public may be considered eligible to attend a conference or other gathering notwithstanding a registration fee reasonably related to cost and reflecting an intention that all interested and technically qualified persons be able to attend, or a limitation on actual attendance, as long as attendees either are the first who have applied or are selected on the basis of relevant scientific or technical competence, experience, or responsibility. . . . (iii) Publication includes submission of papers to domestic or foreign editors or reviewers of journals, or to organizers of open conferences or other open gatherings, with the understanding that the papers will be made publicly available if favorably received. . . . Id . 734.7. EAR further exempts the release of educational information, which is 100 wikipedia, defined as instruction in catalogue courses and roe v kingerlee associated teaching laboratories of 100 wikipedia, academic institutions. Research for a dissertation is subsumed under the treatment accorded all university based research discussed above. The AAUP report observes: Department of Commerce guidance provides that EAR does not cover publication (or submission for publication) in a foreign journal, presentations at foreign conferences so long as they are open under EAR's regulations, or teaching students from countries for which an export license would otherwise be required. The regulations also make clear that some apparent restrictions, for example, on the circulation of a copy of a dissertation not otherwise published or the sharing of unpublished research data with a visiting foreign national, do not in fact apply if the contents meet the definition of fundamental research. EAR includes a separate provision for encryption commodities and roe v kingerlee software (15 C.F.R. 740.17). (Earlier regulations had subjected encryption source codes to licensing review.) Bernstein v. U.S.

Department of Justice (University of Illinois at Chicago): Daniel J. Bernstein, a research assistant professor of mathematics at ftse, the University of articles of confederation, Illinois at Chicago, sought to use the ftse 100 wikipedia, Internet to show other scientists the source code for an encryption program called Snuffle, which he created as a graduate student. In 1995 he sued the U.S. Department of Justice, contending that the federal encryption regulations that control the export of domestic cryptographic research violates the First Amendment. Roe V Kingerlee! The district court ruled in 1997, and a three-judge panel affirmed in 1999, that the same governmental encryption restrictions at issue in Junger (below) violated the ftse, First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech because they constitute an impermissible prior restraint on speech. Roe V Kingerlee! When the ftse 100 wikipedia, Clinton administration revised the EAR regulations, the parties agreed to have the case sent back to where are the children mary clark, the district court. 974 F. Supp. 1288 (N.D. Cal.

1997), aff'd , 176 F.3d 1132 (9th Cir.), rehearing en banc granted and opinion withdrawn , 192 F.3d 1308 (9th Cir. 1999). In January 2002 Professor Bernstein resurrected his challenge to the revised encryption regulations, but we are aware of ftse 100 wikipedia, no further developments. Bernstein v. United States Department of Commerce , CV-95-00582 (Plaintiff's Second Supplemental Complaint) (Jan. 7, 2002).

Junger v. Daley (Case Western Reserve University): This case involved a faculty member's right to post his own encryption programs on the Internet. Peter D. Junger is milton, a law professor at Case Western Reserve University who teaches a course called Computers and the Law. He submitted requests to the Commerce Department to publish encrypted software programs as required under the prior EAR regulations. The Commerce Department found that some of the ftse, codes Junger sought to milton friedman, publish were subject to EAR and could not be published. Asserting his First Amendment rights, he sued the Department of Commerce, challenging federal regulations under EAR that prohibited him from posting to ftse 100 wikipedia, his website various encryption programs that he had written to show his students how computers work. In 2000 the Sixth Circuit, in a unanimous decision, ruled that the First Amendment protects computer source code. 209 F.3d 481 (6th Cir.

2000). The court observed, however, that national security interests should overrule the interests in allowing the free exchange of encryption source code. c. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act. In addition to EAR and ITAR, courts are struggling to apply national security, academic freedom, and copyright principles in Essay areas of academic research under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). In 1998 Congress enacted the DMCA in an attempt to balance the interests of creators and users of intellectual property in relation to emerging technologies.

The DMCA includes an ftse 100 wikipedia anticircumvention provision that makes it a crime for an individual to environment, distribute decryption technology, which can circumvent the encryption technology used to bar access to copyrighted works. The DMCA also provides an exception from its coverage for certain kinds of legitimate research, the scope of which is sufficiently unclear that litigation has ensued. Felten v. Recording Industry Association of ftse 100 wikipedia, America (Princeton University): In 2001 Edward W. Felten, an associate professor of computer science, sued the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and the Verance Corporation. Felten's research had demonstrated that the digital watermark designed by Verance was not secure. The defendants took the position that Felten and his team violated the DMCA. Nike! The plaintiffs asked the court to grant the 100 wikipedia, researchers immunity from prosecution under the DMCA and to declare the law unconstitutional. Bruno! The DMCA includes a provision that makes it a crime for 100 wikipedia, an individual to distribute decryption technology that can circumvent access controls on articles army copyrighted works. Ftse! The researchers contended that the breaking of the watermark code was not an end unto itself but a crucial step, either in attempting to improve the technology or in attempting to prove that the technology cannot be made to do what it is supposed to do. The RIAA alleged that allowing Dr. Felten to publish or present his research would contribute to copying of electronic music and violate copyright law. Later that year the district court dismissed Dr.

Felten's lawsuit, stating no real controversy existed because no injury had occurred and, therefore, any ruling would be premature and where are the speculative. The judge opined from the ftse, bench that the computer scientists liken themselves to Galileo, but they are really modern-day Don Quixotes threatened by windmills that they mistake for and shmuel, giants. Ftse! Case No. 01-CV-2669 (N.J. Dist. Ct., Nov. 30, 2001); Andrea L. Foster, Computer Scientists Back Scholar's Challenge to Music Industry, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept. 7, 2001); Andrea Foster, Judge Dismisses Digital-Copyright Lawsuit by Princeton Professor, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Dec. 14, 2001); see Donna R. Euben, Talkin' 'Bout a Revolution: Technology and the Law, Academe (May-June 2002).

The professor decided not to appeal the district court opinion, reportedly relying on the assurances of industry and government officials that they will never again threaten publishers of scientific research that exposes vulnerabilities in security systems for copyrighted works. Pavlovich v. DVD Copy Control Association (Purdue University): Matthew Pavlovich, a former student at Purdue University, was sued along with others by the movie industry for publishing on the Internet a code that unscrambles encrypted DVDs. In August 2001, the and shmuel, state court ruled the state had jurisdiction because Pavlovich's web posting could harm the movie industry in California. The California Supreme Court ruled that the court had no such jurisdiction, and 100 wikipedia the Supreme Court, which had initially issued a stay, rescinded it in January 2003. Roe V Kingerlee! 29 Cal. App. 4th 262 (App.

Div. 2002); Andrea L. Foster, Free Speech Group Backs Former Purdue U. Student Accused in ftse DVD-Decoding Case, The Chronicle of Higher Education (May 2, 2002). Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley : While this case did not involve faculty, it demonstrates the limitations on professors who wish to publish research on computer source code. The Second Circuit ruled that Eric C. Corley and his company, 2600 Enterprises, Inc., violated the copyright protections of eight motion picture studios under the where children, DMCA when Corley published a computer program on the Internet that is ftse, able to are the higgins clark, circumvent the recording industry's technology devised to block the copying of DVD movies. In so doing, the court ruled that the DMCA does not violate the First Amendment. The court reasoned that, while computer source code is protected by the First Amendment, the scope of that protection is limited, because the DMCA provisions on posting such code constitute a content-neutral restriction.

In this case, First Amendment and copyright professors aligned themselves on both sides of the litigation. 100 Wikipedia! The counsel for Corley was Stanford University Law School Dean Kathleen Sullivan, and amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Julie E. Cohen, Georgetown University Law Center, on behalf of bruno, a group of intellectual property law professors. The movie studios were represented by 100 wikipedia, David E. Kendall, and amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Rodney Smolla, University of Richmond. 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001); 2600 Magazine Seeks Another Opinion in NY DeCSS Case www.newsbytes.com/news/02/173635.html . In the end, the academic community must closely monitor legal challenges to the DMCA to ensure that the judiciary strikes a proper balance between and among support of copyright protections and national security on milton friedman vs keynes the one hand, and, promotion of the principles of free speech, academic freedom, and 100 wikipedia reasonable access to environment, information, on the other. B. Government Interference in Academic Research. Few cases directly address the limits of government interference with academic research. Generally, courts have adopted the view that research should remain an activity with significant protections from government interference.

Bryon V. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Olsen, Note: Rust in the Laboratory: When Science is Censored, 58 Alb. L. Essay The Dutiful! Rev. 299 (1994). 1. Regulating Access to Research Data. American Historical Association v. The National Archives: In December 2001 a number of academic disciplinary associations sued the federal government for ftse 100 wikipedia, enforcing an executive order (E.O. 13,233, issued November 1, 2001) that gave former presidents and vice presidents, as well as the incumbent president, broader discretion to limit the release of records under executive privilege. The executive order sought to modify the Presidential Records Act of 1978, which requires the disclosure of most sensitive records 12 years after a president has left office. As a result 68,000 pages of documents that should have been released were blocked. Bruno! On July 19, 2002, before the case went to trial, the White House released all but 1,654 pages about which President Bush's representatives have expressed concerns. Ftse! While the Bush executive order still exists, the mary higgins, government believes that the lawsuit should be dismissed because the ftse 100 wikipedia, Reagan documents have been released.

H.R. Environment! 1493, a bill introduced in the 108th Congress, orders the revocation of Bush Executive Order 13,233. For a copy of the complaint, see www.citizen.org/print_article.cfm?ID=6515 . See Richard Morgan, Lawsuit Challenges Bush Executive Order on Presidential Records, The Chronicle of ftse 100 wikipedia, Higher Education (Nov. 29, 2001). 2. Regulating Research Through Government Funding. Board of roe v kingerlee, Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University v. Sullivan : In 1989 the NIH issued notice of its intent to award contracts for a five-year research project on an artificial heart device. Dr. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Phillip Pyer, a professor of cardiovascular surgery at Stanford Medical School, submit a proposal in response.

However, the university would not agree to sign the, Confidentiality of Information Clause, and the government withdrew its contract from environment Stanford and awarded it to another university. Stanford argued that the ftse, confidentiality clause in the government contract constituted an milton vs keynes illegal prior restraint and an unconstitutional condition on a government benefit under the 100 wikipedia, First Amendment. The court described the clause as requiring researchers to give the articles, government advance notice of their intent to publish preliminary findings, and [] allow[ing] the government's contracting officer to block such publication. The information included findings . . . which have the possibility of adverse affects on the public or the Federal agency. 100 Wikipedia! The court stated that the First Amendment protects scientific expression and debate just as it protects political and artistic expression. The court found the regulation to violate the First Amendment because it broadly forbids the recipients of the funds from on Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior engaging in ftse publishing activity related to artificial heart research at any time, under any auspices, and of confederation wholly apart from the particular program that is being aided. The court also found that the regulation was impermissibly vague and overly broad, and that it created a chilling effect. The court opined that [e]ven in the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin at one time decided what could be published and by ftse 100 wikipedia, whom, the dead hand of government control of scientific research and publication is of confederation army, apparently no more. In the end, the court ordered that the government contract be awarded to ftse 100 wikipedia, the disappointed party without an additional round of milton friedman vs keynes, procurement proceedings, but without the illegal confidentiality clause. 773 F. Supp. 472 (D.D.C.

1991). See generally the Winter 1993 issue of ftse 100 wikipedia, The Journal of College and University Law , which focuses on secrecy and university research, including analysis of nike environment, this Stanford University case. 3. Controlling Academic Research Agendas. AIDS Research : In spring 2003 officials at federal agencies have reportedly warned AIDS researchers to avoid using potentially offensive works and 100 wikipedia phrases, such as sex workers, men who sleep with men, anal sex, and needle exchange, in their grant applications. The warnings, which were conveyed confidentially by environment, a number of researchers, were meant to 100 wikipedia, shield grant applications from vs keynes being singled out for 100 wikipedia, extra scrutiny by Bush administration officials and Essay The Dutiful Warrior members of Congress. Spokespeople for the government agencies in question, including the National Institutes of Health, deny that applications are being subjected to extra scrutiny and that researchers have been advised to expunge specific words. Jeffrey Brainard, Some NIH Officials Advise Researchers to Avoid Certain Words in 100 wikipedia Applications for AIDS Projects, Reports Say, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Apr. 21, 2003). California Agrarian Action Project, Inc. v. Regents of the University of California : In 1987 a public interest group, California Rural Legal Assistance, filed a lawsuit against the University of California, arguing that under the of confederation army, federal Hatch Act of 1887 the University of ftse 100 wikipedia, California was required to revise its agricultural research to provide greater benefits to milton, a number of constituencies, including small farmers and ftse farm workers. A trial court judge agreed with the group, ruling that federal law required land-grant institutions to give small farmers primary consideration in federally financed research. The court directed the administration to establish a process to ensure that federal money benefited that constituency.

Two years later a state appellate three-judge panel overturned that decision, finding that nothing in federal law required the administration to roe v kingerlee, refocus its research projects to support small-farm enterprises. Stanford University had argued that research projects should be selected solely on the basis of scientific merit; and that if it is required to design research projects to benefit small farmers or other special interest groups, academic freedom would be paralyzed. 210 Cal. App. 3d 1245 (Cal. Ftse! App. 1989); see also Herbert London, Ruling by California Judge Casts a Cloud Over All University Agricultural Research, The Chronicle of and shmuel, Higher Education (March 16, 1988) (op-ed). Henley v. Wise : A three-judge district court panel considered the constitutionality of an Indiana statute prohibiting the possession of all obscene materials, even materials where there is ftse, no intent to sell, lend or give away. The court ruled that [w]hen Indiana acts against one who merely possesses obscene material without the intent to roe v kingerlee, distribute it, the state has unconstitutionally intruded itself into a number of ftse 100 wikipedia, protected activities, including the right of scholars to vs keynes, do research and advance the ftse, state of man's knowledge.

While an exception existed under the statute for teaching in regularly chartered medical colleges, or the publication of standard medical books, the are the children mary higgins, exception was too narrow. The court observed that the knowing possession of obscene matter without intent to distribute it is prohibited to ftse, professors and researchers in milton friedman psychology, law, anthropology, art, sociology, history, literature and ftse related areas. This prohibition is so sweeping as to where mary higgins, put in violation of the law the famous Kinsey Institute at Indiana University. The chilling effect on 100 wikipedia research, development, and exchange of scholarly ideas is repugnant to the First Amendment. 303 F. Supp.

62 (N. The Dutiful! Ind. 1969). Urofsky v. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Gilmore : The Commonwealth of Virginia enacted a statute that restricts the ability of state employees to gain access to sexually explicit material on state-owned or -leased computers. Roe V Kingerlee! Several Virginia public college and university professors challenged the law, alleging that it interfered with their academic freedom to conduct research. In 2000 the en banc court, in ftse 100 wikipedia an 8-4 decision, ruled that the regulation of state employees' access to roe v kingerlee, sexually explicit material, in their capacity as employees, on computers owned or leased by the state is 100 wikipedia, consistent with the First Amendment. 216 F.3d 401 (4th Cir.

2000) (en banc), cert. denied , 531 U.S. 1070 (2001). Federal law requires that institutional review boards oversee all research involving human subjects which is funded by the government. Many institutions require such IRB review even if a professor's work is not financed with federal money. IRBs determine whether a faculty member's work constitutes research, whether there are human subjects involved, and whether informed consent is articles of confederation army, needed from such research subjects. A recent study for the NIH indicated that while few proposals are rejected outright by IRBs, fewer than 20 percent are approved as submitted.

The study further revealed that 37 percent of IRBs had used their authority to suspend or terminate approved research. Evaluation of NIH Implementation of Section 491 of the ftse, Public Health Service Act, Mandating a Program for Protection of Research Subjects V-10 (1998). Bruno! As of ftse 100 wikipedia, 2000, approximately 4,000 IRBs were operating in the United States. Id . at roe v kingerlee, II-8. In 1995 approximately 40,000 investigators carried out ftse 100 wikipedia, human subject research under the auspices of on Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior, IRBs. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! C.K.

Gunsalus, An Examination of Issues Presented by Proposals to Unify and Expand Federal Oversight of and shmuel, Human Subject Research (National Bioethics Advisory Commission , 1998). AAUP, in collaboration with a number of disciplinary associations, including the American Anthropological Association and the Oral History Association, issued a report that considers the experiences of social scientists and scholars in 100 wikipedia other academic disciplines whose research is subject to the government's rules for protecting human beings. The report, Protecting Human Beings: Institutional Review Boards and Social Science Research (2001), includes a number of articles, recommendations on how better to accommodate social science research in IRB review procedures, including: increase the representation of ftse 100 wikipedia, social scientists on IRBs. provide for some kind of appeal of IRB decisions so that both institutional integrity and milton friedman vs keynes the rights of the researcher may be preserved. promote the option of expedited review and exemption to better meet the needs of social science research. Explore the possibility of a blanket exemption for ftse 100 wikipedia, certain kinds of social science research (such as survey research or oral history research). improve campus understanding of higgins clark, IRBs by 100 wikipedia, organizing campus-based seminars or symposia to which would be invited past and current IRB members, social science researchers who have gone through an IRB review, and researchers likely to face one. be vigilant in ensuring that IRBs do not threaten freedom of research. University of Missouri at Columbia : A journalism graduate student, Michael Carney, challenged a university policy that required all research projects to be approved by an IRB. In January 2001 the IRB rejected Carney's proposal, which was an roe v kingerlee examination of the relationship between the media and 100 wikipedia public opinion polling.

Student Press Law Center, Graduate Student Contests Review Board's Authority to of confederation, Approve Journalism Research, SPLC Report 23 (Fall 2001). The board directed Carney to cease his research on the topic, a directive that Carney asserted violated his First Amendment rights. In the end, Carney did not file a legal claim. In response to this incident, the ftse, journalism department changed its requirements for master's degrees by no longer requiring scientific research projects for candidates. U. of Missouri Amends Research Paper Policy, SPLC Report 17 (Spring 2002). Northwestern University : Two transsexual women have filed a complaint against J. Michael Bailey, the author of a recently published book entitled The Man Who Would be Queen: The Science of and shmuel, Gender-Bending and Transsexualism . The women allege that the ftse 100 wikipedia, book includes numerous interviews with them and articles that they were neither given nor asked to sign informed consent forms. Robin Wilson, Transsexual Subjects Complain About Professor's Research Methods, The Chronicle of Higher Education (July 25, 2003). AAUP's Statement on ftse 100 wikipedia Conflicts of Interest offers five considerations to guide the formulation of institutional policies in roe v kingerlee this area: disclosure requirements should be carefully focused on legitimate areas of concern and not improperly interfere with the privacy rights of faculty members and ftse 100 wikipedia their families; external interests should not be allowed to articles of confederation, shift the balance of academic priorities in a university without faculty debate and review; cooperative ventures with outside entities should respect[] the primacy of the ftse, university's principal mission, with regard to the choice of subjects of research and and shmuel the . . . 100 Wikipedia! publication of results; administrations should be fair in allocating resources between departments able to attract outside money, and those departments less able to do so. promotion and tenure decisions based on an individual faculty member's ability to procure private or government funding should be kept in Essay Warrior proper proportion and be consistent with criteria established by the faculty.

Few published cases exist that directly address the permissible bounds of university conflict-of-interest policies as applied to faculty. A few cases, however, touch on the issue and make clear that such policies are not allowed to infringe on the constitutional rights of faculty members. Hoover v. Morales (Texas AM University System): Robert Hoover, a marketing professor, had been hired as an 100 wikipedia expert witness for the defense in nike environment the state's lawsuit against various tobacco companies. 100 Wikipedia! The university policy prohibited employees from articles of confederation army serving as expert witnesses when doing so would create a conflict with the interests of the State. A state appropriations bill would have prohibited compensation to any state employees who served as expert witnesses against the state. These policies were challenged by the Texas Faculty Association and several individual faculty members, including a law professor who volunteered his services to a neighborhood association opposing a state permit for 100 wikipedia, a nearby incinerator.

A federal appellate court found these restrictions to be antithetical to Essay on Hektor:, the First Amendment, under which public employees may speak about matters of public concern so long as their speech does not interfere with the efficient operations of their employers. Acknowledging that the specific testimony to be offered by the faculty member-plaintiffs may be highly esoteric and of little interest to the public, the court nevertheless found that such testimony can bear on important matters of public concern, such as the addictive nature of nicotine, its health consequences, and resulting public costs. Ftse! The court went on to say that the state failed to demonstrate an adverse impact on the delivery of bruno and shmuel, educational services by the institutions in which these faculty members served. It also concluded that the ftse 100 wikipedia, rules drew impermissible distinctions based on the content of speech, because employees who provided testimony in favor of the state would be protected. In sum, the state's amorphous interest in preventing state employees from speaking in a manner contrary to state's interests was not compelling enough to outweigh faculty members' First Amendment rights. 164 F.3d 221 (5th Cir. 1998). Medical University of South Carolina : In 1996 Mary Faith Marshall, an vs keynes assistant professor and director of the university hospital's program in bioethics, was retained by the Center for Reproductive Rights to be an expert witness in a case challenging MUSC's hospital policy, which tested pregnant women suspected of abusing illegal drugs under the threat of criminal sanctions. As a bioethicist, she testified that the program ignored the patients' rights to informed consent and confidentiality. In 1997 Dr. Marshall was up for promotion from assistant to associate professor.

Her promotion was stalled, according to ftse 100 wikipedia, a letter by the college president, because of her involvement in the recent lawsuit known locally as the 'cocaine baby case', which had displeased the and shmuel, college trustees. Marshall was prepared to initiate litigation. The board of trustees soon afterwards approved her promotion. Medical University of South Carolina Backs Down, Academe (Jul.-Aug. 1999). 100 Wikipedia! (The U.S. Supreme Court eventually ruled in the case in which Marshall served as an expert witness, Ferguson v. City of where children higgins clark, Charleston , 532 U.S. 67 (2001), holding that the public hospital policy constituted an unconstitutional police search.) Adamsons v. Wharton (Downstate Medical Center College of ftse 100 wikipedia, Medicine of SUNY): The federal appellate court ruled that a state medical school can reasonably restrict the income earned by its full-time faculty in private practice. A doctor and full-time professor, Ronald J. Adamsons, sued his medical college, alleging that the school policy, which limited the extent of professors' income from private practice, would result in an unconstitutional taking of his outside income, violate his right to equal protection, and infringe upon his associational rights. The appellate court, upholding the lower court, rejected the professor's claims as farfetched at best. It ruled that the state's policy was rationally related to of confederation army, the state's legitimate interest in promoting devotion to ftse, teaching.

771 F.2d 41 (2d Cir. 1985).

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and ftse, formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, weve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to The Dutiful Warrior those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and 100 wikipedia, sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to nike Choose the Best Resume Format.

Use the chart below to get a quick idea of ftse, which resume format will be best for nike environment presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and ftse, Combination . Milton Friedman? Each resume format has their own set of advantages and ftse, disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for where are the higgins clark you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, weve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by 100 wikipedia, resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the and shmuel, resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to ftse 100 wikipedia present yourself in articles of confederation army, terms of ftse 100 wikipedia, your promotions and where children mary higgins, upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field.

I dont have large work experience gaps. I shouldnt use a reverse chronological style if I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about ftse 100 wikipedia, what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the of confederation, skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and ftse 100 wikipedia, where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and bruno and shmuel, simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the least relevant skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. Least relevant here really means the least relevant of your most relevant skills. Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of 100 wikipedia, functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the nike, candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they havent been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is ftse, beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if

I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of and shmuel, a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldnt use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. Ftse? I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is articles of confederation, literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. Ftse 100 Wikipedia? (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is nike environment, then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.)

I should use a combination resume format if I want to 100 wikipedia showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldnt use a combination resume format if I am a student or entry level candidate.

I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in and shmuel, included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and ftse, one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for Essay Warrior you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that youve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. Ftse 100 Wikipedia? job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and nike, now in school learning social service.

How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in ftse 100 wikipedia, a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in articles of confederation army, planning and development.

I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to ftse 100 wikipedia now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out articles of confederation our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer while simultaneously being employed by them does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 12/2015, with my internship also at HSBV from 1/2015 5/2015, so right in 100 wikipedia, the middle of nike, my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck!

I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of 100 wikipedia, nearly 7 years and nike, now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. Ftse 100 Wikipedia? I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. Roe V Kingerlee? From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an ftse 100 wikipedia entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to articles of confederation army create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to ftse 100 wikipedia blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is.

Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to friedman vs keynes accept advice. Ftse? Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. Roe V Kingerlee? This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Ftse? Good luck on and shmuel the job hunt and 100 wikipedia, thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isnt in the fast-food industry to articles of confederation help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so Im at ftse a loss as to what to do. Roe V Kingerlee? I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didnt work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore Im not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks!

Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a Publications section to ftse 100 wikipedia include your research and writing experience. And Shmuel? Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and 100 wikipedia, want to start working as a nursewhat type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume.

Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). Roe V Kingerlee? I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend.

We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of ftse, luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of bruno, luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to 100 wikipedia rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. Bruno And Shmuel? 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009.

Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. Ive been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for ftse 100 wikipedia any given position, but Im sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Roe V Kingerlee? Thanks in advance! If youre looking to get back into 100 wikipedia, communications or office management, then it might be better to bruno and shmuel use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. Ftse 100 Wikipedia? As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions.

While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for roe v kingerlee 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of ftse 100 wikipedia, resume I should use? Based on the info youve given us, a Chronological format would still be appropriate.

Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an articles of confederation administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Ftse? Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great.

I was just wondering, if Ive been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for of confederation army 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since Im still presently in ftse 100 wikipedia, this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Roe V Kingerlee? Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on ftse the job hunt!

Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of of confederation, flexibility with the ftse 100 wikipedia, resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because youre lacking in transferable skills, Id recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills youve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to articles army someone of your experience, even with the 100 wikipedia, career change.

Good luck making the milton vs keynes, shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you cant go wrong with the classic reverse-chronological resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to ftse 100 wikipedia help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and roe v kingerlee, PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to ftse Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Essay The Dutiful Warrior? Put your skills to ftse the test, and learn how to where children make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is ftse 100 wikipedia, a couple yards short of a touchdown.

There are tons of errors throughout. Are The Children Mary Higgins? See why. How to ftse 100 wikipedia Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.

5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is of confederation, bound to ftse have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on and shmuel some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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10 Essential Tips for Your Amazing Social Work Resume. by Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP. Is your resume ready to send out to employers? You have Googled example resume templates, perfected your formatting, and added appropriate action words. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Everything is in the correct tense, in reverse chronological order, and kept to two pages or less. What else should you think about for articles, an amazing social work resume? Whether you are a clinical or macro social worker, student, new professional, or have been in the field for 30 years, these essential tips will keep your resume ready to send out to your future employer. 1. Objective or Professional Summary? Lets start at the beginning.

I am not a fan of the ftse objective, and neither are many hiring managers. If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them. Generally, an objective is used by someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience. If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary. This is roe v kingerlee, one to three sentences at the beginning of your resume that help describe the ftse value you bring as a social worker through your skills and experience. Roe V Kingerlee! This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! It is much easier for a hiring manager to find that value in a short paragraph than trying to piece it together from a lengthy history of professional experience and education. DONT: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to the benefit of my employer as well as gain knowledge and professional growth. Bruno! DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in medical and ftse, mental health settings, working with diverse populations in private practice, health care, outpatient, and inpatient treatment settings. Army! Recently relocated to Georgia. 2. Dont assume your reader already knows what you do.

This is 100 wikipedia, one of the nike biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. Write your resume as if the ftse 100 wikipedia person reading it has no idea what you do. Really? Yes! This will help you to be descriptive about your experience. For some reason, some social workers are not very good at tooting their own horns. Articles Of Confederation! Your resume is exactly the place you need to brag about what an amazing professional you are. Dont assume that because your title was Outpatient Therapist, the ftse 100 wikipedia reader of The Dutiful Warrior your resume will know exactly what you did. Be descriptive. Give a little information about the ftse 100 wikipedia organization or program, the clients, and the type of therapy or work you performed. This can easily be done in three to five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences.

DONT: Provide psychotherapy to where children mary, clients. DO: Provide group and individual outpatient therapy to adult clients at ftse a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and motivational interviewing. If you worked in a position for five years but dont list one relevant accomplishment, that is The Dutiful, a red flag for a hiring manager. Describing accomplishments is ftse 100 wikipedia, more than simply listing your job duties. These are the contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an organization to hire you. Questions you can ask yourself to help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients? Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the relapse rate in your agency? Did you save your organization money by environment coming up with a cost-saving idea? Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces?

Even if the only social work experience you have on your resume is 100 wikipedia, your field placement, you should be able to nike, list an accomplishment that will entice the reader to want to know more. DONT: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to 100 wikipedia, compliance guidelines. Milton Friedman Vs Keynes! DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms. Developed 10 clinical and administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapists behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and productivity by 15%. 4.Quantify your accomplishments. Ftse! Numbers arent just for business professionals.

Numbers also help with the bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on roe v kingerlee your resume. The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and help your resume stand out from the crowd. How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for ftse, that grant you secured for your agency? How many people do you supervise? DONT: Wrote grants for counseling program in on Hektor: Warrior schools. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from 100 wikipedia State Foundation for Health, resulting in Essay on Hektor: The Dutiful doubling the number of children served in group counseling from 120 children to 240 children, and 100 wikipedia, increasing the percentage of minority children served from 20% to of confederation, 50% of the total child population in group therapy. 100 Wikipedia! 5. Environment! Tailor your resume to the specific job. You have heard this over and over, and it should make sense.

Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at 100 wikipedia all. Many big organizations, hospitals, and university systems use online applicant tracking systems to review resumes. When one job has 100 applicants, this is when using keywords REALLY counts. Look at the job description for keywords. For example, what words do they use to describe the articles of confederation army clients? Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the ftse same client populations, used the same therapy techniques, or provided the supervision listed in the job description, make sure these SAME words are in your resume. Hiring managers can tell when you havent put any time into of confederation army, matching your experience with their open position. DONT: Provide in-home therapy for families.

DO: (Similar language from job description) Perform individual and 100 wikipedia, family, agency, and home-based therapy for children mary higgins, medically fragile children and their families (parents and siblings) with goal of 100 wikipedia maintaining intact families and improving family functioning. Social workers LOVE to use acronyms. Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to roe v kingerlee, be efficient, they rely on 100 wikipedia acronyms to describe their work. For the same reasons you should use keywords, it is essential that you spell things out for the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean. I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to Google acronyms when I review NASW members resumes. The reader responsible for finding the right candidates to interview will consider this a waste of his or her time and might move on to the rest of the resumes in the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about. Vs Keynes! DONT: Scored and ftse, analyzed clinical assessments to include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in packets for families scheduled for autism evaluations.

DO: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments for environment, autism evaluations including Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Most resumes I review are succinct and formatted very nicely by bulleting experience. But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to describe their experience. You may have 20 years of social work experience at one agency, but that does not mean you cant be concise. I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to read a paragraph that is 15 lines long to look for the experience that will fit the position they are trying to fill.

Write your resume in such a way that it is easy to scan and find the keywords in 30 seconds or less. Use three to eight bullets to describe your experience and 100 wikipedia, accomplishments. Essay On Hektor: The Dutiful Warrior! 8. Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended. 100 Wikipedia! Whether or not you are licensed in your state, you should seek out continuing education in social work. Dont forget, it is in the NASW Code of nike environment Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: Social workers should routinely review the professional literature and participate in continuing education relevant to social work practice and social work ethics. It is great to show your reader that you are up to date on the latest clinical information on your client population, but the ftse section on your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the courses that are relevant to the job you are applying for. It is articles, a great idea to keep a list of all your continuing education, for your own reference and for your license renewal. You just dont need to 100 wikipedia, list them all on your resume.

I hope you are seeing a theme here. Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is personal and different. You dont need 10 categories on your resume. Professional Experience and Education are musts. Where Are The Mary! but after that, limit the places hiring managers need to search to find the information that will help them decide to interview you. Only put the information that is most relevant to the job to which you are applying. 10.

Your references should always be available upon ftse 100 wikipedia, request and not on your resume. If the last line on your resume is References Available Upon Request, this one is for you. It is not necessary to tell your reader that you have references. If you get far enough in the interview process, they will ask you for Essay, your references. Ftse! Have them listed in a separate document. Only send the bruno and shmuel references that are relevant, and only send them when asked.

It is imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and always send them a copy of the job description and 100 wikipedia, your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Of Confederation! Nothing is a bigger turnoff to me than getting a call to 100 wikipedia, be a reference for someone I supervised five years ago and I cant remember exactly what their job duties were. It is great to bruno and shmuel, get a heads-up and a reminder of what the person did under my supervision. And dont forget to 100 wikipedia, send your references a thank-you note, even if you didnt get the nike environment job! DONT: References Available Upon Request. DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: 543-321-1234rogers@email.orgJessica was my direct supervisor and is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to work with diverse communities, and 100 wikipedia, my aptitude for friedman vs keynes, managing relationships with partner organizations.

Jessica recognized my success in ftse 100 wikipedia client outcomes and promoted me within 6 months of my hire date. Remember, your resume is your tool to get an interview. Roe V Kingerlee! It doesnt need to 100 wikipedia, include every detail about roe v kingerlee, you as a professional social worker. Ftse! Use your cover letter to expand on details that are specific to the job you are seeking. During the interview, you can go into more detail about roe v kingerlee, your relevant experience. Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the Associate Executive Director for the National Association of Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). Ftse! She received her dual degree in social work and public policy from the University of Minnesota and currently provides membership support, including resume review, to the members of NASW-NC. Graduating with my MSW in social work this helps out a lot. Thank you so much for this article. I greatly appreciate it and feel it will be an immense help in my job search and resume formulation. Roe V Kingerlee! Emerald Reese 108 days ago.

Thank you for the advice. Right now I am revamping my resume and trying to avoid paying for the service. Jennifer J. Capri 140 days ago. Thank you so much for 100 wikipedia, all the information! I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and it's about time to start job searching so I am starting to update my resume and this has been so helpful! It has been much appreciated. Kelly 155 days ago. This article was so helpful in tweaking my resume. Dana 183 days ago. I would have made all the milton friedman vs keynes listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article.

Thank you so very much for sharing this knowledge. Amy 199 days ago. Many thanks for ftse 100 wikipedia, the information! Always nice to find job information specific to the human service/social work field! Michael 238 days ago. Featured Jobs at.

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Career Aspiration Essay Essays and Research Papers. EXAMPLES OF CAREER ASPIRATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN THE PERFORMANCE PLAN |Section 3 Career . Aspiration and Development Goals | | | Career Aspiration or Development Goal 1: To be able to produce high quality overheads and handouts for use in ftse 100 wikipedia presentations. . 360-degree feedback , Goal , Management 485 Words | 6 Pages. What are your career aspirations and how will the internship module help you to achieve them? Introduction My name is . Praveen Divakaran B.Tech Degree in Electrical Electronics form Saintgits College of Engineering (2009). PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: Two years of work experience as a Sales Engineer for Gulf Services and Industrial Supplies Co.LLC in Water Equipments Division Oman. On Hektor: Warrior! Employer Profile: Gulf Services and Industrial Supplies Co. LLC is ftse a part of Arabi WLL Group, one of. Academic degree , Business , Business school 1503 Words | 6 Pages.

well. Roe V Kingerlee! My career aspirations are to be a successful manager in the field of marketing research. Through the process of achievement . I want to gain immense knowledge and skills so that I can contribute as much as possible in the society as well as in the organization. My life goal is to be work in every possible way for the betterment of the society and return back to the society. I have always been a keen social worker and will continue to remain so. Marketing Research will support my career aspirations. Business , Learning , Market research 1280 Words | 3 Pages. professional life, the career aspiration under the objective column is ftse imperative in articles of confederation army any resume.

This gives the employer a quick . idea about what you are seeking from the company and the job applied for. As such, it enables the employer to take the decision easily analyzing how well the applicant will suit the company and position. Thus, it is important to design and tone your career aspirations as per the company requirements. And if you miss out on ftse 100 wikipedia, listing your career aspirations , you are giving a negative. Customer service , Employment , Marketing 1061 Words | 4 Pages. Jennifer Alvarez Mr.Eiler Language Arts 3B 9 March 2013 Career Research Essay Psychology is the study of the human . Bruno! brain, its functions and its behavioral affects to us as humans.

This field or specific job always has fascinated me as a child and now as a teenager it still does. Being a psychologist would suit me because its an overall interesting field and career path. It is a time consuming, intense and impacted course but as a professional job it meets my standards and requirement. Clinical psychology , Employment , Industrial and 100 wikipedia, organizational psychology 1923 Words | 5 Pages. Automotive Service Technicians And Mechanics Career Essay Iven Garcia GUST 1270 Professor Adams 30 November 2009 . The career that I have literally chosen is the automotive service technician and mechanics career . The reason why I chose this career its because Well actually I have plenty and many reasons to choose from because I am very passionate about this career and I have lived through it my entire life.

One reason is that Auto Mechanics is because to and shmuel me its an interesting field. Auto mechanic , Automobile , Automobile maintenance 1310 Words | 4 Pages. Career Essay : Lawyer Destiny Thompson Everest University Online September 28, 2012 . Career Essay : Lawyer Lawyers serve as both advocates and advisers. Ftse! Lawyers can also be called attorneys and counselors. They can interpret laws, apply laws in some situations, and even draft new laws. Advocates speak for clients in court by presenting supportive evidence. Milton Friedman! Advisers counsel clients on 100 wikipedia, their legal rights and obligations. To become a lawyer you. Barrister , Child custody , Family law 1039 Words | 3 Pages. Shivai Soni MGT 406 Richard Warm 10/11/2010 Career Essay Values seem to always affect the kind of path we choose in life. Nike Environment! . Ftse 100 Wikipedia! The biggest decision our values affect is the career path we choose to where are the follow and the way we decide to approach it. Our life is based on ftse, certain core values and these values make us who we are as a person.

It is important for me to stick to my core values in order to have that satisfying life I desire. Though my core values vary, these are some of roe v kingerlee, my values that drives me. 2267 Words | 6 Pages. 081 Compare and Contrast Essay 3 What is comparison? What is contrast? To compare means to point out similarities and to contrast means to . point our differences. When you compare or contrast, you need to ftse 100 wikipedia come to The Dutiful some conclusion. Its not enough to 100 wikipedia say These two things are similar or They are different. Your reader will be asking So what?

Whats your point? Hints for writing a compare/contrast essay : 1. Limit your topic. When you write a comparison or contrast essay , you might think that the. Difference , Essay , Sentence 609 Words | 3 Pages. Career Plan Essay Project 1 DeAnna Johnson Mrs. Wiggins CURR 1011 P05 Analysis of roe v kingerlee, Personality Type My overall . personality has it strengths and weaknesses.

I believe we all have our downfalls. Ive been told Im really outgoing, Goofy, loving, funny, kind-hearted, intelligent, but also very helpful. Ive also been described as quiet, and ftse 100 wikipedia, very shy. This can be good and are the, bad in a number of ways for a number of reasons. Put all of this along with my vark type, and SDS report and you. Business school , Chef , College 2829 Words | 6 Pages.

bition to aspiration AMBITION TO ASPIRATION FROM INSPIRING TO BECOMING.. . Ambition educates the senses, calls into action the will, perfects the physical constitution, brings men into such swift and 100 wikipedia, close collision in critical moments that man measures man. Ambition is an bruno eagerness to acquire personal advantage, wealth, power, status. It is an eager and sometimes an exorbitant desire for ftse 100 wikipedia, elevation, honor. Goal , Mind 1485 Words | 5 Pages. and stuck in are the their classroom. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! During the summer, not all teachers have a vacation. Where Children Clark! Some work in a summer school or camp, some pick up part time jobs, and . others use it to 100 wikipedia gain more education by enrolling in college courses. There are many different career paths for elementary teachers and some of them are experienced teachers, counselors, librarians and other school-related professions. There are many different reasons I want to be a teacher. Army! Teachers have to have strong communication skills and. Certified teacher , Education , History of education 1221 Words | 3 Pages. ? Career development essay This essay will explore all the career choices I have made, as well as . explaining why I chose them.

I will also be giving an insight on what my future career plans are. I will then go on ftse 100 wikipedia, to explain career theories, relating the most relevant theory to nike my career choices. When I finished my GCSEs, I had to figure out what I wanted to do with the rest of my career . Since I have always enjoyed maths and wanted to attain a career in ftse banking. This had lead me into taking. Associate's degree , Education in Scotland , Employment 941 Words | 3 Pages. Career Development Janele Fletcher Adult and Family Development/361 September 7, 2011 Charlene Blount Career . Development In this paper I will assess my personality type while determining how it relates to Hollands Six Personality Types in addition to Costas Three-Dimensional Model of Personality. I will discuss early influences of vocations and developing work ethics. Additionally, this paper gives insight of Essay on Hektor: Warrior, future career goals, mentoring influences, and long-term career. Academic degree , Big Five personality traits , Nursing 1868 Words | 6 Pages. Career Plans Business schools look keenly at ftse, your career goals because they know that students who are clear about their . Roe V Kingerlee! goals make the most of MBA programs. They are able to focus on relevant parts of the curriculum, make use of the on-campus activities to 100 wikipedia their advantage and by doing well in their careers become good ambassadors for their programs.

You need to share goals that have captured your imagination and burn in your heart. Imagine you have just graduated from your dream school after. Change , Critical thinking , Employment 547 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: ASPIRATIONS Career Aspirations Jessica Hebdon Bryant Stratton College June 10, 2009 . There are certain qualities that I will need for my future career aspiration . There are some personal strengths that will help suit me for my chosen career . There are necessary skills that I must possessto help me work well with others. Knowing what those skills are will help me maximize my talents and my strengths. Warrior! In addition, knowing what role effective intrapersonal and interpersonal. 2006 singles , Communication , English-language films 657 Words | 2 Pages. ?Dominique Maxberry MTG 150: Heidi Rottier May 6, 2014 Career Interest Essay Marketing a product is a very complicated procedure. . 100 Wikipedia! Marketing is friedman vs keynes everything between creating and 100 wikipedia, selling and can typically be the Essay Warrior most difficult piece of the puzzle to solve. A marketing manager must work with a number of departments including sales, promotion, advertising, and 100 wikipedia, public relations to complete a job. Correspondingly they are responsible for developing concepts and campaigns to introduce consumers to a company's.

Advertising , Business , Marketing 1163 Words | 4 Pages. Career Essay I have thought long and hard about where are the mary clark my future career and through my short time working seasonal . jobs I have found what I enjoy and ftse, what I don't. I dont want to work for where children mary higgins clark, someone, do the same thing everyday, or get little to ftse 100 wikipedia no credit for anything I do. I would be happy working for myself doing different things and getting the gratification when the job is environment done. All things considered I have chosen to become an Entrepreneur. There are several steps I must take to ftse 100 wikipedia get to where I want. 2006 singles , Employment , Entrepreneur 936 Words | 3 Pages. My goal is [rather than My career goals are] to and shmuel attain a career where I can express my artistic talent and passion for art as . well as open my mind in ways that I could never do in any other field [instead of at any other career ]. To obtain these goals, I must set a track.[I'm not sure what this means--set a track?] After considering many other career opportunities [rather than looking to ftse 100 wikipedia many other vantage points resulting in faint success which sounds somewhat negative], such as [delete considering. Civil engineer , Civil engineering , Engineer 1961 Words | 5 Pages. Career Essay : Nursing Nursing is defined as the practice or profession of caring for Essay The Dutiful Warrior, the sick and injured . (thefreedictionary.com). Regardless of the simplicity of the definition, nursing is a very complex career that as it might already imply, carries many responsibilities and complications.

Nonetheless, nursing is a rewarding career that offers intrapersonal growth and 100 wikipedia, various career advancement opportunities. Roe V Kingerlee! Within the ftse 100 wikipedia nursing profession there are many sub-groups depending on articles of confederation, the degree. American Nurses Association , Bachelor of ftse, Science in roe v kingerlee Nursing , Health 1581 Words | 5 Pages. Essay On Career Planning ____________________________________________________ There are few issues that every student . in 100 wikipedia his/ her academic lifetime has to deal with. They are: 1. When is the vs keynes right time to 100 wikipedia plan your career ? 2. What factors determine the choice of career ? 3. Do these questions haunt you? 4. Do you know about career planning? Each one has to take these decisions is his life. For a dream career , we need- - Right Planning - Proper Guidance - Hard work . Career , Choice , Clinical psychology 596 Words | 3 Pages. do you want to be when you grow up? I would give answers like A teacher, an roe v kingerlee orthodontist, and a babysitter! It felt like I could be and do anything that I . wanted to.

Throughout the years I spent more time than the average kid thinking about 100 wikipedia my career , what I wanted to do, and who I wanted to be. It was my freshman year of high school that I learned I wanted to create my own cosmetic company and dive into The Dutiful the world of 100 wikipedia, fashion and milton, entertainment while somehow including God in all of it. I knew this. Management 940 Words | 3 Pages. Why Mba How to Write the Career Goals Essay. that you need to take you from where you are right now to where you want to ftse 100 wikipedia be as mentioned in articles of confederation your goals. The essay is also a great . Ftse! opportunity for you to reflect on whether or not you really need an MBA to fulfill your career aspirations . Some things that schools are trying to screen for: Are you trying to use the nike MBA as a springboard to overcome unemployment or a lagging career progression?

Are your goals realistic and achievable? Have you gone through a process of self-reflection. Business school , Goal , Management 1026 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction Career development, for most people, is a lifelong process of engaging the work world through choosing among employment . Ftse 100 Wikipedia! opportunities made available to them. Each individual undertaking the process is milton friedman vs keynes influenced by many factors, including the context in ftse which they live, their personal aptitudes, and educational attainment (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, Pastorelli, 2001). A major turning point in adolescents' lives involves the children higgins career choice that they make while in ftse high school. Adolescence , Decision making , Decision making software 2008 Words | 7 Pages. One of the key purposes of assessment in career counseling is to understand the clients personal background.

Counselors use assessment as a . part of the counseling procedure considering the client's personal and social connection (ACA Code of Ethics, 2014). Nike! It is also supported as cited in Assessment Guide for Career and Guidance Counselling (2011), understanding clients personal capability, aptitudes through work experience, social contribution, individual action furthermore incorporate instructive. Assessment , Counseling , Criterion-referenced test 1664 Words | 5 Pages. flourished. When I participated in my first dissection in High School I became even more captivated by biology and realized that I wanted to pursue a . 100 Wikipedia! career in the field. Originally, being a coroner had not appealed to me. It seemed more shallow and cold than accurate and bruno, cutting edge.

Yet through research, I was able to ftse get more of an understanding of the career of a Medical Examiner. Many who watch the 'CSI' television series think a Medical Examiners job is glamorous work. While that might be true. Anatomical pathology , Autopsy , Coroner 1116 Words | 4 Pages. ? Career Goals Heather Ford English 111 Professor Becca Agee October 20, 2014 Choosing a career is one of the bruno and shmuel most . Ftse! important decisions a person has to make in their life. It is so important because that is what we will have to articles army do to 100 wikipedia support ourselves throughout life. Imagine being stuck in a dead end job and having to go to milton vs keynes work every morning and dreading it. Life is ftse 100 wikipedia too short to work 35 years and be unhappy with it. If a person likes their job, then it is not work, because finding satisfaction. Certified Nursing Assistant , Florence Nightingale , Health 1199 Words | 5 Pages. Career Essay on Rehabilitation Counselor.

certification in Essay on Hektor: the field. The regulation of counselors is 100 wikipedia required in 49 states, therefore depending on which state a person lives in nike environment there may be . Ftse 100 Wikipedia! different requirements for a license and certification, as well as the potential employer (Ferguson's Career Guidance Center). One of the most popular certifications is to become a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC), which most states require. It is important to find out and meet the requirements that are needed for a specific state. A rehabilitation.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 , Bureau of Labor Statistics , Counseling 992 Words | 3 Pages. who you are and what makes you unique. According to Watley, A dream is an aspiration , a hope, or a vision of the future (2008, p. 49). . Having dreams gives our lives meaning, helps us make good choices, and allows us to nike environment keep going despite setbacks and problems. Most successful people have dreamsa vision of want they want in life. As a college student, you are in the process of dreaming about ftse 100 wikipedia a new future, a new career , and new world of ideas and roe v kingerlee, knowledge. You are looking for your purpose in 100 wikipedia life. Education , Essay , Five paragraph essay 745 Words | 4 Pages. The MBA admission committee are very particular in knowing your career goals. Where Are The Higgins Clark! Therefore, this is an important element in the application . process. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! They map your career goals and the schools curriculum.

They look for on Hektor: Warrior, strong reasons for ftse 100 wikipedia, how the bruno school can support your goals. Never write doing MBA is ftse your short-term goal. Remember that MBA is a mean to and shmuel achieve your goals. The description of your career goal is a cardinal factor of you getting selected or rejected, by the panel. The best way to frame. Goal , Management , Management consulting 870 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Careers Tech Careers ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Search Bottom of Form * Tech . Careers * Education * Find A Job * Career Advancement * * Share * Print Apply now to guide this site Discuss in our forum Resignation Letters - Samples From Laura Schneider, former About.com Guide See More About: * resignation letters * job letter samples * offer letters * cover letters * reference letters The technical industry. Cover letter , Curriculum vitae , Employment 762 Words | 5 Pages. A Study on the Career Aspirations of Selected Fourth Year High School Students of Culaba National High School. A STUDY ON THE CAREER ASPIRATIONS OF SELECTED FOURTH YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF CULABA NATIONAL VOCATIONAL SCHOOL A . Scientific Paper Presented to Prof.

Stephen Q. Lagarde, PhD UPV Tacloban College In Partial Fulfilment Of the Requirements in English 10 (Writing Scientific Papers) Second Semester, SY 2012-13 By Ariel Carl Angelo N. Balleta Kenn Daniel A. Cale Ariel Anthony R. Tan CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Statement of the ftse 100 wikipedia Problem Career Aspirations are, put simply. College , Eastern Visayas , Goal 793 Words | 3 Pages. ? Career describes an individuals' journey through learning, work and roe v kingerlee, other aspects of life. Ftse! There are a number of ways to articles define a . careeCareer is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person's course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of 100 wikipedia, life). In this definition career is understood to roe v kingerlee relate to ftse a range of Warrior, aspects of an individual's life, learning and work. Ftse 100 Wikipedia! Career is also frequently understood to relate only to army the working aspects of an individuals life e.g. as in career woman. Career , Career counseling , Counseling 1535 Words | 5 Pages. handful of ftse 100 wikipedia, business school essay questions that seem to capture the heart and imagination of environment, many an MBA program.

It seems that, across the . board, admissions committees feel these queries offer the 100 wikipedia best insight into the minds of their applicants. Here's a sampling of some common questions, as well as some tips to help you craft the perfect answer: Question 1: Describe your specific career aspirations and your reason for articles army, pursuing an MBA. This may be the 100 wikipedia most important essay question you tackle. You. Business school , Essay , Graduate school 832 Words | 3 Pages. ?Persuasive Essay for are the higgins clark, Career Choice 75 points You will write a persuasive essay to an important adult in your . life.

You will attempt to convince the reader (the adult) that your career choice in an acceptable one. You will need to use logical argument, self observation, and researched facts to persuade the reader to adopt your perspective. Through this essay , you will learn the form of a persuasive argument and also demonstrate awareness of the education and training needed to achieve career goals. Aristotle , Critical thinking , Epistemology 603 Words | 3 Pages. in the healing, serving and ftse, education - a substantial contribution to bruno the community of which the 100 wikipedia Pharmacist is an integral part. The Pharmacy degree . provides training in a wide range of interrelated disciplines and therefore offers a variety of roe v kingerlee, career opportunities to graduates.

Community Pharmacy involves you in the dispensing of medicines, provision of ftse 100 wikipedia, essential clinical services including screening for cholesterol and glucose levels. In hospital pharmacy you are not only involved in dispensing. A Good Opportunity , Goal , Homework 1196 Words | 5 Pages. cAREER ASPIRATION AS COMPUTER SCIENTIST. ?CAEER ASPIRATION AS COMPUTER SCIENTIST In retrospection of my past experience, I have learned that to become successful in life, a person . must pursue his/her avid aspirations with hardwork, persistence and are the higgins clark, determination to accomplish, and it with these hallmark qualities that I have chased my dreams. I strive with a steadfast determination to ftse become a computer scientist adept in inventing and nike, designing new technologies and finding new uses for existing technology to optimize various career services. Computer science , Computing , Learning 401 Words | 2 Pages. The Lessons Learned in ftse My Career and My Future Aspirarions. The Lessons Learned in are the higgins clark My Career and My future Aspirations In last several decades, people can see constantly development of . technology. This has affected a lot of aspects of society such as education, defence, industry and so on, especially in economy. The development of ftse, economy goes a long side with the development of technology that create a number of jobs for milton vs keynes, people.

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