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F.A.R.C. Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia Essay. The Republic of paul Colombia, one of America#8217;s closest ally in the Latin American region, has been experiencing tremendous violence and conflict brought about by Trade Unions in Botswana Essay, the decade-long civil strife between the paul left-wing guerilla groups and the right-wing paramilitary troops (Hanson, 2008). Great Gatsby Context? One of the paul bernardo country#8217;s leading political pressure group is the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) or the the road shmoop Revolutionary Armed Forces of biography Colombia. A number of Liberal Party-run administration land reform programs basically resulted to is technology making us dumber the limited “ancestral privileges” and ultimately caused the outrage of the paul Conservative political leaders. The conflict escalated to a fierce tension between the Essay two groups which resulted in the fall of the liberal group in 1946 and the assertion of the Conservatives to regain their land violently. The strife worsened in bernardo the year 1948 when a liberal leader named Jorge Eliecer Gaitan was assassinated in Bogota.

The emergence of the civil conflict occurred between 1948 to the road shmoop 1958 which was called La Violencia. This violence ended with an estimated 300,000 Colombian casualties (Molano, 2000). The violence persisted with the Conservatives running the government and the Liberals on the opposition side. As a perceived strategy to regulate the paul biography uprising of the Trade Essay example liberal group, the administration provided arms to some Conservative peasants with the support of the biography national police (Molano, 2000). Paget's Disease? Concerned with and paul biography aware of the emerging power of the Conservatives, the Liberal peasants also took up arms to fight the government-backed Conservative peasants. Mass Media’s Undermining Of Societal Values Example? In the eastern region of the country, a strong force was formed wherein 10,000 men with the support of the Liberal Party and the assistance from the bernardo biography Communist party gathered together.

This peasant guerilla force gradually surfaced and in Botswana became known all over Colombia with the leadership of Pedro Antonio Marin. Paul Bernardo? Pedro Antonio Marin, later known as Manuel Marulanda Velez and the road shmoop who is better known as Tirofijo or “Sureshot,” became the bernardo leader of the the road shmoop Revolutionary Armed Forces of paul bernardo Colombia commonly known by its Spanish acronym as FARC (Rabasa Chalk, 2001). Tirofijo started his guerilla works in the year 1949 when he first became a member of Ex Parte and Enemy Essay a liberal guerilla troop in paul Tolima, which was considered as the epicenter of violence. The Road Shmoop? After his exposure in the said group, he pursued on paul bernardo biography partaking in Mass of Societal Health Care Reform Essay example the establishment of a larger scheme that took place in Marquetalia. However, this plan ultimately failed when the Colombian army attacked and eliminated the guerilla group and destroyed their hideout. Bernardo Biography? But despite all those trouble, Marulanda was not swayed. And in 1966, he created the Ex Parte Milligan, Military and Enemy Essay Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia through the reorganization of paul bernardo his former guerilla members (Rabasa Chalk, 2001). With around 17, 500 members, the of Societal During Care Reform FARC is paul biography basically governed by a Secretariat with seven members with the Milligan, Trials and Enemy Combatants Essay original founder, Marulanda as the chairman. The guerilla force is comprised of biography a male majority, with only 30 percent female and who are mostly teenagers aged 19 and Trade in Botswana example below (Harper, 2003).

The group was basically created for two intertwined reasons. The first is to overthrow the present administration, and the second is to paul bernardo create a communist-agrarian state (Harper, 2003). Moreover, the in Botswana example guerilla force asserts that they are guided by their political ideologies and that they are representatives of the rural poor in the country against paul bernardo biography the upper class. Moreover, they believe that their undertakings are veered towards opposing privatization of Military and Enemy resources, the biography emergence of sociology multinational corporations, and paul bernardo the influence of US in poetry analysis Colombia (Hanson, 2008). But one of the biography observable activities of Unions Essay example FARC is to fight against paul bernardo the paramilitary force known as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. The FARC gradually expanded in the mid-1960s and 1980s. As a newly established force, the FARC introduced itself through a series of ambushes against military units and raids on farms (Rabasa Chalk, 2001). The objectives of these attacks are to hoard military equipments, gather food and supplies to secure their survival, capture hostages and settle scores with informers (Rabasa Chalk, 2001). Although the Essay goal of biography FARC in Media’s During Health Care Essay their movement is paul bernardo biography perceived to be inconsistent with their May 1966 Manifesto, stating that they aim at attacking the “nerve centers of the country,” the poetry analysis FARC leaders assert that what they are doing will be beneficial for their long-term plans as they are still in the wanted list of the Colombian army (Rabasa Chalk, 2001). Fortunately, through the enhanced effort and biography determination of the FARC troop, they were able to open new forces in the different parts of Colombia.

They opened their second guerilla front in a strategic yet challenging environment in the road shmoop the middle Magalena Valley, between the biography borders of Trade Unions Essay example Boyaca and bernardo Santander (Rabasa Chalk, 2001). A third front was established in is technology the year 1971 in bernardo the Uraba area. In order to continue the multiplication and growth of the definition different fronts across Colombia, the FARC leaders implemented the “expansion strategy,” wherein every active front is obliged to establish another front until the guerilla force is able to paul disseminate at least one front for each of the fifty departments of the paget's Republic of Colombia (Rabasa Chalk, 2001). Paul Biography? In addition to their strategic plans, the poetry analysis operations of the force and its persistent existence are rooted from the support coming from paul biography its growing army. Poetry Analysis? This fact is observed in the table below. Table 1: The FARC#8217;s Growth from 1986 to bernardo biography 1995 Year Number of context Fronts Number of Members 1986 32 3,600 1995 60 7,000 As the table above suggests, both the number of bernardo biography fronts and gatsby context the number of members dramatically increased in the progression of the years.

Aside from the paul bernardo enlargement of the troops through a noticeable inclination to arms race, the support of the poetry analysis people from the rural areas also enabled FARC to continue its undertakings (Global Security, 2008). These people are believed to be sufficiently knowledgeable with the operations of the biography FARC and paget's their tactics in pursuing their plans and goals. Bernardo? Tactics and Strategic Undertakings As a guerilla force that is widely targeted by the Colombian government and the paramilitary group, FARC cannot just depend on the things and materials they plundered from the military and their surrounding villages. They need to venture on disease something that would provide for the sustenance of their military and survival needs to pursue what they fight for. Biography? This resulted to Mass Values Health Care Reform Essay the creation of paul strategic plans and tactics from the FARC leaders and applied it to their various guerilla fronts all over Colombia.

Some of their known strategic move includes FARC#8217;s involvement in Ex Parte Military Trials Essay the drug industry, gaining external aid and pursuing military activities against paul bernardo the government. The Republic of Colombia has been identified as the world#8217;s leading coca cultivator and illegally produces and distributes coca, opium poppy and cannabis (Thoumi, 2002). Making Us Dumber? Of all the three plant-based drugs Colombia is bernardo producing, cocaine is perceived as the Trade in Botswana Essay country#8217;s main product. Aside from the advantages brought by the geographical location of Colombia with its humid climate and tropical condition, it also has a vast range of rain forest that can be utilized in hiding cocaine factories and laboratories (“Latin American Report,” 2005). Paul? This then made the paget's FARC highly interested in bernardo participating in the cocaine production that is also believed to be a profitable trade product as it is easily accessible to consumers, both domestically and internationally. Being forced to great context stay in the jungles to paul bernardo hide from the Colombian army, the Trade in Botswana example FARC guerilla forces gradually took hold of various rural areas. The peasants living in these areas are basically coca producers ever since large landholders displaced them from paul bernardo their original source of income. Context? As stated earlier, FARC became involved in this endeavor to continually support their military operations.

According to Ricardo Vargas Meza, Colombian coca plantations have covered an paul biography, expanse that could be as large as 150,000 hectares since 1990 (Meza, 1999). Moreover, some experts believe that the FARC gathers an estimated amount of Ex Parte Milligan, Military Essay $200 million to biography $300 million annually from its illegal drug trade. And Enemy Essay? They also derive revenues by bernardo, “levying taxes on medium and large-scale farmers, intermediate coca products, merchants, and processing laboratories and the road shmoop clandestine air strips for cocaine shipments” ( Meza, 1999). Taking into consideration the figures stated above, it is crucial for biography the FARC guerilla force to ensure that they maintain this status of wealth concentration. Great Gatsby Context? The FARC secretariat devised a system that will assure financial control. Paul Biography? This scheme involves pursuing the military activities against in Botswana Essay example the government to divert the biography latter#8217;s attention from tracking down cocaine laboratories; rotating commanders; allocating the funds to the road shmoop different guerilla fronts; and of course, severely punishing those who will not comply to the agreement (Latin American Report, 2005). Of all these stated plans, the paul military activities are given the highest priority. However, according to the report on the War and gatsby Drugs in Colombia, it was observed that the insurgent group is not just involved within the drug industry but also in paul the gold, coal, oil, and great gatsby context cattle raising where it also garners a significant amount of income (Latin American Report, 2005).

The FARC is also reported to be gaining a lot of profit from kidnapping, extortions, and bernardo biography some unofficial levies in taxes primarily in ethnocentrism sociology the rural areas for “protection and social services” (Hanson, 2008). Aside from the paul biography domestic finances FARC is reaping, they also receive external aid from their partner countries. Cuba, for example is believed to ethnocentrism sociology definition be providing political consultation and medical care to some of FARC#8217;s troops and that the Irish Republican Army also gave advanced training on paul bernardo explosives to the guerilla force after seeing the latter exit from the Unions Essay example controlled zone of FARC (Global Security, 2008). The more important external affiliate of the bernardo FARC is the the road shmoop U. S consumers and other drug cartels. Although it has not been reported that the bernardo biography FARC directly coordinated with the Trade Unions Essay Americans, through the coca industry controlled by FARC for biography the distribution of Trade Unions cocaine to biography the US, the insurgents are seen to be greatly involved in the labyrinth (“Latin American Report,” 2005). Ultimately, in all the tactics and strategies pursued by the FARC force, the main purpose of the poetry analysis funds and finances they employed is to strengthen their communications capacity and logistical endeavors for their war effort. With the different sources of paul bernardo income, FARC was able to ethnocentrism definition establish a deal with some countries to sell them weapons. For instance, the bernardo Federation of American Scientists, noted how President Pastrana toughens its peace negotiation with the FARC because the latter has “acquired new weapons that completely changed the paget's of the face of war in Colombia” (“Federation of American Scientists,” 1999). In a report submitted by biography, Raul Elias Monge, National Coordinator of the National Association of Former Fighters of the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (ANECFM/LN) of El Salvador, he is denouncing the country#8217;s involvement in supplying weapons to Colombia and stated that his men have firsthand information that Nicaragua has provided new weapons for the insurgent group. He said that FARC acquired “16 land-to-air missiles, known as SAM 16, 14 and great 7, that are used for bernardo biography shooting down planes and combat helicopters” ( Federation of poetry analysis American Scientists, 1999).

He also asserts that these artilleries are highly sophisticated and bernardo that although it can be handled by an individual, it has the capacity to shoot down a combat plane or helicopter up to a distant of 12 kilometers with a high 90 percent accuracy (“Federation of sociology definition American Scientists,” 1999). Whether the accusations of Monge is bernardo credible or not, what is of greater significance is the military undertakings of FARC. The military tactics of sociology definition FARC primarily have plaved them in the U. S. Paul Bernardo? State Department#8217;s list of foreign terrorist organizations (Hanson, 2008). Although FARC denounced the of the report of being a terrorist group, and bernardo asserted that they are driven by their political ideologies, it is the road shmoop observable that their actions and method prove well that they bring terror and violence to bernardo biography Colombia. Milligan, Military Trials And Enemy Essay? This group used illegal activities like extortion, bombings, murder, kidnapping hijacking and other traditional military actions, which were all directed towards Colombia#8217;s military, economic and bernardo biography political targets. Milligan, Military And Enemy Combatants? They used these tactics in paul biography order to capture the government’s attention and Ex Parte Milligan, Military Trials and Enemy Essay have their grievances and political opinion heard (“Global Security,” 2008). Bernardo? They usually target foreign citizens in their activities to gain international attention as well. Some of the notable strategic operations of the FARC include: the kidnapping and ethnocentrism sociology taking hostage of sixty people in paul bernardo biography November 2005 until the Colombian government finally agreed with their demand to gatsby release some of their members who were imprisoned; the hijacking of a domestic plane and the kidnapping of the Colombian senator on bernardo biography board in February 2002; the kidnapping of Ingrid Betancourt, a Colombian presidential candidate in poetry analysis February 2002 as well; another kidnapping and paul assassination of the poetry analysis former minister of culture of Colombia in October 2001; and the murder of paul bernardo some US missionaries based in Colombia.

These brutal and harsh undertakings of FARC were used to pursue their so-called “ideology. Paget's Disease Of The Bone? ” Obviously these are concrete acts of terror and paul bernardo biography should be a critical issue to the government and example a priority in paul bernardo the policy-making capacities of Milligan, Military and Enemy Combatants Essay lawmakers. Paul Biography? The tactics of the Trade in Botswana FARC may be complex and extensive for the Colombian government to paul biography easily detect, however, the administration should be eager to finally end the reign of paget's disease bone FARC and put an end to their violent inclinations threatening both the local and international community. Recent Developments. Although the conflict is still persistent, the biography Colombian government has been formulating ways on how to gatsby stop the atrocities caused by bernardo, FARC. In a recent news from Trade Aljazeera, it was reported that Nelly Avila “Karina” Moreno, a top FARC commander, surrendered to the authorities who was believed to be dying of hunger when she turned herself to paul bernardo the police (Aljazeera, 2008). Great Gatsby? Karina had been in Colombia#8217;s most wanted list as she was accused of a number of killings and kidnappings. Paul Bernardo? Aside from Milligan, Military and Enemy Karina#8217;s surrender, another event caught the rebel group off guard. On Mar 1, 2008, one of the members of the seven ruling commanders of the paul bernardo group and a top leader, Raul Reyes, was killed in paget's disease a raid by Colombian forces in paul Ecuador (Aljazeera, 2008).

The FARC rebels a few days after Raul Reyes died, also reportedly killed Ivan Rios, another member of the command. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia has been existent for more than 40 years already. Their formative years were observably challenging and difficult for the group but through their tactics and strategic plans, they were able to poetry analysis utilize their circumstances and transform it into something that would benefit their endeavors. Through the income-generating industries FARC ventured on, they were able to sustain their military expenditures and paul bernardo survival and even enhanced their skills. This then greatly challenges the paget's disease of the Colombian army and government as well, to formulate policies and come up with decisions that would weaken and defeat the FARC rebel group and force them to bernardo come into a peaceful negotiation with them. References Aljazeera. (2008). Top female Farc leader surrenders. AlJazeera. The Road Shmoop? net.

Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://english. Bernardo? Trade Unions In Botswana Example? htm. Federation of American Scientists. (1999). “FARC Weapons Supplies Revealed. Paul Bernardo? ” Retrieved May 19, 2008 from http://www. Great Gatsby Context? fas. Paul Bernardo Biography? org/asmp/profiles/colombia/FARC%20Weapons%20Supplies%20Revealed. html. Global Security. (2008). Revolutionary armed forces of colombia. GlobalSecurity. org. Retrieved May 19, 2008 from Ex Parte Military and Enemy http://www. Paul Biography? globalsecurity. org/military/world/para/farc. Sociology Definition? html. Hanson, S. (2008). FARC, ELN: Colombia’s Left-Wing Guerrillas. Council on bernardo Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 19, 2008 from http://www.cfr. In Botswana Essay Example? org/publication/9272/.

Harper, L. (2003). Bernardo Biography? Colombia#8217;s Civil War: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Online News Hour. Retrieved May 19, 2008 from http://www. cocaine. org/colombia/farc. html. Unions Essay? Latin American Report. (2005).

War and Drugs in paul Colombia. International Crisis Group. Retrieved May 19, 2008 from http://www. Paget's Disease? crisisgroup. org/home/index. cfm? id=32381=1. Meza, R. Paul Bernardo Biography? V. Trade Unions Example? (1999). Paul Bernardo? The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Unions the Illicit Drug Trade. Transnational Institute. Paul Bernardo Biography? Retrieved May 19, 2008 from poetry analysis http://www.tni. org/detail_page. phtml? page=archives_vargas_farc. Molano, A. Paul Bernardo? (2000). “The Evolution of the FARC. ” Retrieved May 19, 2008 from http://www. icdc. com/ paulwolf/colombia/molano. Disease Bone? htm. Rabasa, A. Bernardo? , Chalk, P. Ethnocentrism Definition? (2001). Biography? Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Undermining Values Insugency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. Paul Biography? USA: RAND Corporation.

Thoumi, F. Great Gatsby? (2002). “Illegal Drugs in Colombia: From Illegal Economic Boom to Social Crisis. Retrieved May 19, 2008 from http://lacc. fiu. edu/research_publications/ working_papers/WPS_002. Bernardo Biography? pdf. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Making? Date: 14 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on F.A.R.C.

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mathematical essay September 12, 1995. Section 1: Introduction: Why bother? Good mathematical writing, like good mathematics thinking, is a skill which must be practiced and bernardo biography developed for Trade in Botswana Essay, optimal performance. Biography. The purpose of this paper is to provide assistance for young mathematicians writing their first paper. The aim is not only to disease bone, aid in the development of a well written paper, but also to help students begin to paul, think about making, mathematical writing.

I am greatly indebted to paul, a wonderful booklet, How to Write Mathematics, which provided much of the substance of this essay. I will reference many direct quotations, especially from the section written by the road shmoop Paul Halmos, but I suspect that nearly everything idea in this paper has it origin in my reading of the booklet. It is available from the bernardo American Mathematical Society, and serious students of mathematical writing should consult this booklet themselves. Most of the other ideas originated in my own frustrations with bad mathematical writing. Although studying mathematics from bad mathematical writing is poetry analysis, not the best way to learn good writing, it can provide excellent examples of procedures to paul bernardo, be avoided. Thus, one activity of the active mathematical reader is to note the places at which a sample of written mathematics becomes unclear, and to avoid making the same mistakes his own writing. Mathematical communication, both written and spoken, is the filter through which your mathematical work is viewed. If the creative aspect of mathematics is compared to the act of composing a piece of music, then the art of writing may be viewed as conducting a performance of that same piece. As a mathematician, you have the privilege of conducting a performance of your own composition! Doing a good job of conducting is just as important to the listeners as composing a good piece.

If you do mathematics purely for your own pleasure, then there is no reason to write about it. If you hope to share the beauty of the mathematics you have done, then it is not sufficient to simply write; you must strive to write well . This essay will begin with general ideas about mathematical writing. The purpose is to help the student develop an outline for the paper. The next section will describe the difference between formal and informal parts of a paper, and give guidelines for each one. Section four will discuss the writing of an individual proof. The Road Shmoop. The essay will conclude with a section containing specific recommendations to consider as you write and rewrite the paper. Section 2. Paul. Before you write: Structuring the paper. The purpose of nearly all writing is to communicate.

In order to communicate well, you must consider both what you want to communicate, and to whom you hope to communicate it. This is no less true for mathematical writing than for any other form of writing. The primary goal of mathematical writing is to Milligan, Trials and Enemy Combatants, assert, using carefully constructed logical deductions, the truth of paul bernardo biography, a mathematical statement. Careful mathematical readers do not assume that your work is well-founded; they must be convinced. This is your first goal in mathematical writing. However, convincing the reader of the simple truth of your work is is technology us dumber, not sufficient. When you write about your own mathematical research, you will have another goal, which includes these two; you want your reader to appreciate the beauty of the biography mathematics you have done, and to understand its importance. If the whole of mathematics, or even the subfield in which you are working, is thought of as a large painting, then your research will necessarily constitute a relatively minuscule portion of the entire work. Its beauty is seen not only in the examination of the Trade Unions Essay example specific region which you have painted (although this is bernardo, important), but also by observing the Essay way in which your own work 'fits' in the picture as a whole. These two goals--to convince your reader of the truth of your deductions, and to bernardo biography, allow your audience to see the beauty of your work in relation to the whole of mathematics--will be critical as you develop the outline for your paper. At times you may think of yourself as a travel guide, leading the reader through territory charted only by you.

A successful mathematical writer will lay out for her readers two logical maps, one which displays the connections between her own work and the wide world of Ex Parte Military Trials and Enemy Combatants, mathematics, and another which reveals the internal logical structure of her own work. In order to advise your reader, you must first consider for bernardo biography, yourself where your work is located on the map of mathematics. If your reader has visited nearby regions, then you would like to recall those experiences to his mind, so that he will be better able to understand what you have to add and to and Enemy Essay, connect it to related mathematics. Asking several questions may help you discern the paul bernardo biography shape and location of your work: Does your result strengthen a previous result by giving a more precise characterization of something? Have you proved a stronger result of an old theorem by weakening the hypotheses or by strengthening the conclusions? Have you proven the equivalence of two definitions?

Is it a classification theorem of structures which were previously defined but not understood? Does is connect two previously unrelated aspects of the road shmoop, mathematics? Does it apply a new method to an old problem? Does it provide a new proof for an old theorem? Is it a special case of a larger question? It is bernardo biography, necessary that you explicitly consider this question of placement in the structure of mathematics, because it will linger in your readers' minds until you answer it. Failure to address this very question will leave the reader feeling quite dissatisfied.

In addition to providing a map to help your readers locate your work within the field of mathematics, you must also help them understand the internal organization of your work: Are your results concentrated in one dramatic theorem? Or do you have several theorems which are related, but equally significant? Have you found important counterexamples? Is your research purely theoretical mathematics, in the theorem-proof sense, or does your research involve several different types of activity, for disease bone, example, modeling a problem on the computer, proving a theorem, and then doing physical experiments related to your work?

Is your work a clear (although small) step toward the bernardo solution of example, a classic problem, or is it a new problem? Since your reader does not know what you will be proving until after he has read your paper, advising him beforehand about what he will read, just as the travel agent prepares his customer, will allow him to enjoy the trip more, and to understand more of the bernardo biography things you lead him to. To honestly and deliberately explain where your work fits into Trials, the big picture of mathematical research may require a great deal of humility. You will likely despair that your accomplishments seem rather small. Do not fret! Mathematics has been accumulating for thousands of years, based on the work of thousands (or millions) of practitioners. It has been said that even the best mathematicians rarely have more than one really outstanding idea during their lifetimes.

It would be truly surprising if yours were to come as a high school student! Once you have considered the structure and relevance of paul bernardo biography, your research, you are ready to Ex Parte Military and Enemy, outline your paper. The accepted format for research papers is much less rigidly defined for mathematics than for many other scientific fields. You have the latitude to bernardo, develop the outline in Ex Parte Milligan, a way which is appropriate for your work in paul bernardo biography particular. However, you will almost always include a few standard sections: Background, Introduction, Body, and Future Work. The background will serve to orient your reader, providing the Trade Unions Essay first idea of where you will be leading him.

In the background, you will give the most explicit description of the history of your problem, although hints and references may occur elsewhere. The reader hopes to have certain questions answered in this section: Why should he read this paper? What is the point of this paper? Where did this problem come from? What was already known in this field? Why did this author think this question was interesting? If he dislikes partial differential equations, for example, he should be warned early on biography, that he will encounter them. Is Technology Us Dumber. If he isn't familiar with the first concepts of probability, then he should be warned in advance if your paper depends on biography, that understanding. Remember at this point that although you may have spent hundreds of hours working on your problem, your reader wants to have all these questions answered clearly in a matter of Trade Essay, minutes.

In the second section of your paper, the introduction, you will begin to lead the reader into your work in particular, zooming in from the big picture towards your specific results. This is the place to introduce the definitions and lemmas which are standard in the field, but which your readers may not know. The body, which will be made up of several sections, contains most of bernardo, your work. By the time you reach the Mass Health Essay example final section, implications, you may be tired of your problem, but this section is critical to your readers. You, as the paul bernardo biography world expert on the topic of your paper, are in a unique situation to direct future research in your field. A reader who likes your paper may want to the road shmoop, continue work in your field. (S)he will naturally have her/his own questions, but you, having worked on this paper, will know, better than your reader, which questions may be interesting, and which may not.

If you were to continue working on this topic, what questions would you ask? Also, for some papers, there may be important implications of your work. If you have worked on a mathematical model of a physical phenomenon, what are the consequences, in biography the physical world, of your mathematical work? These are the questions which your readers will hope to have answered in the final section of the paper. You should take care not to disappoint them! Section 3. The Road Shmoop. Formal and Informal Exposition. Once you have a basic outline for your paper, you should consider the formal or logical structure consisting of definitions, theorems, and proofs, and the complementary informal or introductory material consisting of motivations, analogies, examples, and metamathematical explanations. This division of the material should be conspicuously maintained in any mathematical presentation, because the nature of the subject requires above all else that the logical structure be clear. (p.1) These two types of material work in paul bernardo parallel to enable your reader to making us dumber, understand your work both logically and paul bernardo biography cognitively (which are often quite different--how many of you believed that integrals could be calculated using antiderivatives before you could prove the Fundamental Theorem of poetry analysis, Calculus?) Since the formal structure does not depend on the informal, the bernardo author can write up the Milligan, Military Trials former in biography complete detail before adding any of the latter. (p.

2) Thus, the Ex Parte Milligan, Military next stage in the writing process may be to develop an outline of the logical structure of your paper. Several questions may help: To begin, what exactly have you proven? What are the lemmas (your own or others) on which these theorems stand. Which are the corollaries of these theorems? In deciding which results to call lemmas, which theorems, and paul which corollaries, ask yourself which are the central ideas. Which ones follow naturally from others, and which ones are the real work horses of the paper?

The structure of Mass Undermining example, writing requires that your hypotheses and deductions must conform to a linear order. However, few research papers actually have a linear structure, in which lemmas become more and more complicated, one on top of another, until one theorem is proven, followed by a sequence of increasingly complex corollaries. Paul Bernardo. On the contrary, most proofs could be modeled with very complicated graphs, in which several basic hypotheses combine with a few well known theorems in a complex way. There may be several seemingly independent lines of reasoning which converge at the final step. It goes without saying that any assertion should follow the lemmas and theorems on which it depends. However, there may be many linear orders which satisfy this requirement. Trade In Botswana Essay Example. In view of this difficulty, it is your responsibility to, first, understand this structure, and, second, to arrange the necessarily linear structure of your writing to reflect the structure of the work as well as possible. The exact way in which this will proceed depends, of biography, course, on the specific situation. One technique to assist you in revealing the Media’s Undermining Values During Reform Essay complex logical structure of your paper is a proper naming of paul, results. By naming your results appropriately (lemmas as underpinnings, theorems as the real substance, and corollaries as the finishing work), you will create a certain sense of parallelness among your lemmas, and help your reader to appreciate, without having struggled through the research with you, which are the really critical ideas, and which they can skim through more quickly.

Another technique for developing a concise logical outline stems from a warning by Paul Halmos, in HTWM, never to repeat a proof: If several steps in the proof of poetry analysis, Theorem 2 bear a very close resemblance to parts of the bernardo proof of Theorem 1, that's a signal that something may be less than completely understood. Other symptoms of the same disease are: 'by the same technique (or method, or device, or trick) as in the proof of Theorem 1. ', or, brutally, 'see the proof of paget's disease of the, Theorem 1'. Bernardo Biography. When that happens the chances are very good that there is a lemma that is worth finding, formulating, and proving, a lemma from which both Theorem 1 and poetry analysis Theorem 2 are more easily and more clearly deduced. (p. 35) These issues of structure should be well thought through BEFORE you begin to paul biography, write your paper, although the process of writing itself which surely help you better understand the structure. Now that we have discussed the formal structure, we turn to paget's disease of the bone, the informal structure. Bernardo Biography. The formal structure contains the formal definitions, theorem-proof format, and is technology us dumber rigorous logic which is the bernardo language of 'pure' mathematics. The informal structure complements the formal and runs in Essay parallel. It uses less rigorous, (but no less accurate!) language, and plays an important part in bernardo elucidating both the mathematical location of the work, as we discussed above, and in presenting to the reader a more cognitive presentation of the work. For although mathematicians write in the language of logic, very few actually think in the language of logic (although we do think logically), and making so to understand your work, they will be immensely aided by subtle demonstration of why something is true, and how you came to prove such a theorem.

Outlining, before you write, what you hope to communicate in these informal sections will, most likely, lead to more effective communication. Before you begin to write, you must also consider notation. Biography. The selection of Military and Enemy, notation is a critical part of writing a research paper. In effect, you are inventing a language which your readers must learn in order to understand your paper. Good notation firstly allows the reader to forget that he is learning a new language, and secondly provides a framework in which the essentials of your proof are clearly understood. Bad notation, on the other hand, is disastrous and may deter the reader from even reading your paper. In most cases, it is wise to follow convention. Bernardo Biography. Using epsilon for a prime integer, or x(f) for a function, is certainly possible, but almost never a good idea. Section 4: Writing a Proof. The first step in writing a good proof comes with the statement of the Undermining of Societal Values Health Essay theorem.

A well-worded theorem will make writing the proof much easier. The statement of the theorem should, first of bernardo, all, contain exactly the right hypotheses. Of course, all the necessary hypotheses must be included. On the other hand, extraneous assumptions will simply distract from the point of the theorem, and should be eliminated when possible. When writing a proof, as when writing an entire paper, you must put down, in a linear order, a set of Trade, hypotheses and deductions which are probably not linear in form. Paul. I suggest that, before you write you map out the hypotheses and the deductions, and attempt to order the statements in a way which will cause the least confusion to the road shmoop, the reader. In HTWM, Halmos offers several important recommendations about writing proofs: 1. Write the paul bernardo proof forward. A familiar trick of bad teaching is to begin a proof by saying: Given e, let d be e/2. This is the of the bone traditional backward proof-writing of classical analysis.

It has the advantage of paul bernardo biography, being easily verifiable by a machine (as opposed to understandable by a human being), and it has the dubious advantage that something at the end comes out to be less than e. The way to make the Trade in Botswana Essay example human reader's task less demanding is obvious: write the proof forward. Start, as the author always starts, by putting something less than e, and biography then do what needs to be done--multiply by 3M2 + 7 at the right time and the road shmoop divide by paul bernardo 24 later, etc., etc.--till you end up with what you end up with. Mass Of Societal Essay Example. Neither arrangement is elegant, but the forward one is graspable and rememberable. (p. Paul. 43) 2. Avoid unnecessary notation. Consider: a proof that consists of a long chain of expressions separated by Ex Parte Trials Combatants equal signs.

Such a proof is easy to write. The author starts from the first equation, makes a natural substitution to paul biography, get the second, collects terms, permutes, inserts and immediately cancels an inspired factor, and by steps such as these proceeds till he gets the last equation. This is, once again, coding, and the reader is forced not only to learn as he goes, but, at Ex Parte Military Trials and Enemy, the same time, to decode as he goes. Bernardo Biography. The double effort is needless. By spending another ten minutes writing a carefully worded paragraph, the poetry analysis author can save each of his readers half an hour and paul bernardo biography a lot of confusion. The paragraph should be a recipe for poetry analysis, action, to replace the unhelpful code that merely reports the results of the act and bernardo leaves the reader to guess how they were obtained. The paragraph would say something like this: For the proof, first substitute p for q, the collect terms, permute the factors, and, finally, insert and cancel a factor r. (p. 42-43)

Section 5. Specific Recommendations. As in any form of communication, there are certain stylistic practice which will make your writing more or less understandable. These may be best checked and corrected after writing the Trade first draft. Many of paul, these ideas are from HTWM, and poetry analysis are more fully justified there. Notation that hasn't been used in several pages (or even paragraphs) should carry a reference or a reminder of the meaning. The structure should be easily discernible by headings and paul punctuation. There should be a clear definition of the problem at Unions in Botswana, hand all the paul biography way through. The title is the first contact that readers will have with your paper. It must communicate something of the substances to the experts in your field as well as to the novices who will be interested.

Thus, while the terminology should be technically correct Don't over work a small punctuation mark such as a period or comma. They are easy for the reader to overlook, and the oversight causes backtracking, confusion, delay. Example: Assume that aÂX. Ex Parte Milligan, Military Trials Combatants. X belongs to the class C, . . The period between the two X's is overworked. A good general rule is: never start a sentence with a symbol.

If you insist on starting the sentence with a mention of the biography thing the symbol denotes, put the appropriate word in Unions in Botswana Essay example apposition, thus: The set X belongs to bernardo biography, the class C, . . The overworked period is no worse than the overworked comma. Not For invertible X, X* also is invertible, but For invertible X, the adjoint X* also is is technology making, invertible. (p. 44) I recommend then with if in all mathematical contexts. Bernardo. The presence of then can never confuse; its absence can.(p.44) Another critical feature is the layout or architecture of the page. If it looks like solid prose, it will have a forbidding, sermony aspect; if it looks like computational hash, with a page full of symbols, it will have a frightening, complicated aspect. The golden mean is golden.

Break it up, but not too small; use prose, but not too much. Of The Bone. Intersperse enough displays to paul biography, give the eye a chance to help the paget's disease bone brain; use symbols, but in the middle of enough prose to paul bernardo, keep the mind from Trade Unions in Botswana Essay example, drowning in a morass of suffixes. (p. 44-5) The same symbol should never be used for more than one thing; if you have used n as a counter in one proof, use m in the next proof, unless the two play a similar role in each All notation should be meaningful (no free variables): avoid the use of irrelevant symbols. Example: On a compact space every real-valued continuous function f is paul bernardo, bounded. What does the symbol f contribute to the clarity of that statement. Paget's. A showy way to say use no superfluous letters is to say use no letter only once. Paul. (p. 41) In everyday English any is an ambiguous word; depending on poetry analysis, context that may hint at paul bernardo, an existential quantifier (have you any wool?, if anyone can do it, he can) or a universal one (any number can play).

Conclusion: never use any in mathematical writing. Replace it by each or every, or recast the Ex Parte Milligan, Military Trials and Enemy whole sentence (p. 38) Other offenders, charged with lesser crimes, are 'where', and 'equivalent', and 'if. then. if. Paul Bernardo. then'. Where is usually a sign of is technology, a lazy afterthought that should have been thought through before. If n is sufficiently large, then | an | e, where e is paul bernardo biography, a preassigned positive number; both disease and Milligan, cure are clear. Equivalent for theorems is paul bernardo biography, logical nonsense. Poetry Analysis. (By theorem I mean a mathematical truth, something that has been proved. A meaningful statement can be false, but a theorem cannot; a false theorem is self-contradictory). As for if. then. if. Paul Bernardo. then, that is just a frequent stylistic bobble committed by quick writers and rued by slow readers. If p , then if q , then r . The Road Shmoop. Logically, all is well, but psychologically it is just another pebble to stumble over, unnecessarily.

Usually all that is needed to bernardo biography, avoid it is to recast the sentence, but no universally good recasting exists; what is best depends on what is important in is technology making the case at hand. Paul Bernardo. It could be If p and Mass Values Care Reform example q then r , or In the presence of p , the hypothesis q implies the conclusion r , or many other versions. (p. 38-39) Use counter-examples to demonstrate the necessity of conditions on theorem Use words correctly: distinguish between function and value.

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Analysis of paul biography, a Horses by Edwin Muir Essay. forget the past and live in the present. However, Edwin Muir’s ‘Horses’ is a poem of past memories only. The. interesting part is that it deals with many conflicts and issues which. are prevalent even today. It is thus a bridge between the past and. present and Media’s Undermining During Care, is expressed in the form of paul bernardo biography, a piece of literature. Muir. himself said that in writing about horses in this poem, he was. reflecting his childhood view of his father’s plough horses, which. must have seemed huge, powerful and Mass Media’s Undermining Values Care, mysterious to a boy of four or. five. Some of paul, his poems, including ‘Horses’, have a close equivalent. truth. The way these symbols of “power” trod, allows the reader to. infer another thought. Muir talks about the “ritual” of trodding. hooves turning the field beneath to brown.

This can relate to the. nuclear tests taking place, the desire for power and is technology us dumber, how it would. destroy the biography, earth just as the horses’ trodding was literally. destroying the earth underneath. Military Trials? The line, “Gleamed with a cruel. apocalyptic light,” has an even greater significance when he talks as. Paul? if an apocalyptic war has taken place and the world has come to an. end. In Muir’s time, this could obviously refer to the World War or. perhaps a civil war and maybe future wars as well. The manner in which. the poet expresses great anguish at the fact that this anger and blind. Poetry Analysis? hatred has left nothing in its wake, throws light on where the world. privileged over the Underprivileged. The “conquering hooves” show the. might of the powerful class who dominate the suppressed and force them. into subservience. Muir is depicting the bernardo, power struggle and hegemony. that will always be prevalent in the world despite opposing views of. Charles Edward Markham.

The latter, states in his poem, ‘Man with the. Hoe’, after the “Silence of centuries”, how the oppressed took back. to Mass Media’s Undermining of Societal During Care Reform Essay example “Eden” – all with clear biblical association. It seems to me that Muir must be thinking about God’s will and His desire to have created a moral world where mankind followed His laws and commandments. Clearly, in destroying itself, mankind has brought about the Apocalypse promised to St John on the Isle of Patmos and revealed in the New Testament. On the subject of optimism, however, we must surely see the arrival of the horses as a message from bernardo, God that He is prepared to give us a second chance I believe that this is an extremely good image to use and it paints the picture of the fear that the Trade Essay, people had during the war. This makes me feel the image of war is paul bernardo biography more real, the seriousness of war comes to life in poetry analysis, this poem, that the people in wartime really do get hurt. On lines seven and eight it talks about that the radios failed, and their was no answer, that means that everyone had been destroyed but notice that the poet left out the horrific images of paul biography, Edwin Muir#x27;s Poem The Horses Essay. And it is the horses, a representative of nature, who save earth, and not technology.

The failure of technology is poetry analysis very important in this poem. Not only bernardo do most of the world’s population die, the use and respect for technology dies. The radios lie “dumb”, a personification which resembles the “impenetrable sorrow” in which whole nations lie. Poetry Analysis? The author uses words like gulp and swallowed to show that, in a way, Mother Earth has devoured her own children. This shocking cannibalism shows just Analysis of The Rocking Horse Winner Essay. Paul Bernardo Biography? order to gain that admiration. Thus he is determined to find this luck and his passion grows to the point where all he is thinking about is how he can gain this luck. Lawrence describes his rise to the road shmoop luck in the situation when he is paul bernardo biography riding his rocking horse. This situation describes the point where Paul chooses to bone conform and begins his pursuit of luck.

As Paul makes A Critical Analysis of The Rocking-Horse Winner and The Destructors important attribute was trying to overcome multiple obstacles to get to their goal. In The Rocking-Horse Winner, Paul found his rocking horse and the ability to pick winning horses the way to bernardo biography show his mother how successful he was along with the money that he won. He exerted himself mentally and Military and Enemy Essay, physically to get to his goal. He is seen in the nursery ..on his big rocking horse, charging madly into space, with a frenzy that made the little girls peer at him uneasily. his eyes Essay Biography of Edwin Stephenson. The life of bernardo, Edwin Stephenson could be considered pretty typical to a person who lived from the poetry analysis, late 1800’s to the mid 1900’s. During the 57 years that Stephenson lived, from bernardo, 1887 to 1945, he would have lived through some of the most important events in United States history. A few of poetry analysis, these events include World War 1, World War2, and the Great Depression.

So a typical life of someone who lived during this time period would be very eventful and different from someone who lived during another time red shifts. While the 200-in. telescope was being built, Hubble asked if he could use the telescope for half of its available time. This shows his devotion because he wanted to use the telescope in order to further enhance his research (17). Edwin Hubble’s curiosity about the universe started at youth and has grown.

Without this, he would have no desire to study the paul, stars or galaxies. Hubble’s interest in astronomy at the age of eight. On his eighth birthday party he spent the night with his Analysis of Richard Cory by of the, Edwin Arlington Robinson Essay. Judging by bernardo biography, the poem, the story is told from paget's disease of the bone, that of one of the townspeople. This can be shown by looking at the second line of the poem where it states, we people on the pavement looked at him (line 2). This person seemed to be confused as to why a man held in such high regard would take his life. He seems to paul bernardo be confused that a man, a man everyone wanted to be like, would commit suicide. Although it is not directly stated in Mass Media’s of Societal Values Care Essay, the poem as to why everyone is paul bernardo biography confused about his death, the tone of the Muir creatively informs the reader just how much the main character truly loves nature. The same marvel and beauty is shared in the poem “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud.” After a long climb over a high hill he finds his reward a valley shining with a huge field of Ex Parte Military Trials and Enemy, daffodils. “Besides the lakes, beneath the trees, fluttering and dancing in the breeze.” As Wordsworth explains the scene.

As each scene pops out paul bernardo biography of the poem, a new addition to the painting in your mind appears each time. The painting may He will suffer the lost of his wife and abate his grief by observing a pertrified forest. John Muir really was a man of the mountains. I believe that John Muir was a very hard working and determined man. The fact that he overcomes the struggles of his life to accomplish all that he did makes him an even more remarkable man.

I think that it is poetry analysis great that there is a man that would speak out for such a wonderful thing like nature in a time where people didn't care. He has accomplished so much in

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essay on diglossia Psichari (1928) - In what is perhaps the earliest use of diglossia, this writer refers to the situation of Greek at the end of the bernardo, 19th century, describing Greece as a country that doesn#146;t want its language. This observation refers to the fact that while Dimotiki (popular language, people#146;s language) is used as the disease bone, everyday medium of communication, Katharévusa (pure language) is used for writing, and bernardo biography reflects Classical Greek more than the popular form. Marçais (1930) - This writer described the Unions, situation in the Arabic world in the thirties, when the gulf between spoken Arabic dialects and the classical standard was particularly large. Since then, a third version of Arabic has arisen to paul biography serve as the standard for use in Ex Parte Milligan, Military Trials and Enemy, public discourse.

Ferguson (1959) - This linguist was responsible for publicizing the term in a famous 1959 Word article. Swiss German, Haitian Creole. Fishman (1967) - The widespread nature of Paraguayan bilingualism caused Fishman to paul bernardo biography hypothesize that diglossia could occur in any situation where two language varieties, even unrelated ones, are used in Trade in Botswana, functionally distinct ways. Ferguson's definition - the side-by-side existence of two structurally and biography historically related language varieties (a High variety and is technology making a Low variety, referred to as H and L) throughout a community, each of which has a distinct role to play (examples found in Greece, Egypt, Haiti, and Switzerland) Function - H is the more elegant, formal variety. L is used for biography less politically important functions. Prestige - Attitudes toward H are more positive than towards L. Poetry Analysis! H is the paul bernardo biography, prestigious variety and Unions example L is the biography, stigmatized variety. Literary Heritage - H is associated with a long literary tradition.

H is always used in writing. L fulfills few written functions. It may be found in cartoons or in the speech of characters in novels. Acquisition - L is always acquired as a first language. H is always learned in a formal, educational setting. Standardization - Dictionaries and grammars document the form of H. L usually has no such support. Stability - Diglossia is a long-lived phenomenon.

Latin-Spanish diglossia survived from approximately 700 to the end of the first millenium. H and L borrow from one another, although L forms are shunned when using H. Grammar - The morphology of L is often simpler than that of Media’s Undermining Values During Health Care Reform, H. Cases and verb inflections are reduced; from African-American vernacular, fifty cent instead of fifty cents. Lexicon - A striking feature of diglossia is the existence of paul bernardo biography, paired lexical items, where L and H have different terms for the same object; from Paraguayan Guaraní, silla instead of apyka (chair) Phonology - H preserves the underlying phonological system, and L diverges from it, typically having evolved away from the classical form over many hundreds of poetry analysis, years; from Vulgar Latin, specla instead of specula (mirror) Everyone in a community knows both H and L, which are functionally differentiated. (Haiti)

An unstable, transitional situation in which everyone in a community knows both H and paul bernardo L, but are shifting to H. (German-speaking Belgium) Speakers of H rule over speakers of L (colonial Paraguay. A completely egalitarian speech community, where there is no language variation. (Humanity before the paget's of the, Tower of Babel) Hudson (1990) has pointed out that Fishman#146;s reformulation of the concept of bernardo biography, diglossia is paget's disease of the bone, problematic, because the direction of language evolution in a classic diglossic situation is opposite to that in the case of widespread bilingualism. Ferguson#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ L. The Low variety takes over the outdated High variety; in Greece for example, Katharévusa has been modified over the years to reflect much more closely the vernacular currently in use. The same phenomenon has occurred in the Arabic world. Fishman#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ H. The Low variety loses ground to the superposed High variety; in almost all situations of societal bilingualism, the L language loses ground to the H language. Bernardo! The H language is usually spoken by those in economic and political power.

In the United States, some Spanish-speakers reserve their languages for different functions, Spanish in the home and English in public. This is similar to classic diglossia, but over time, Spanish gives way to English. Children end up learning the H variety and leaving the L variety behind. By the fourth generation following immigration, the traditional language is present only in small ways: phrases and a few cultural features are all that remain. Individual Bilingualism - The existence in the mind of an Undermining During Health, individual of two (native) languages; as Fishman conceives of it, a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Societal Bilingualism - The use in a society of two languages; conceivably, there could be a society in which two languages are used but where relatively few individuals are actually bilingual; as Fishman conceives of biography, it, a sociolinguistic phenomenon. Stable Bilingualism - The persistence of bilingualism in a society over a period of several generations. Milligan, Military And Enemy Combatants! Although no situation of bilingualism is perfectly stable, Paraguay constitutes one of the most interesting examples of this phenomenon. Over the last nearly 50 years, the relative proportions of monolingualism in Spanish and Guaraní and of Spanish-Guaraní bilingualism have remained essentially unchanged; however, the census figures mask a highly dynamic situation. Intergenerational Language Shift - The successive loss of the traditional language by younger generations.

Typical Pattern of Intergenerational Language Shift in bernardo biography, Immigrant Communities: first generation - Immigrants dominant in home language and know host language of host country to varying degrees. second generation - Children of Ex Parte Combatants, immigrants born in or who move to host country before age 16 often fluent bilinguals. third generation - Children of bernardo biography, bilinguals may learn traditional language, aspassive bilinguals, understanding only and dominant in the host language. fourth generation - Children of passive bilinguals have no competence in traditional language, except phrases and isolated words. code-switching - changing from poetry analysis, one language to bernardo biography another: Sometimes I start a sentence in English, y luego termino en espanol. situational switching - a change in topic, person, or place could lead to a switch from one variety to the other. metaphorical switching - a switch from Ranamål to Bokmål in disease of the bone, a public setting could have the effect of signalling solidarity between the interlocutors.

code-mixing - speaking in bernardo biography, one language, but using pieces from another. Shopper - ?Dónde está el thin-sliced bread? Clerk - Está en aisle three, sobre el second shelf, en el wrapper rojo. style-shifting - variation within a language (changing between Standard English and African-American Vernacular) language borrowing - permanent incorporation of words from the road shmoop, one language into the lexicon of another language. Many English words come from other languages: domain analysis - Domains of verbal interaction may be defined in part by person, place, social context (situation or level of formality) and topic. Sociologists of language analyze language choice by domains. Varieties in a diglossic or bilingual situation are functionally differentiated by domain. place - location of bernardo biography, conversation (topic); this is Ex Parte Trials, probably the most significant defining element of a given domain.

Language choice in bilingual situations (and diglossic situations) changes according to place of discourse. Which of the places below would be more likely a setting for bernardo biography use of Spanish in the US? person - roles of interlocutors in a conversation; these roles tend to be played in certain settings, which in turn are associated with a given language; in Milligan, Military Combatants Essay, a situation of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US, where would the following roles be played, and in what languages would communication occur? context, or level of formality (also referred to bernardo biography as situation) - language choice depends on the social context. Looking at the examples below, you might speculate as to which language, Spanish or English, would be used in a given context in the US.

evening meal (formal, at paget's home) lunchtime chat (informal, in government cafeteria) pillow talk (intimate, at home) introduction (formal, in neighborhood) arraignment (formal, in court) topic, or subject of conversation - topics tend to be discussed in paul bernardo biography, given circumstances, and in bilingual situations, a given language will be used to discuss a given topic. cost of vegetables. reason for tardiness. whether evidence proves guilt. documentation of of the bone, deductions. speech accommodation theory - All people have at least a few styles in paul bernardo, their linguistic repertoire.

Then they must make choices about which variety to use with a given person in a given situation to realize a certain goal. linguistic repertoire - the linguistic varieties that an paget's, individual has at her or his disposal. speech accommodation - adjustments that one makes to speech in paul, response to the speech of making us dumber, another. convergence - the choice of a language variety to make communication easier, to show solidarity. foreigner talk - use of paul bernardo, circumlocutions, paraphrase, concrete words, simplified syntax and morphology, more standard pronunciation, raising one's voice. motherese or baby talk - simplified language designed to be comprehensible to a child.

divergence - the choice of a language variety meant to make communication more difficult, to show sociocultural distance; a native speaker may speed up, use abstract words or words that are known to be difficult to understand to nonnatives, or lower the volume of speech. An example of societal bilingualism (or Fishman-like diglossia) Frisian (summarized in Fasold 1984) Friesland, a province in northeastern Holland, is bilingual: Dutch-Frisian. Frisian is notable for being the closest linguistic cousin of the English language. Population - 550,000 (4% of the Netherlands) Religion - First church service in Frisian held in 1915; first Frisian Bible published in 1943. Frisian 83% speak; 97% understand; 69% read; 11% write. Dutch and Frisian not mutually intelligible. Dutch and Frisian in a situation of Fishman-type diglossia, but with functional leakage . The following data (from Pietersen 1978, reproduced in Fasold 1984)) are from a survey by the Frisian Academy in 1969.

At that time, as shown below, 28% of the poetry analysis, leaders surveyed used Frisian at home with the family. Nearly all farmers used Frisian at home. All of the groups surveyed reported using more Dutch with notables (ministers and doctors, for example), but even in bernardo biography, the more formal context, Frisian is the road shmoop, used. The situation is certainly not perfectly diglossic, even in Fishman#146;s sense, but the pattern is biography, clearly one that relegates Frisian to more informal situations and Dutch to more formal situations. A hallmark of disease of the, diglossia, according to Hudson#146;s interpretation of Ferguson#146;s conceptualization of the phenomenon, is that variation in language use depends not on who you are but instead on bernardo biography the social situation in which you find yourself. In the bilingual situation in Friesland, who you are certainly does have an Mass Media’s Values Health example, impact on bernardo language use. Is Technology Making! People of higher social class tend to use Dutch, even in the home, whereas people of lower social class tend to use Frisian, even in formal situations. functional leakage - partial overlap of language uses in a diglossic or bilingual situation: in Friesland, leaders use Dutch in bernardo, informal situations and Ex Parte Milligan, and Enemy Combatants Essay farmers use Frisian in paul bernardo, formal situations. History of Frisian Language Policy. 1907, study of Frisian allowed outside of school. 1937, Frisian allowed as school subject.

1938, Frisian Academy established. 1955, Frisian allowed in Unions in Botswana Essay, the courts (spoken only) 1972, Frisian obligatory in schools, beginning in 1980. Determination - Determination refers to the decision-making process that is used to decide what languages will be promoted in a country or province. Dutch is used for paul most public purposes, and Trade in Botswana example has been historically. Standardization, Orthography and Vocabulary - Frisian is basically a spoken but it also written and used to publish books. Government - Government is in Dutch, Frisian allowed in courts. Education - Frisian required in primary schools; Dutch predominates. Frisian-medium education does no harm, although progress in Dutch is slower for first three years. Frisian is paul biography, a well developed small-group standard language. Educational language planning follows social and political rather than educational criteria.

Criteria - Fasold (1984) states that if educational benefit were the criterion, the Frisian language program would be an unnecessary expense, because all children know Dutch; the benefit is political. Attitudes - Frisian rated more highly than Dutch; there is an active Frisian preservation movement. Nevertheless, it is Mass Media’s During Care Essay, important to recognize that the language is associated with rural values and the farming life. In Friesland cities such as Leeuwarden, Dutch is bernardo biography, heavily predominant. The most significant example of societal bilingualism in the US involves Spanish and English. Think of attitudes in the US towards Spanish. Is Technology Us Dumber! Are they the same as in Friesland?

Why do you suppose bilingualism provokes such an uproar in the US when in paul bernardo, Friesland the Ex Parte Milligan, and Enemy Essay, situation is bernardo, apparently much more positive? (Hint: Consider the Milligan, Military Trials, historical relationship and linguistic relationship between the biography, two languages involved.) Some Data on US Spanish-English Bilingualism. The claims published by proponents of official US English that US Hispanics are refusing to learn English are examined here in light of data produced in academic research and by the US Bureau of the Census. The purpose of is technology, this analysis is to use little-understood sociolinguistic aspects of national US English-Spanish bilingualism to refute incontrovertibly the claims of many official English boosters, but at the same time to reveal the dynamic effect of change in language use on ethnolinguistic identity. In 1990, of the 230,445,777 persons in the U.S. who were age five or. Mother tongue of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Percent who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Table 1. US Language Use, 1990 (Persons 5 years and over: 230,445,777) over, 31,844,979 spoke a language other than English at home (see Table 1).

Of these, 13,982,502, or approximately 6% of the U.S. population reported not speaking the English at bernardo the level #145;very well.#146; The census bureau reports that over 75% of nonnative English speakers claim to speak English at least #145;well#146;. This means that of the paget's disease, 32 million non-native speakers of English, slightly fewer than eight million, or 3.5% reported speaking English less than #145;well.#146; Even someone who reports that his or her English is paul bernardo, only #145;fair#146; can hardly considered to be a non-English-speaker, so this method of Mass Media’s of Societal Health example, determining acceptable English proficiency is conservative. Nonetheless, even using this conservative estimate, 96.5% of the bernardo, country speaks English #145;well#146; or #145;very well.#146; Within this national context, the figures in Table 1 show that while the the road shmoop, proportion of US Hispanics who report speaking English #145;very well#146; is somewhat higher than that of the total population of bernardo biography, non-English-mother-tongue Americans, a higher proportion of the US population of Asian/Pacific origin is of Societal During Care Essay, of limited English proficiency (as defined by bernardo biography this overly conservative method). Health Reform Essay! The figures in Table 1 also reveal that although speakers of many other languages were also living in and immigrating to the United States, speakers of Spanish constituted the overwhelming majority of individuals claiming a language other than English as their mother tongue. Bills, Hernández-Chávez and bernardo Hudson have refined a number of relevant measures which simplify the poetry analysis, job of understanding language shift.

The most basic and easily understood is count , which is simply the total number of paul biography, individuals in Trade Unions in Botswana example, a given group . In Table 2 the U.S. and U.S. Hispanic counts are presented. The figures are indeed striking. The historic increase in the numbers of United States Hispanics that occurred during the last decade was actually eclipsed in some respects by the increase in Hispanics during the biography, seventies, which alerted the Unions in Botswana, supporters of official English to the challenge that their language faced. In 1970, the total U.S. Paul Biography! population count was 203,302,031, and Hispanic density , defined by Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson as the proportion of the population that is Military and Enemy Combatants, of Hispanic origin , stood at only 3.9% (see Table 2). Just over 12% of those Hispanics had immigrated to theUnited States during the paul, previous decade. By 1980, of the disease of the bone, total U.S. population of 226,545,580, 6.4% was Hispanic. The Hispanic population had increased by 5,536,017 to bernardo biography 14,608,673.

United States Count (USC) Hispanic Density (HC/USC) Hispanic Immigrant Count (HIC) Hispanic Immigrant Density (HIC/USC) Table 2. U.S. Hispanic Count and Density, 1970-1990. The data on the increase in the U.S. Hispanic count may be analyzed in greater detail in Unions in Botswana Essay example, order to allow for a more complete understanding of this important demographic shift of the seventies (see Table 3). By comparing the 1970 and 1980 figures on density and count, we can derive two rates of increase . The first is an increase in Hispanic count, calculated by expressing the difference between the 1980 and 1970 figures as a proportion of the 1970 count: 14,608,673-9,072,602)/9,072,602 = .61.

Multiplying this figure by 100 allows one to express the increase as a percentage of the 1970 figure: 61%. The rate of increase in Hispanic count dropped to paul biography 50% in the next decade. A second rate of Trade in Botswana Essay example, increase is in what Bills, Hernández-Chávez, Hudson, refer to as 'density,' that is, the percentage of the entire population that is Hispanic (see density figures in Table 2). The rate of increase in Hispanic density from 1970 to 1980 was 64%. During the next decade the rate of increase was much less at 38%. Another factor that has contributed to paul bernardo the perception in the early eighties that the population of U.S.

Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, was increasing rapidly, was the tremendous influx of immigrants to the United States. In 1970, only 0.5% of the U.S. Poetry Analysis! population had migrated from bernardo, Hispanic countries during the previous decade (this is labeled Hispanic Immigrant Density in Table 2). In Botswana Essay! In 1980, 0.6% of the U.S. population had migrated from Hispanic countries. Table 3 shows the increase from 1970 to 1980 in Hispanic immigrant density to be 20%. Certainly this increase was even more noticeable in border states. Hispanic Immigrant Count. Hispanic Immigrant Density.

Table 3. Rates of Increase in U.S. Hispanic and Hispanic Immigrant Count and Density, 1970-1990 . These figures are also important in explaining the nascent fear in the early eighties that English was under siege, since recent immigrants typically do not speak English as well as those who have lived here ten or more years. During the eighties, the increase in Hispanic immigrant count and paul bernardo density was even more dramatic, and lends further support to Trade Unions example the idea that the increased linguistic evidence of Hispanic presence fueled the anti-immigrant and English-only movements of the paul bernardo biography, eighties. What is Trade Unions in Botswana Essay example, especially remarkable about the data in Table 3 is the large difference between Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant rates of increase. Whereas the rate of bernardo biography, increase in is technology making us dumber, total Hispanic count and density dropped, the paul, rate of increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density rose. To the casual observer, the effect was a notable increase in the use of Spanish in the United States during the seventies and especially during the eighties. The above analysis of the effect of rising Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant count and density shows the basis of some of the fears of us dumber, those associated with U.S. ENGLISH, but an important question has been left unanswered. Are U.S. Hispanics clinging to their mother tongue?

Hispanic count and density are not direct measures of language behavior and paul biography therefore cannot be used to answer this question. Bills, Hernández-Chávez, and Hudson identify two useful measures of language maintenance and shift by in Botswana Hispanics. They include Spanish loyalty , the proportion of bernardo biography, a group that is Spanish speaking ; and Spanish retention , the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty . Data on loyalty and retention based on U. Poetry Analysis! S. census data are presented in Table 4. These measures can be used to present a more accurate picture of maintenance of Spanish in the United States. A glance a Table 4 will reveal that among young and paul biography old Hispanics alike, the vast majority report using Spanish. During the 1980 census, approximately 11,117,000 Spanish speakers were counted.

This figure was later revised upward to 11,549,000. Of these individuals, a total of 2,952,000 aged 5-17 spoke Spanish. The total population of Hispanic youth between ages 5 and 17 was 3,965,000, so their level of language loyalty was 74%. Making Us Dumber! In 1990, 4,142,000 youths between the ages of 5 and 17 were reported to speak Spanish. Since there were 5,370,000 Hispanic youths, that represents a loyalty coefficient of 77%, an interesting increase in youth language loyalty of 3.6%, but hardly the massive shift fears about which were expressed repeatedly in U . S . Paul Bernardo! ENGLISH Update . The data from the adult population directly contradicts claims that Hispanics are turning away from English. In 1980, out of a total of 8,981,000 U.S. Hispanic adults (18 and older), 8,164,000 spoke Spanish, a language loyalty rate of Ex Parte Military and Enemy Essay, 91%. In 1990, out of a total adult Hispanic population of bernardo, 14,956,000, 12,770,000 spoke Spanish, so the adult loyalty rate dropped to 85%.

The figures in Table 4 show that the rate of retention (referred to on the chart as #145;youth/adult loyalty#146;) of Spanish has actually increased by just over 10%. Since retention is the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty, the increase to a large extent is Ex Parte Trials and Enemy Combatants, due to the decrease in adult loyalty, which makes retention by the younger generation appear all the more striking. This calls for caution in comparative use of the retention ratio when adult loyalty is not constant. Data on Hispanic and Spanish-speaking count, density, and biography loyalty probably serve only to of the confirm the fears of U.S. ENGLISH boosters, and indeed they have embraced the new figures as evidence to bolster their cause. 16 The statistics welcomed by bernardo U.S. English were merely increases in non-native count and density, which are not good measures of language maintenance. Even measures of language maintenance do not provide an adequate response to what is perhaps the most ardent claim by supporters of official English, that Spanish speakers have stopped learning English. In order to answer the question of U.S. limited English proficiency (LEP), 1980 data are analyzed first. A section follows to clarify the problem of comparability of 1980 and 1990 census summary data.

Finally, Total Hispanic Count 5 years old and over. Total Spanish Speaker Count 5 years old and over. Total Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 5-17 years. Spanish Speaker Count 5-17 years. Youth Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 18 years old and over. Spanish Speaker Count 18 years old and over. Adult Language Loyalty.

Youth/Adult Loyalty Ratio. Table 4 - Changes in U.S. Hispanic and Spanish Speaker Count, Loyalty, and the road shmoop Retention, 1980-1990. 1990 data are analyzed and compared with those of 1980. Data on the issue of Hispanic ability in English are displayed in paul biography, Table 5. The bureau of the census provided summary data on those Spanish speakers who reported no difficulty with English in 1980. Of the 14,609,000 Hispanics, approximately 11,117,000 age five and and Enemy older reported speaking Spanish, and 2,708,000 (24% of Spanish speakers, 18% of paul bernardo, all Hispanics, and 1% of the the road shmoop, U.S. population) reported difficulty with English. During the biography, previous decade, approximately 1,408,000 Hispanics had immigrated to US. Assuming that recently immigrated Hispanics have difficulty with English, by subtracting the number of paget's disease bone, recent immigrants from the total number of LEP Hispanics, a core of 1,300,000 long-term LEP (LTLEP) speakers of bernardo, Spanish can be identified.

To the extent that the Trade, assumption concerning the English ability of immigrants is bernardo, wrong, the number of enduring monolingual Spanish speakers could be even greater. The procedure establishes a minimum limit to poetry analysis the count of LTLEP, the occurrence of which may be due to linguistic isolation, economic marginalization, lack of bernardo, motivation, or lack of educational opportunity. Just as other counts are not useful indicators of language maintenance or shift, the LTLEP alone is not adequate. Trade In Botswana! Three indices of LTLEP density need to be derived. The number of non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics is derived simply by subtracting the number of immigrants from the paul bernardo biography, Spanish-speaking Hispanic total. Dividing the LTLEP count by this figure, we obtain an index of LTLEP density among non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics of 13%. This is an important figure, for it responds to the fear that supporters of official English had in the early eighties that those who had lived for an extended period of time in the U.S. and persisted in using Spanish were rejecting English. That fear is simply unfounded.

87% of long-term U.S. Hispanic residents have no problem whatsoever with English. It is certainly not accurate to assert that because 13% of resident Hispanics have trouble with English that the entire minority is turning its back on English. Critics of the US Hispanic presence almost unfailingly refers to all Hispanics without distinguishing on the basis of ability in Spanish, so it is appropriate that an the road shmoop, index of LTLEP density among all Hispanics should be calculated. As can be seen in Table 5, the result is .09 or 9%. Paul Bernardo! This figure takes into account the fact that many Hispanics do not speak any Spanish at Milligan, Trials Combatants all, a fact that is certainly not emphasized by those who whip up fear against Spanish-speakers and their descendents. Finally, since critics of bilingualism publicize the putative threat that the Hispanic refusal to learn English represents to national unity, it is bernardo, important to calculate the of Societal During Reform, proportion of paul biography, U.S. citizens who are Spanish-speaking LTLEP.

The 1.3 million LTLEP Spanish speakers in 1980 represented just under 6/10ths of one percent of the American population. This, plus the newly arrived immigrants, in concrete, demographic terms, was the size of the threat that was faced in the US in the early nineties. Census statistics are found in widely disseminated publications such as the World Almanac or the Statistical Abstract of the United States . Since the 1980 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of reporting no difficulty with English, and the 1990 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of not speaking English #145;very well,#146; the impression caused is that Hispanic ability in English has declined over poetry analysis the last decade. Rate of Increase. Total Hispanic Count. Total Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Total Immigrant Count.

Total Hispanic LEP Count. LEP Density among All Hispanic Spanish-Speakers. LEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LEP Density in bernardo, U.S. Population. Total Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Count. LTLEP Density among Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanics. LTLEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Density among All U.S. Population.

Table 5. Hispanic Limited English Proficiency and Long-Term Limited English Proficiency, 1980-1990. It is now easy to confuse two different statements about language ability. U.S. citizens in 1990 were asked to locate their language ability along a dimension ranging from #145;very poor#146; to #145;very well.#146; The 38% of Hispanics who did not choose the category #145;very well#146; did not necessarily rate themselves as #145;very poor,#146; #145;poor#146; or even #145;fair#146; (refer again to bone Table 1). In fact, as noted above, according to Barringer the bureau of the census reports that when the bernardo biography, category #145;well#146; is added, the number of English speakers among non-native Americans jumps to 75%. It is this figure which will be used below to calculate 1990 Hispanic LEP.

The problems of comparability notwithstanding, a reasonable procedure can be formulated to determine in a future study the extent to Undermining of Societal Values During Care Reform Essay which Hispanics and others who have been in the United States for a decade or more continue to be limited in paul, English proficiency (LEP). Using the census estimate that 75% of nonnative speakers of English speak the language #145;well#146; or #145;very well,#146; we can assume conservatively that 4,228,000 of the 16,912,000 Spanish-speaking Hispanics were LEP in 1990. Note that this figure is only roughly comparable with the 1980 census summary statistics, which reported ability in Unions Essay example, terms of having no difficulty. Until more detailed summaries are available from the census, indices of LEP and LTLEP density will have to be based on these more conservative figures. The data on LEP and LTLEP density from 1980 are even more revealing in comparison with those of the subsequent census. In 1990, as shown in Table 5, 21,900,000 of the total U.S. population of 248,710,000 was Hispanic. The 4,228,000 Hispanics who in paul, 1990 reported speaking English less than #145;very well#146; or #145;well,#146; represented only a slight increase in LEP among Hispanics (6%); however, in the United States the increase in Trade in Botswana Essay, LEP Hispanics jumped 100%.

The huge increase in Spanish LEP as a percentage of the U.S. population was due largely to the 2,799,000 Hispanics who had immigrated during the previous decade. When this figure is subtracted from the paul, LEP count, only Trade Unions in Botswana Essay, 1,537,000 Hispanics are LTLEP, an 18% increase over paul biography the LTLEP count from the previous decade. Reiterating the limited usefulness of Trade Essay, count for determining language maintenance and shift, we turn to the figures on bernardo LTLEP density. LTLEP density among non-immigrant Hispanics actually dropped , as did LTLEP density among all Hispanics. Whereas LEP increased 100% in the U.S. as a whole, LTLEP increased only 9%. Many Americans worried about the imagined Hispanic refusal to learn English when in fact the percentage of LTLEP Hispanics dropped by is technology making us dumber 15%. The statistical analysis of the census above reveals two facts germane to the issue of U.S. Biography! ENGLISH perceptions of making, sociolinguistic reality. The first fact is the difference between adult and paul bernardo youth language loyalty evident from Essay example, Table 4. This interesting attitudinal change was reported in the New York Times to be documented in a study of 5000 eighth and ninth grade children of immigrants, by Johns Hopkins sociologist Alejandro Portes, who discovered high ratings of self-proficiency in English among Mexican-Americans and Cuban-Americans (85% and paul biography 99%, respectively).

These figures for Mexican-American children, in fact, correspond nearly exactly to the 1980 census data that indicated that 85% of is technology, Hispanic youth reported no difficulty with English. These figures indicate that there has been no shift from English. Portes makes the discovery in his study that 56% of the Mexican-American children prefer Spanish over English, despite their high level of English proficiency. The census analysis also reveals a striking difference between LTLEP density among Hispanics and in the U.S. as a whole. The impressive progress in English by Hispanics resident in the U.S. for ten years or longer has been completely overshadowed by paul biography the historic increase in Hispanic immigrants. Milligan, Essay! Table 6 presents data which shows that the rate of immigration remained relatively steady during the sixties and seventies. During the last decade the rate of immigration doubled. A series of events conspired to drive Hispanics to the U.S. in search of economic and political refuge. Fully two-thirds of the paul, increase, one million immigrants, came from Mexico, which during the eighties endured a prolonged economic crisis.

Political upheavals in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Columbia added another 330,000. The real culprits responsible for the historic increase in disease, the number of Spanish speakers are poverty and war. Table 6. Hispanic Immigration to paul bernardo the United States, 1960-1990 (not included: Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay)