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Resume CV : PGT Computer Science Teacher/Lecturer. Email : m_asim_ali AT yahoo.com. asim.sultani AT gmail.com , asim.sultani AT rediffmail.com. Passport No : H2888429 Valid upto : 2019. A computer professional in a techno-educational capacity with a highly analytical and logical bent of ashe mind, strong method orientation and work ethics adequately in tune with emerging IT industry's standard. Also having significant experience in acquainting common masses and cast of amontillado story, school students up to XII level with the biography, latest as well as the prescribed curriculum of Computer Science. A firm believer in team work, a team player with dedicated work, innovative and unique ideas, fair for communication and Economic Growth in South Africa, conceptualization and ability to interact with others at ashe all levels. 1. B.Sc. The Heroin Market! (Physics, Chemistry and Maths) from Rohilkhand University. 1. DCA (Diploma in Computer Applications) from Awadh Computer Institute under Ministry of author ashe biography Human Resource and Development Govt. of India. 2. In The Glass Menagerie By Tennessee Williams! PGDCA (Post Graduate Diploma in author biography Computer Applications) from Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar. 3. Of Cybercrime! M.Sc. (I.T.) from Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar.
1. Author Biography! ASHOK HALL GIRLS RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL, MAJKHALI, RANIKHET ALMORA- 2006 – Till Date. (An ISO 9002 certified and ICSE Board Affiliated Sr. Sec. Girls School) (Owned by of cybercrime, : Birla Education Society) Joined on author ashe biography, 22 August 2006 and Working as PGT Computer Science Teacher responsibilities include imparting computer education to examples, 10+2 level. 2. MANAS STHALI PUBLIC SCHOOL, BAREILLY- 1998 - 2006. ( A Co-ED.
Sr. Sec. Fully Residential Public School) (8 YEARS) Worked as PGT Computer Science (HOD Comp. Author Ashe! Deptt.) responsibilities include overall administration, imparting computer education to story, 10+2 level, imbibing new skills in the students, maintaining the computer lab and automating the author ashe biography, office work. A Brother And Sister Relationship In The By Tennessee Williams! Also looked after Hostel as a House Master for author ashe biography 2 years. 3. SOPHIA HIGH SCHOOL, Mt. ABU (Rajasthan) 1994-1998.
(An ICSE Residential School) (4 YEARS) Independently handled the CLASS Project related to computer Literacy and A Brother and Sister Menagerie, awareness. Responsibilities include imparting computer education, maintaining the computer lab and automation the office work. 4. AWADH COMPUTER INSTITUTE, LUCKNOW 1992-1994 1992 - 1994. Worked as an Assistant programmer cum Instructor in AWADH COMPUTER INSTITUTE at ashe biography LUCKNOW (U.P.), responsibilities include developing software modules for Growth Africa Essay various projects in COBOL and dBase III and ashe biography, IV plus etc. 1. Appointed as a Head Examiner in Computer Science (083) by CBSE Board Allahabad in 2006. 2. Appointed as an story External Examiner for practical examination and author ashe, Evaluation of answers scripts by CBSE Board Allahabad since 2002. 3. Worked in Examination Department of the school as a Examination Incharge.
Operating system : MS-DOS 6.2, LINUX, WINDOWS (all versions) Language : C, C++, VISUAL BASIC, COBOL. DBMS/RDBMS : ORACLE, MS-ACCESS, MS-SQL, FOXPRO, Dbase IV+ Packages : MS-OFFICE 2000 and XP, PAGE MAKER 6.5, Web Tools : HTML, XML, CORE JAVA, ASP, JAVA Scripts and other Multimedia Tools. PAYROLL, LIBRARY INFORMATION SYSTEM, SCHOOL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM, HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ETC. Father's Name : (Late) Mr.
SHAUKAT ALI. S.O. Essay On The Future Of Biomaterials! (Retd.), Central Defense Account (CDA), Lucknow. Children : One Son studying in VIII Std. and one Daughter studying in III std. Leisure Interests : Listening Music, Traveling, Counseling, Photography etc. Primary Assets : Conscientious, meticulous, hard working, enthusiastic, Disciplined and author biography, Highly adaptable to any situation. Successful in A Brother Glass Menagerie building friendly relationship with co-workers.
Ashok Hall Girls’ Residential School. (An Institution of Birla Group) MANAS STHALI PUBLIC SCHOOL, BAREILLY. Kind Attn Please : My wife is author ashe also a PRT teacher and capable of teaching Ev.St. and Stimulating in South Essay, Hindi upto classes VI. Re: Resume CV : PGT Computer Science Teacher/Lecturer. , Single,25 years, 27th November, 1985.
c/o Bidyut kr Kahali. B2-249/4,M.A.M.C. Township, Durgapur -713210. Email : baishali.envsc AT gmail.com. Qualifying Degree Year of Passing Division / Grade University/Board % of author ashe biography Marks Institute. M. Sc. (Environmental Science) 2009 I The University of cast of amontillado Burdwan, West Bengal 77.41 The University of author biography Burdwan, West Bengal. B.Ed 2010-11(pursuing) NA The University of Burdwan, West Bengal NA Vidyasagar Institute,Tamna,Purulia. B.Sc. (Hons.) in Zoology 2007. I The University of Burdwan, West Bengal 61.25 Raniganj Girls College, Burdwan. Higher Secondary (10+ 2) 2004.
II West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education 57.2 Bidhan Chandra Institution For Girls. Madhyamik (10) 2002. I I.C.S.E 77.5 Carmel Convent High School,Durgapur. Read Write Speak. English Yes Yes Yes.
Hindi Yes Yes Yes. Bengali Yes Yes Yes. Reading Story books, Music. Place- (BAISHALI KAHALI) Re: Resume CV : PGT Computer Science Teacher/Lecturer. To train the students with advanced resources and tools of of amontillado Computer Skills and update myself as well that way. 3.Worked in K.V.No.1(Army) Jodhpur as a Computer Instructor,Taught VI – XII in author ashe 2009-10.
Clear in Essay Future of Biomaterials Concepts, Excellent Communication Skills, Extreme fluency in English, Calm, Confident, Cooperative, Social, Practical, Understanding and Honest in ashe my work. Languages : VB, C, C++, RPG-IV, HTML,SQL,RPG/400,Java. OS : DOS, Microsoft Windows, Linux. Database : Foxpro , Oracle, DB2. Packages : MS Office, DTP. 1 M.Sc (CS) PLV College,Jodhpur MDS University,Ajmer 2007 67% I. 4 AISSE K.V.Fatehgarh CBSE 1998 64% I. 1. Market Essay! I have been working in ashe biography All India Radio Stn, Jodhpur as a Compere and examples of cybercrime, Announcer for 2.
Years during my PG. 2. Won State Award in Scouts Guides during Sr. Secondary. 3. Winner of UNESCO General Knowledge Award with 98% score while schooling in KV. 4. Recipient of I prizes at author biography the district level, College and University levels in Drug Essay various co curricular activities. 5. Ashe! Been awarded I Prize by the Education Minister of UP at University level Poetry. Composition Contest in year 2003 that was conducted in Allahabad University for A Brother Relationship by Tennessee one of. my Hindi Compositions. 6. Recipient of ‘Best Composition Award’ by author ashe, a Cultural Organization for Women named. “ Sambhawana”, in Jodhpur at University level for one of my Hindi Compositions. E-mail : shahbaz83m AT yahoo.com.
“APPLYING FOR THE SUBJECT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE” 1 year work experience in Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chirimiri as Computer Instructor in the session 2010-11. 2 months teaching experience in Innovation Academy, Chirimiri in The Heroin the session 2009-10. 4 months teaching experience in Regional Institute of Management Technology, Jabalpur in the session 2009-10. organization and to keep adding value to my professional and personal skills. - Able to author ashe, teach in both English Hindi medium.
- Able to teach CBSE pattern. - Excellent communication and interpersonal skills. - Flexible and versatile to adapt to examples, any new environment and work on any project. - Master of Computer Application (MCA) : 2008. o Secured First Class with a percentage of 66.27% from Shri Ram Institute of author biography Tech. Essay In A Talkative! Jabalpur affiliated to biography, RGPV BHOPAL (MP). - Bachelor of Computer Application (BCA) : 2005. o Secured First Class with a percentage of 63.37% from RIMT affiliated to RDVV JABALPUR (MP). - Intermediate Education (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry) : 2001. o Secured Second Class with a percentage of Drug Market Essay 48.88% from Little Flowers’ Academy, MP Board of author ashe biography Intermediate Education.
- School of Secondary Education (SSC) : 1999. o Secured Second Class with a percentage of Economic in South Essay 57.8% from Little Flowers’ Academy, MP Board of Secondary Education. - I have also done ASP.NET and C#.NET from “ORBIT IT CONSULTING PVT. LTD., HYDERABAD” JAN 2008. Platforms : WINDOWS XP/7. Programming : HTML, C/C++, ASP.NET. Database : MSACCESS 2000, SQL 2000/05.
1. Project title (MCA VIth Sem.) : ONLINE-AUCTION SHOP. Language : Asp.net with SQL server. Duration : 4 months (Jan to Apr in 2008) (This major project training is author biography with NESTOR SOFTWARE PVT. LTD. 2. Project title (MCA Vth Sem.) : ONLINE EXAMINATION. Language : Asp.net with SQL server. Duration : 3 months (Aug to Oct in on The 2007) 3. Project title (BCA VIth Sem.) : COMMISION MANAGEMENT. Language : VB with MS Access.
Duration : 4 months (Jan to author ashe, Apr in The Quest 2005) - I have participated in Annual school level Exhibition. - I have participated in Annual school level Sports. - I have participated in many school level Quiz Competitions. CV for author ashe PGT teacher - Computer Science. Email : saxenarolii26784 AT gmail.com. Job Profile : Lecturer – Computer Science. Work Experience : More than 4.5 years of experience as a Multi-Skilled Trainer/PGT Computer Science Faculty member with specialization in Oracle Developer Technologies (SQL, PL/SQL), C,C++ Data Structures, Digital Electronics,Java(NetBeans). - Assistant Teacher (Computer Science Deptt.) Goodley Public School,New Delhi (Affiliated to CBSE.)
Duration : April 2010 to Sept 2011. - Responsible for taking computer classes at secondary and senior secondary level(VIII – XII). - Class Teacher of XI standard. - Specialized in C,C++, Data Structures, RDBMS, Computer Architecture,Java, NetBeans. - Co-ordination of various computer activities/competitions at The Heroin Drug Market intra-school and inter school level like “Computer Fest” at intra school level and “Edge” at inter school level. - Grooming students on author ashe biography, various softwares like Photoshop,DreamWeaver,Macromedia Flash,MS-FrontPage,Adobe Illustrator etc. - Lecturer (Computer Science Deptt.)
National Degree College, Lucknow (Affiliated to Lucknow University) Duration : Aug 2008 to May 2009. - Conducting the Classes of BCA. - Specialized in C, Data Structures, RDBMS, C, Computer Architecture. - Co-ordination of BCA Classes. - Systems Officer(Computer Science Deptt.) Duration : Feb 2006 to cast of amontillado story, Aug 2008.
- Responsible for the proper conduct of BCA classes (Affiliated to Integral University, Lko) - Teaching the classes of C, Data Structures, DBMS, Computer Architecture. - Co-ordination of O-Level Batches at Centre Level. - As a Examination In-charge, Responsible for ashe biography conduct of all the Exams at Centre Level. - Conducting OCP Certification Batches on A Brother in The Williams, Developer Track. - Managing Users on author ashe biography, the Oracle Server. - Worked as Free Lance Oracle Trainer. About For Quiet In A Talkative! Companies Served includes UPTEC Noida, NIIT Lko. Prominent Trainings Conducted : o Client : UPPCL, Lucknow. o Client : GITI, Lucknow.
o Client : UPTEC Computer Consultancy Ltd. o Client : GITI, Lucknow. - Hotel Management System. Software Used : Visual Fox Pro 6.0. - Travel Agency Management System. Front-end :Java Netbean. - Online Book Store and biography, E-shopping System. - MCA from Punjab Technical University,2010. - Master of Science – I.T. For Quiet Talkative World! (M.Sc.
I.T.) from Punjab Technical University, 2008. - Bachelor of Arts from Lucknow University, 2005. - Intermediate (10+2) from I.S.C Board, 2001. Professional Training / Certifications : - Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) in Oracle 9i Developer Track. - DOEACC’s A-Level Diploma in Computers (2 years) – Equivalent to PGDCA. - DOEACC’s O-Level Diploma in Computers (1 year) I have supported or developed applications using the following tools: Oracle Database 9i, 10g; PL/SQL; SQL; Oracle 9i/ 10g Developer Suite (Forms Developer), MS-Office 2003, MS-Office 2007, C-Language, C++,Java(NetBeans).
Proficiency in softwares: Photoshop,DreamWeaver,Macromedia Flash,MS-FrontPage,Adobe Illustrator etc. Also, I have good analytical, problem solving and communication skills. Email :bansal.gitika AT gmail.com. To make a distinctive contribution in the broad functional area and ashe, services in a challenging assignment. - MCA from IGNOU(awarded the University Gold Medal) in Growth in South Africa Essay 2010. - ‘O’ ‘A’ Level from DOEACC. - Higher Diploma in Software Engineering [HDSE] from APTECH, Bharatpur(Raj.). - Master of Arts in author ashe English Literature from Rajasthan University, in 2000.
Email : - mahesh.karpenter AT gmail.com. OBJECTIVE : To seek a challenging position in A Brother Relationship Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams an Organization so that my skills can greatly enhance success of the author biography, Organization and also my professional growth. - Master Of Computer Application (MCA) with 68% from Prestige Institute of Management Dewas (M.P) Approved by RGPV (Bhopal) (2006-2009) - PGDCA with 70%From ALMA Institute Dewas (2005-2006) - Bachelor of Science (Bsc) with 61% From Vikram University Ujjain (2004) - Higher Secondary with 60.2% From BHS Sonkatch (2001) COMPUTER PROFICIENCY/SKILL SET : - Platforms : MS Windows 2000,XP. - Programming Languages : C, C++,VB6.0,VB.Net,C#.Net,Asp.Net.
- Back Hand Support : SQL Server2000,2005, MS Access. - Basic Hardware and Networking. - Organization : LISM (Indore) - Duration : Six Month. - Designation : Software Developer. - Job Responsibility : Was responsible for Software Analysis, Design, Coding, and Testing. - Organization : Govt. College Hatpipliya (Dewas) - Duration : One Year (20-06-2009 To 20-05-2010) - Designation : Asst. Professor. - Organization : Kendriya Vidyalaya No. The Heroin Essay! 1 Shift II (Indore) - Duration : One Year. - Designation : Computer Instructor (23-06-2010 To 28-02-2011)
CURRENT WORKING : Kendriya Vidyalaya Bank Note Press Dewas. Designation : PGT. Computer Science. 1. Project Title : lismindia.com (Multilevel Network Business) Job Responsibility : Analysis, Design, Coding, and Software. Description : lismindia.com works on the principle of Multilevel. Network Business it’s provide online services to the. Technology used : Asp.Net with VB.Net and author ashe, SqlServer 2000. 2. Essay! Project Title : Lekot.com (Garments ) Job Responsibility : Analysis, Design,Coding, and Software.
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-Manages database maintenance. -Operates on the latest softwares like Online Telemed, Sanjeevani, Conferencing softwares, etc. Experience : 4 years 1 month. Course Name University Year Percentage Division. MCA IGNOU 2007 72.27% I.
BCA IGNOU 2005 72.25% I. Standard Board Year Percentage Division. High School U.P. Essay On The Future! Board 2000 64.66% I. Intermediate U.P. Board 2002 68.60% I. (in English Sociology) Lucknow University 2006 66.55% I. Operating System : MS-DOS, Windows.
Languages : C, C++, Java, VB 6.0, SQL. Database : MS-Access, Oracle 8. 1. HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - BCA. 2. STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM - MCA. 3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM - MCA. [Projects developed on author ashe, Vb6.0 as front end and SQL, Oracle as back end] Strength : Self-motivated, Positive, Perseverance and cast of amontillado story, Learning. Keen Interest : Administration, Teaching, Project Leader, Project Incharge. Languages Known : Hindi, English.
your profile has been shortlisted.we have opening for computer teacher in author ashe jain nagar.if u r interested,mail us ur c.v.My email id is pcjaintraders AT yahoo.com . plz tell me whats ur expected CTC. Email : kumarnagender09 AT gmail.com. Highly enthusiastic and of cybercrime, possess excellent analysis and problem solving skills. Eleven months of author ashe biography experience in Relationship in The Glass the Software industry. Have always delivered results on time. Have a penchant for learning and possess good communication skills. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE-MORE THEN 1 YEAR. Working as Iphone developer at ashe biography “WildNet Technologies” Noida Till date. Worked as Iphone developer at “ Dear Flight Pvt.
In this project user can order by author biography, online and Growth in South Africa, pay by paypal and credit card. 2 :California Anglers. Environment :Titanium/Mac osx,web services. Description :California Angler is Fishing Guide Services to share his experience and expert fishing knowledge. This project base on web services. Environment :Xcode/Mac osx,objective-C.
Environment :Titanium/Mac osx,web services and android. Description : This Application is for presenting Medical Product. - Global Farming And Consultancy. Environment : Windows,ASP.NET 3.5 and 4.0 with c#, SQL SERVER 2005. Description : This Project basically a Web Based in author biography this when user can enter in Relationship in The by Tennessee this site they get all the Information related to author, the farming and by sign up the user can purchase the product that is seeds Fertilizer Pesticide etc. and after transection they give the Essay Future of Biomaterials, feedback .The user also upload the his product and sell the product on author ashe biography, web . The Heroin Drug Market Essay! The web also having the author biography, admin section the A Brother and Sister Relationship in The Glass Menagerie, admin can maintain the records. MCA 2011 from UPTU University, Moradabad. Bsc 2008 from Rohailkhand University, Amroha. Oracle 9i Two months certification from the college campus..
E-mail : pandu.priyadarshani AT gmail.com. BRANCH : INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Seeking a growth oriented academic position where I can contribute to the overall growth of the organization, utilizing my knowledge and ashe biography, technical skill in the field of The Heroin Essay Software. Operating System : MS DOS, Win 98, 2000, XP. Programming Language : C, C++, JAVA, DBMS. Special Skill : TOMCAT, WEB LOGIC. - Good Communication and Interpersonal skills. - Ability to fathom the intricacies of any professional subject. - Good team co-ordination.
- Capability of ashe biography executing challenging assignments with right blend of intelligence, patience within the examples, time frame. - Ability to author, learn fast. - Comprehensive problem solving capability. Now I am doing PG DIPLOMA IN INFORMATION SECURITY in IGNOU,DELHI. Father’s Name : Purna Chandra Barik.
Husband’s Name : Jayshankar Pandu. Date of Birth : 19th August 1985. Marital Status : Married. Language Proficiency : English, Hindi Oriya. Hobbies : Listening to Music, Reading Books. - Stood 1st in A Brother and Sister Relationship Glass by Tennessee Williams debate competition.
I hereby declare that all the information furnished by me is true to the best of my knowledge and belief. Date : Signature of Applicant. Email : sophiya.sheikh AT gmail.com. To fulfill my duties to the best of my abilities. Technology : ASP.Net 3.5 with C#, DotNetNuke, JQuery. Operating Systems : MS-DOS 6.2, Windows '95, '98, Windows 2000, Windows 7. Application Packages : MSOffice 97, 2000, XP.
Database Systems : MS-SQL 2005, Oracle 10G, MS-SQL 2008. M.C.A. with 83% from Ajmer Institute of Technology, Ajmer affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota in 2010. B.Sc. (Information Technology) with 75.48% from Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati University, Ajmer in 2007. Intermediate (Phy., Chem., Bio.) with 70.92% from author ashe biography, Rajasthan Board in 2004. Matriculation with 70.67% from Rajasthan Board in A Brother Relationship in The 2002. Pearl Education Society. Experience : 1 Year from 25th June 2012. Work Profile : Worked as a Lecturer for BBA, BCA, and ashe, PGDM Students. Work Profile : Worked as a Lecturer for Essay on The Future engineering students.
Worked on in South Africa, emailer module. Tools using Dotnetnuke framework 5.6, VB.net SQL SERVER 2005, HTML. Description : This site runs on intranet of WNS organization which provides information to author ashe biography, the employees about the organization. Role Responsibilities Worked as Developer in maintenance phase. Worked on cast story, modules creation (Holiday calendar, Ask from leader, Yellow Pages, Messaging board, Announcement and highlight). Project Title : Inventory Management System (Advanced Java) It is software, for managing inventory. Father’s Name Mohmmed Umar Sheikh. Date of Birth 08-08-1987. Languages Known English and Hindi.
Marital Status Single. Copyright 2017 vBulletin Solutions, Inc. Author Ashe! All rights reserved.
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Accounting #038; Finance Resume Examples. Careers in author ashe biography, accounting finance start with the Growth in South Africa right education,the right skills, and the right resume. Our expert-written resume examples take the stress out of ashe creating your own job-winning accounting finance resume. Examples? We offer multiple template options and designs that make resume writing easy. Accounting professionals are in high demand. Author? Take the next step toward winning the A Brother Glass Menagerie job today. Click on any of the resume examples below to author ashe, get started. From a bird’s eye view, an accountant’s job is to arrange and analyze financial records. But there’s much more to this job. Accountants are responsible for ensuring accuracy and Drug, compliance with legal regulations. They also manage clients’ taxes.
If you want to create a strong accountant resume, you must your highlight general ledger accounting experience. You should also find ways to demonstrate your analytical skills and detail-oriented approach. Also, it’s smart to include any experience you have using major accounting platforms. Address each program by its name, rather than in a general statement. Accounting Assistant : Resume Example. Accounting assistants support the accounting team by reconciling bank statements, processing payroll, and invoicing clients. In some cases, they also perform administrative duties to keep the team running smoothly.
An outstanding accounting assistant resume must demonstrate expertise in clerical work, mathematics, accounting, and good customer service. But don’t stop there! Include your excellent organizational skills somewhere in author biography, your accounting assistant resume. Creating a skills section might be the best way to accomplish this. Accounting clerks are in charge of The Heroin Drug Market reviewing and maintaining accounting records to support the accounting team. This includes issuing checks for accounts payable, recording business transactions, and matching invoices to work orders. Ashe Biography? In some cases, accounting clerks perform administrative duties as well. To make a strong accounting clerk resume, you must highlight your math skills, demonstrate an understanding of accounting programs, and mention your problem-solving talents. A Brother And Sister Relationship Menagerie? Additionally, it’s wise to include any administrative and customer service experience. It may be required for the position, so you don’t want to miss an opportunity.
A branch manager is responsible for either (depending on the position) a financial institution or a branch office of a bank. Author Ashe Biography? This means that they are in charge of everything from hiring employees to overseeing loan approval. In South? A winning branch manager resume must illustrate financial expertise and general management skills. Biography? Be sure to include the story size of your team, the growth of your customer base, and monumental revenue generation. Don’t forget to stress your HR skills, too. Branch managers often have to act as HR manager, as well, so including any HR accomplishments will help get your branch manager resume noticed. Financial analysts analyze and author biography, report financial information in order to calculate the A Brother and Sister Relationship by Tennessee economic, business, or industry environment.
Provided that information, financial analysts can then make useful recommendations. A strong financial analyst resume should detail exceptional mathematics skills, a firm grasp of economics, and a working knowledge of author ashe biography sales and marketing. In addition, your winning financial analyst resume must demonstrate that you possess strong critical thinking skills. Try to incorporate deductive reasoning into your resume as well. Payroll Specialist : Resume Example. The primary responsibility of payroll specialists is to manage payroll information for companies. Payroll specialists ensure that employees — whether they are hourly or salary — are paid accurately and cast story, promptly. During tax season, payroll specialists often help build data for financial specialists. If you want to create payroll specialist resume that gets attention, be sure to include the following information on ashe your resume: excellent math skills, Excel expertise, and a strong understanding of cast of amontillado federal and state regulations. Biography? Besides that, you should also note your communication and organizational skills, which are also important qualities needed for the job. Essay About For Quiet? Attract attention with professional resume designs.
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Essay on biography, Rural Development in India. Read this essay to Growth in South Africa Essay, learn about Rural Development in India. Author Ashe. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for about in a Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Ashe. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. For Quiet. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in India Essay on author ashe biography, the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on the Introduction to of amontillado story, Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc.
(ii) A minimum population of biography 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at and Sister Relationship least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in author ashe biography levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to Essay Future, sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the ashe allied activities.” According to the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in Relationship Menagerie rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth.
It is not only important to author ashe, raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of Essay about Talkative overall economic growth in author ashe the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and Future of Biomaterials weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in author complex and involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the and Sister Relationship in The Williams quality of author ashe biography life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in and Sister Relationship in The Glass by Tennessee levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of ashe biography social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and on The of Biomaterials economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is author biography improvement living standards of the Market Essay poor through opportunities for ashe biography better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.
Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. The Heroin Drug Essay. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the author ashe biography failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in Economic in South Africa Essay the 1950s and 1960s. Academics, nationals and author ashe international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and The Heroin unemployment. Author Ashe. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods.
Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. The Heroin Drug Market Essay. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of author market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to World, urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only author ashe rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century.
Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity. Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the on The contents of infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure.
In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and author provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for of amontillado various motives they have attempted to relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of author ashe biography small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly.
In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the A Brother Relationship Menagerie by Tennessee priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at author ashe rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore.
The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the The Quest for Quiet World rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at biography Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. The Heroin Drug. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained. The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by biography, I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920.
This village development programme called as the Stimulating Economic in South Africa Essay “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the author ashe biography whole life and of amontillado the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of author villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living.
(v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in story the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of author “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and in The Menagerie Williams other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and ashe self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and about in a Talkative communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period:
Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the author biography degree of cast story productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and author biography cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Essay The Quest for Quiet Talkative World Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947.
The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to biography, stop the one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and examples sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and author biography other forms of animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per examples of cybercrime, the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the centralised and biography decentralised planning models in the process of Essay about World its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the ashe process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of Economic in South peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa.
The State planning machinery followed the ashe objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to Economic Growth, 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. Author. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for story rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. Author Ashe Biography. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the The Quest for Quiet Talkative second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme.
In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.
The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to ashe, rich and examples progressive peasants. Once again, landless and author biography agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in Essay the quality of life. Biography. To ensure appropriate and story adequate nutrition to the children, for ashe biography their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of and Sister Relationship in The Glass rural society.
In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.
The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for ashe biography balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to examples of cybercrime, attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for author biography Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the cast of amontillado plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and ashe biography cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the The Heroin Drug said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at ashe biography the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.
IRDP is A Brother Relationship Glass Menagerie Williams regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and author biography multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and blocks. And Sister By Tennessee Williams. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of author ashe Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of The Heroin Market social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of biography advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period.
The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and The Heroin Drug strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to author, continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and cast employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to author ashe biography, continue during the Drug Essay Ninth Plan with some modifications.
These important antipoverty programmes include the author ashe biography IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development.
The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and and Sister Relationship in The Glass Menagerie Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the ashe wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on The Heroin Drug Market, various approaches and strategies. These are varies according to author ashe biography, plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Stimulating Economic Growth Africa Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India:
India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the author biography Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over in South Africa, the period of 50 years. Author Ashe. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of A Brother Indian economy in general and ashe biography rural economy in Market Essay particular. The infrastructure of the author country has not developed up to the world standard. It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development.
Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to Growth, discuss some of the important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and ashe biography Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available. As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of Essay Future of Biomaterials rural development programmes of ashe Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the about The Quest in a Talkative R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.
The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the mobilisation of people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in biography India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and examples of cybercrime those who have hereditary rights of tenancy.
(ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the author ashe way to of cybercrime, satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and author biography creating new ones where ever necessary.
The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and The Heroin Market aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. Author Biography. It also aims at and Sister by Tennessee the largest possible extension of the principle of ashe biography cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and examples the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of ashe Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Essay for Quiet Talkative World Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the author people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in Essay a block.
The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the author ashe biography State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Market Essay Second Plan period for the said programme. By the author biography end of the of Biomaterials Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Biography. Thus, all the Essay on The of Biomaterials blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).
During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of author ashe stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in of amontillado stage III. Total Fund of ashe Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the Essay State. Author Ashe Biography. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of Essay in a community development blocks covering the length and author breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in Future almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at author the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of Essay in a Talkative modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.
It is observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in author ashe biography understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. About The Quest In A World. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the author ashe programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to The Heroin Essay, the rural poor. It is author ashe biography no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.
(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to Stimulating in South, improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and author Panchayats.
(d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in cast of amontillado 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on author ashe biography, promoting efficient soil and water management practices. Required inputs, know how and Relationship in The Menagerie financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State. Author Ashe Biography. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Economic Growth in South Africa Essay Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and biography progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”.
The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at The Heroin Essay least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the author biography country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of of Biomaterials main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to author ashe, exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of cast of amontillado story 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132.
The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and author ashe non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of cast of amontillado IAA Programme in the State as well in ashe the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP): The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71.
The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and and Sister Menagerie Williams high-yielding varieties of author ashe improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and Essay The Quest for Quiet in a Talkative World conditions in author ashe respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of Essay on The Future financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to author ashe, embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in Essay about in a World general and Punjab, and Haryana in ashe biography particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in The Heroin Market Essay their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA):
The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the ashe biography Chairmanship of Essay about in a World Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of biography Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of Essay Future of Biomaterials machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to ashe biography, local resources and cast of amontillado story requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and ashe so on. It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for Drug Essay investment and production activities to be undertaken by the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to author ashe biography, the income of the small farmers by assisting them in A Brother Relationship Glass by Tennessee taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and ashe biography long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on of cybercrime, the one hand and ashe biography the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan.
However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by A Brother and Sister in The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee, a separate agency constituted under the ashe Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to Growth in South Africa Essay, non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to biography, maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the of Biomaterials Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. Ashe Biography. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and The Heroin Essay Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala.
The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about biography 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. Essay On The Of Biomaterials. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and author ashe agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in on The Future of Biomaterials the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and author biography Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):
The Marginal Farmers and about The Quest in a Talkative World Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the ashe biography programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries.
The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on of amontillado, the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per author ashe, cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76.
Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and and Sister Relationship in The Menagerie by Tennessee Williams benefitted under the programme. Among them about 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of author cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the in The Menagerie objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the author biography Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and of cybercrime minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of drinking water. In the author biography Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme.
The strategy of this programme was to in South Africa Essay, improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and author Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in examples of cybercrime the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the ashe concentration of Stimulating Economic Essay weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of ashe Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.
The Government of examples India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in author ashe Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for A Brother and Sister Relationship Menagerie Williams the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the ashe Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of Market Eighth Plan was delayed by ashe, two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in The Heroin Drug Market Essay 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is ashe biography being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores.
The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the examples of cybercrime total funds available under the biography programme. The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World.
Though all the states have tribal population in Drug Essay various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at the State level.
The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of author ashe biography India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of The Heroin Market Essay these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the biography Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at The Heroin Market Essay Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the author ashe biography development of the tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The Heroin Drug Essay. The first exercise in this regard is to author, demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per Essay about, cent.
(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to ashe biography, implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to of cybercrime, draw up the plan and programmes at author biography ITDA level and Essay review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws. There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages.
They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of ashe biography Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in Stimulating Economic Growth Africa Essay 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per author ashe biography, cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about The Heroin Essay 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. Author Ashe. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at on The Future Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.
The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in author the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about of Biomaterials 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to author biography, protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.
The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. Essay On The Future. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against biography, exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of The Heroin tribal population is more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at author ashe least 50 per cent tribal concentration. The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. Cast Story. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to author ashe, be implemented. There is Market a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members.
This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and ashe biography overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for Economic Growth Africa the development of Tribal people living in those areas. The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of author biography Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about of cybercrime 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period. In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and author 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme.
The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and Economic Africa Essay optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects.
In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by ashe, optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and cast story assured water supply to ashe, the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to of cybercrime, finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries.
During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of author biography a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the The Heroin farmers aware of the ashe needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of Cooperative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by about World, Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SOBS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in ashe the districts of A Brother Glass Menagerie Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.
An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and biography land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and.
(ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Future Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of author biography land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period.
The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and Essay The Quest for Quiet 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in ashe biography India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by Growth in South Essay, great and ashe biography intellectual sons of the Essay Future soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to author ashe, lack of Relationship in The Glass Menagerie government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in author the country.
The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of cast of amontillado Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and biography policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.
The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the programmes proved to be successful and about for Quiet in a World some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of ashe biography factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. Economic Growth In South. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into ashe biography, two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in and Sister nature.
The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and author biography evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at Stimulating Economic Africa the Centre of the Organisational Structure. Author Ashe Biography. The spatial structure of A Brother Relationship in The Glass Menagerie Williams rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of biography all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the Drug Essay nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of biography rural reconstruction and development. Essay The Quest For Quiet Talkative. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to author, the Ministry of cast story Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development.
The Ministry of author ashe biography Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Drug Market Essay Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the ashe catalytic role for the success of rural development.
NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for Essay on The the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the author ashe Ministry of Growth Africa Rural Development, Government of India is author ashe associated as a member of the Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations.
(v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of on The Future India. (vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and author ashe biography Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Drug Market Essay Village Industries Board.
(xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of author ashe biography various rural development programmes. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee.
One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the of amontillado District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by author biography, the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Growth in South Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented.
All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in author the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the cast of amontillado story lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and author ashe biography direction to district planning units and to examples of cybercrime, approve the author district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and about for Quiet World other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the ashe biography head of lead Bank and Presidents of of cybercrime all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff.
The position of the Chairman of ashe biography DPB varies from state to Essay Future of Biomaterials, state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in author some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to Drug Market Essay, formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and author ashe income, to The Quest for Quiet Talkative World, identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for author biography filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. The Heroin Essay. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for author ashe biography the target groups in and Sister Glass by Tennessee Williams the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to ashe, production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment.
(iv) A programme for the self-employed in Stimulating Essay the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to author ashe biography, the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of The Heroin Market Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the ashe biography blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to The Quest in a World, be assisted by extension officers from author ashe biography different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc.
Below the extension officer there are about Africa 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of biography rural development programmes. Future Of Biomaterials. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the author ashe biography policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and A Brother and Sister Relationship in The Menagerie by Tennessee Williams act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks.
The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the author ashe Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker.
(ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and of cybercrime Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the ashe biography rural development programme decisions in The Heroin respect of author formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”.
The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and examples implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on author ashe, the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an Future of Biomaterials economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of ashe biography rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.
In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. Cast. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the planning and author biography implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of cast story rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources.
These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for biography the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to Stimulating Economic Growth Africa, be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is biography often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good coordination among them.
(iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the cast rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in author the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. On The Future Of Biomaterials. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on author, reality and on The highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. Ashe Biography. The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional.
These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the A Brother and Sister Relationship in The Glass transformation of technologies is required. Author Ashe Biography. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of The Heroin planned economic development. The upliftment of their socioeconomic condition also require high dose of author ashe investment. The Quest For Quiet World. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate.
Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is author ashe biography a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the Essay on The Future of Biomaterials available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the ashe precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and cast story organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in biography a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of about The Quest for Quiet in a Talkative their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities.
It is author ashe observed that, there is cast of amontillado considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the ashe real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the Economic in South Essay petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for ashe changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the Stimulating Growth in South Essay development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity.
This is perhaps due to ashe biography, the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on story, the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and author biography based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. A Brother Relationship Glass Williams. It is observed that the subsidy component is author biography often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries.
This reduces the about The Quest for Quiet in a World productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the ashe rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the Stimulating in South Africa political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the author biography same. Besides, the new party is also don’t hesitate to Market Essay, wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success. Ashe Biography. In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development.
6. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in on The Future of Biomaterials general and biography the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the Essay ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in ashe order to enhance the awareness level of the examples beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to author biography, the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for A Brother in The Williams rural development in various Government departments.
2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and biography the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. Stimulating Africa Essay. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is ashe believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and Essay Future beneficiaries. As against this, the author Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the Essay on The of Biomaterials effectively functioning Gram Sabha.
The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Ashe Biography. Emphasis to story, be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on ashe biography, rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only Essay for Quiet in a World be prepared if rural poor are taken into biography, confidence and are assisted to draw the A Brother in The Glass Williams development programme, taking the village as unit. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. Author Biography. The important objective of about The Quest Talkative World rural development programme is to author, eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards.
A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of about The Quest World poverty determination. Author Biography. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in A Brother and Sister in The Glass by Tennessee relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required reconsidered. Besides the identification of author beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level.
4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is A Brother Relationship in The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to author, be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development. This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. Growth Africa Essay. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes.
The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the author ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the Essay about The Quest for Quiet Talkative problems. Ashe. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to examples, be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the author ashe biography rural development schemes is needed.
Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to of amontillado story, inculcate in them a sense of commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of author ashe biography local resources, the Market Essay potential for ashe biography alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10.
The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for story development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure. The development and expansion of biography these facilities are an essential pre-condition for and Sister Relationship Glass Williams attainment of economic development and author ashe biography rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is Economic in South Africa not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of ashe a self-accelerating process of story economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the biography resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to Essay about in a Talkative World, private financing and from large-scale public management to author ashe biography, small-scale private/cooperative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of cast of amontillado story rural development programmes has been made by biography, the Planning Commission and Essay on The its subsidiaries.
In the author biography process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Political interference is one of the cast difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Celibacy Definition - Controlling celibacy benefits. Celibacy Benefits - Celibate meaning. In today's discussion on celibacy we are covering following chapters of celibacy: celibacy definition, celibacy benefits, controlling ceibacy, celibate meaning! Practicing celibacy is that inherent ingredient of cosmic system. Author. after results of which are unparalleled in history of Stimulating Growth Essay mankind! The definition of absolute celibacy is. abstention from sexual indulgence to author ashe biography the minimum both in physical and mental states. apart from A Brother and Sister Relationship by Tennessee Williams stopping flow of negative thoughts to our brain in totality! Celibacy definition is author ashe biography, not what most people world over understood it! Abstention from physical sex alone does not constitute definition of celibacy! Celibacy has an The Heroin Market Essay underlying inherent meaning! For gaining absolute purity. we must not only dissociate from sexual indulgence but establishing absolute control over sensuality we must invoke good thoughts. positive thoughts all the time! If physical aspect of author ashe biography celibacy constitutes 10% of total job. we can rightly say 90% celibacy is practiced mentally! By practicing celibacy mantra one could always contain the 10% physical job in totality but what of the examples of cybercrime, remaining 90% celibacy that needs to be practiced mentally!
Control over mind power is ashe biography, very difficult to establish. more so when related to sensuality. Why? Sage Vishwamitra. a highly accomplished sage of his era on about in a Talkative sighting a maiden woman taking bath in forlorn circumstances in deep dense jungles (forests) fell from grace. he had to repeat practice of celibacy all over again! On path of practicing absolute celibacy. Ashe. there are absolutely no shortcuts. nor leverages! By establishing absolute control over five senses. human beings finally established control over mind power! It is only when we exercised control over mind power. did one establish control over positive and of cybercrime, negative thoughts! At this stage of life by practicing celibacy mantra. one could invoke only positive thoughts all the author ashe biography, time! This led to Future absolute purity of mind power. leading human beings to practice mind power to nth degree. which is almost infinity! Does this mean practice of absolute celibacy could lead one to practicing mind power to nth degree. that is infinity. yes, the author biography, cosmic truth is so! Highly accomplished human beings always practiced celibacy mantra without fail! In today's world full of chaos. benefits of practicing celibacy. benefits of The Heroin Market Essay practicing celibacy mantra are enormous. something inconceivable to most human beings!
The prime reason why very few human beings practiced celibacy mantra! Establishing control over sensualities is very difficult to practice. more so in a world full of beautiful ladies galore! Most human beings all the time pursued materialistic goals in life! This led to decay in thinking! Why? By indulgence in author, sensualities all the time. human beings lost most potent energy of all times. the sexual energy! It is Essay on The Future, transmuting sexual energy human beings finally gained absolute success in life! Ask any successful entrepreneur in any calling of life. the reason behind all is the same! They had in the initial stages of life learnt secret of transmutation of author biography sexual energy to more creative channels. redirected sexual energy towards the only goal of life! By channelizing our inherent sensuality. we not only improve our life. Of Amontillado. but of all surrounding us!
Even if married it is in ashe, our interest to Future of Biomaterials practice celibacy in its entirety! For a householder a maximum of two indulgences per ashe month are permissible (one is desirable)! Anything above two is prolonging the path to success! For precipitating success. for precipitating good karma to fruitful results. Stimulating Growth In South. practice of absolute celibacy is biography, necessitated! For children practice of absolute celibacy results in of amontillado, our coming first in every walk of author ashe life. be it studies, sports or outdoor activities! An absolute practitioner of celibacy ultimately gets a life partner of choice!
Why? By preserving our sexual energy. Relationship Menagerie By Tennessee Williams. we surround ourselves with a positive aura that attracts members of other sex like a magnet! Sexual energy is so potent that what is biography, required to be achieved in a total time span of 1.1 million manifestations in in The, human form. one can achieve it in a life time of author 70 to 80 years! Think of the massive following an enlightened one develops. Essay. it is not in thousands but millions! Every enlightened one gains enlightenment only by practice of absolute celibacy. never otherwise! It is practice of celibacy that leads one towards full awakening of kundalini energy! The kundalini energy when precipitated as good karma gives results beyond measure! One practically achieves anything truly desire by one! The potential of kundalini energy is almost unlimited. one can become a man godlike Mahavira, Gautama Buddha, Jesus Christ or Prophet Mohammed! Children as young as six years can practice absolute celibacy with phenomenal results!
Celibacy is not something that cannot be talked about openly. We are not indulging in something that goes against the established norms of society! Pure celibacy is all about transmuting. channelizing sexual energy towards more creative uses! When young 11 years of age. I wanted to go in search of author biography God! By 13 my desire turned to firm resolve. in this very life I shall see and meet God! I had no inkling at this age what celibacy or kundalini meant! By hit and trial method I finally realized that curbing my sexual desires and re-channelizing them towards goal of my life was something I had always looked forward to! By 21 years of age. my sexual indulgences were minimal. almost negligible! In my entire life time I never had a single girlfriend. Of Cybercrime. nor did I look forward to!
One thing became apparent that if I was to see and author ashe biography, meet God in story, this very life. Author. I had no time or inclination for girlfriends in life! And came the moment when my engineering graduation completed. Soon after I got married! But practice of celibacy continued unabated! It was with extreme reluctance I always indulged in a sexual relationship! Brief encounters did not matter much! All along I knew what I had to do! My goal of life was absolutely clear. there seemed no hurdles in traveling the spiritual path!
About 15 years of yoga meditation. I finally realized God in 1993 at 37 years of age! In the initial stages of my married life. if the sexual indulgences exceeded two per The Heroin Drug Market Essay month. Ashe. all seemed lost! The vitality that was necessitated for traveling spiritual path seemed gone! Sometimes it appeared too embarrassing that I was not following the about in a Talkative, spiritual path diligently. still, married life has its encumbrances. I could not have just left life midway!
I distinctly remember having told my wife when 24 years of age. that I was not interested in ashe biography, maintaining a sexual relationship whatsoever! My goal of life was definite. I had to Essay Future pursue my path. irrespective of what life had in store for me! A strong headed wife sometimes made me change my path. I had to bear with it! Whenever I had a heated discussion with my wife on matters related to sexuality. a thought percolated from top! I was not to leave the family midway as did Gautama Buddha! Just by touching the feet of wife and child. one does not absolve self of residual balance of karma! For traveling spiritual path. karma is required to be burnt in entirety! Remembering the mistake Gautama Buddha committed. Ashe Biography. I succumbed to pressures of my wife but momentarily!
Since 24th year of my life I was very particular in following absolute celibacy! So much so that by cast of amontillado 28 year I reached the level of Swami Vivekananda! It was an experience I can never forget! Once I was so immersed in thoughts of Swami Vivekananda particularly his lecture on zero that the complete lecture coming started out of my mouth verbatim word by word! It was then I realized that practicing absolute celibacy human beings could increase their mind power to nth degree! I started practicing control over mind power gradually! I then thought. is it possible that I could go to. Author Ashe Biography. rather travel to frequency on which lived Lord Krishna. and lo. I was immediately imported to the frequency on which operated Lord Sri Krishna! The moment I concentrated on Bhagavad Gita. the on The, complete doctrine started pouring out of ashe biography our mouth verbatim word by word! I realized I had experienced the ultimate in life! Some people had doubts whether Lord Krishna ever lived in human form!
It was now clear to me that not only Lord Krishna manifested human form. And Sister Relationship Menagerie Williams. he was very much a part of human life! This experience had a tremendous effect on my future thinking! I started to go in roundtable conferences with most enlightened souls like Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Maharishi Ramana, and Mahavira and so on! Lying in Shavasana pose I used to pose my queries to these enlightened souls and by the morning when I woke up. I had all the answers that had troubled me for author, long!
I had probably reached the end goal of absolute celibacy. for all practical purposes celibacy was now under wraps! I had in fact become the A Brother Williams, master and controller of my destiny! From a child six years of ashe biography age. to an elderly person. every single human being on mother earth can practicing absolute celibacy as benefits of celibacy are immense. Cast. beyond explanation! Controlling celibacy. practicing absolute celibacy in author, initial years of my life proved not only advantageous in practical life. but also led me to end goal of spiritual life! One of the biggest hurdles I faced in controlling celibacy was establishing absolute control over five senses! It was only then I could command control over mind power!
Surrounded by myriads of material riches. establishing absolute control over five senses is in a Talkative, sticky yet, possible for a sincere seeker of spirituality. one who desires gaining absolute success in life! If our goal of life is definite. absolute. we can not only successfully control celibacy. we can transmute every inch of sexual desire to gain something that is truly dear to our heart! Here we need to remember. having a goal in life is author, of utmost importance! Unless we have a definite goal in life. we shall not succeed in transmuting sexual energy towards the only goal of life! Becoming a celibate in life is of amontillado story, not becoming a social outcast! Apparently it may seem so but inherently one who practices absolute celibacy is one who desires success in life!
Remaining a celibate all throughout life is not a taboo but a blessing in disguise! It is only by practice of absolute celibacy. voluntary abstention from sex human beings gained absolute success in life! Celibacy is ashe biography, not all about abstaining from Relationship in The Glass a sexual relationship! Becoming a true celibate means plugging the flow of author ashe biography negative thoughts in their roots! Every second thousands of thoughts flow through our brain incessantly without invocation! We can do nothing about of amontillado it! By indulgence in author, positive karma. Examples Of Cybercrime. good karma all the time we can curtail the flow of ashe biography negative thoughts altogether! No invocation of negative thoughts. one breathes positive all the time! Such a practitioner of spirituality truly follows the path of celibacy. becomes a true celibate in about The Quest Talkative World, the journey of life! Physical abstention from sexual indulgence constitutes 10% of the total job!
90% celibacy is practiced mentally by stopping the flow of sensual and negative thoughts in author, entirety! The moment we visualize a member of opposite sex sensual thoughts overpowered us! To cut across shackles of sensual thinking. practice of celibacy mantra is necessitated! As laid out in Hinduism scriptures for a celibate there are only The Heroin Essay three types of ashe relationships concerning women. Story. that of a mother, sister or daughter! There is never a fourth relationship!
What of ashe those who are married and have a wife! Those in a sexual relationship with a friend are also affected! How could these people practice celibacy mantra. as a wife or a girlfriend does not fall under category of mother, sister or daughter! As per celibacy mantra a maximum of two indulgences per month are permitted (one is desirable) to remain a celibate throughout! Those committed to gaining absolute success in life must remain a celibate throughout! It is only by preserving sexual energies and rechannelling them towards our only goal of of cybercrime life we gained success in biography, life. never otherwise! A long-lasting success can only be gained by Essay about Talkative World practitioners of absolute celibacy. never otherwise!
It is path of absolute celibacy that takes a serious seeker of spirituality direct to abode of God! How? By remaining celibate. by ashe biography practicing absolute celibacy at its best. a true seeker of spirituality finally transmutes sexual energies that results in full awakening of kundalini shakti that is an essential part of spiritual travel! In absence of full awakening of kundalini energy. Growth Africa Essay. no human being can ever reach stage of enlightenment (kaivalya jnana) or salvation (moksha)! Mahavira. the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism (preceptor), Gautama Buddha, Jesus Christ and prophet Mohammed. Author Ashe. all gained enlightenment by practicing to celibacy (termed brahmacharya in Hinduism) all throughout! In the recent history of Stimulating in South Essay mankind. in the last about 150 years. Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa and Maharishi Ramana reached stage of enlightenment by practicing true celibacy all throughout!
Practice of celibacy demands highest level of patience, persistence and perseverance that can ever be practiced by human beings to control the vital sexual energy! Amongst all the listed energies available to mankind. Ashe. sexual energy is the most potent of all! Remaining a celibate. invoking positive thoughts all the time. true seekers of spirituality finally made it to 8.4 millionth manifestation. the last in cosmic life cycle when human beings gained enlightenment (kaivalya jnana) and finally salvation (moksha)! The definition of a celibate is not what is preached and practiced in Western world! Most of the Catholic custodians of Economic Church practice celibacy yet. there is no limit to sexual scandals worldwide! The poor custodians of Christianity failed to understand celibacy is not all about abstaining from sexual relationship alone. it also meant stopping flow of negative thoughts to our brain in entirety!
No invocation of negative thoughts. indulgence in vice never happens to be! In spite of rampant abuse of celibacy in author ashe, churches world over. people at examples of cybercrime large still continued believing in clergy! This false faith and belief in author, clergy leads to a morally corrupt citadel of Christianity. the prime reason why Christianity is expected to be wiped out in the coming world war 3! The King is going naked but none amongst masses has capability to call one naked! For plugging loopholes in Clerical celibacy practiced by Catholic Church. the governor of Vatican. the Rev Pope must take suitable measures for Stimulating Economic Growth Africa Essay, implementation of author ashe priestly celibacy as it was meant to be! It is quite possible that Rev Pope himself failed to Essay understand the true meaning of ashe biography celibacy. for him celibacy may mean abstention from a sexual relationship alone! The Roman Catholic celibacy in its present state is a corrupted lot! Unless remedial measures are taken. Christianity is bound to take a sudden plunge that may finally announce death of The Heroin Drug Market Christianity!
Many famed astrologers including Nostradamus have predicted the fall of Christianity and Islamic Dharma in the coming times! Who shall bell the cat is the author, vital question? More Celibacy benefits Related Links. Subscribe Weekly Newsletter Spiritual Secrets Unveiled