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Frequently Asked Questions About the Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Service. Students get a response to their writing while it is fresh in their minds. They find out immediately how their work compares to a standard and what they should do to improve it. Anemia Case. The Criterion service also provides an environment for writing and revision that students can use independently, 24 hours a day. This environment, coupled with the opportunity for instant feedback, provides the directed writing practice that is so beneficial for students. How many topics are available? The Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Topics Library for K12 Education includes writing prompts for grades 412.

Criterion essay topics are constructed to elicit writing in various modes that include persuasive, expository, descriptive and narrative. The Change Of Hands: Ownership In The 21st Essay. All prompts are grade level appropriate in vocabulary and appeal to student interests. Each topic may be scored on either a 6-point or 4-point scale and case study the associated rubrics are shown with each prompt. Currently, there are 61 College Level I topics appropriate for first-year writing courses, practice and placement; 64 College Level II topics appropriate for second-year writing courses and practice; 10 College Preparatory topics; 14 GRE ® test topics; and The Change of Hands: Ownership 21st Century 35 TOEFL ® test topics. Instructors can also create and assign their own writing prompts for a student assignment. Because instructors can create their own topics, the topic library is endless. The Criterion service library of topics contains assignments representing the anemia case study following writing genres: persuasive, informative, narrative, expository, issue and argumentative.

Where do Criterion service topics come from? Criterion topics come from a number of summary call of the, sources, including ETS testing programs such as the Praxis ® tests, the GRE and anemia case study TOEFL tests, and client programs such as NAEP® and define education the English Placement Test designed for California State University. Criterion topics have been developed based on representative samples that are mode-specific and study that utilize 6-point holistic scales based on widely accepted writing standards. How does the Criterion service handle an of thomas common it, unusual writing style? The Criterion service looks for case, specific features of syntax, organization and vocabulary. Define. If the case essay under consideration is of Social Class in The Canterbury not sufficiently similar to those in anemia case, its database of already-scored essays, the Criterion service posts a warning, called an of Social in The, Advisory, saying that it is unable to give an accurate score. Advisories usually result from essays that are too brief or those in which the vocabulary is unusual or the anemia study content is off-topic.

Will the use of the common was that it Criterion service stifle creative writing among students? Not necessarily. The Criterion service is designed to be used for evaluating writing done under testing conditions situations in which even the most creative writers concentrate on playing it safe with straightforward and competent writing. Will the Criterion service catch cheating or plagiarism? No. The Criterion service simply evaluates the essay.

It is study up to the institution to ensure that students are working independently and submitting their own work. Instructors can opt to display a writer's sample for some topics on did archimedes, the Create Assignment screen. Students can then view the case samples and refer to them while they write their own essays. The sample essays are in a read-only format and cannot be copied and pasted into another document. What information does the Criterion service report to educators? Educators have easy and secure access to did archimedes live each student's portfolio of case study, essays, diagnostic reports and scores, as well as summary information on the performance of entire classes. What information does the Criterion service report to students? Typically, students get diagnostic feedback, as well as a holistic evaluation, each time they submit an tertiary education, essay.

However, educators can block students from seeing their scores and may choose to case do so if they use the Criterion service for benchmarking. Can instructors limit student feedback? Yes. Instructors can elect to report all, some or none of the of thomas sense was that it feedback analysis. When creating an assignment, instructors turn the score analysis feature on or off, as well as select which diagnostic feedback to report. Can instructors limit access to assignments? Yes. Instructors can limit access when selecting assignment options. For example, the date and time an assignment is available are selected by anemia case study, instructors during setup. They can also limit how many times a student can write and functionalism revise an assignment. Can instructors impose time limits on assignments?

Yes. Many assignments available from the Criterion service library of topics have time limits associated with them. When creating the assignment, instructors select whether to impose a time limit, or they can turn off the time limit function to allow unlimited writing and revision time. How is the Criterion service feedback different from the Microsoft Word® Spelling and Grammar tool? The Microsoft Word Spelling and Grammar tool can provide writers with a quick analysis of common errors. However, the Criterion service, as an instructional tool used to improve writing, targets more precise feedback. Case Study. Research shows that the spelling error detection and correction module in the Criterion service has better precision than the spelling error detection and correction module used in MS Word. We continually strive through research and user input to improve the precision of all our feedback categories. What is the Writer's Handbook? The Writer's Handbook is an intuitive online tool that a student can access while reviewing diagnostic feedback.

It explains every error or feature reported by The Importance of Social Exposed in The Canterbury Tales, defining it and providing examples of correct and incorrect use. There are five Writer's Handbook versions available: Elementary, Middle Schools, Descriptive, High School/College and ELL. There are also four bilingual versions available: Spanish/English, Simplified Chinese/English, Japanese/English and Korean/English. Using the Criterion Service for Remediation, Placement and Assessment. In the vast majority of cases, ETS researchers generally found either exact or adjacent agreement (within one point) between the Criterion service scores and anemia case those of a trained essay reader or instructor.

Both used the same scoring guidelines and scoring system. How can the Criterion service be used for writing remediation and in basic skills writing classes? Instructors assign the Criterion service standard topics or use their own topics to give students opportunities for additional writing practice. The Criterion service topics library contains a group of writing assignments called College Level Preparatory. These topics are graded against a lower level scoring rubric and can be assigned to gradually move incoming freshmen up to the first-year writing level. Instructors may assign topics to encourage students to focus on summary call, essential problem areas that will improve their writing. Anemia. The immediate feedback features of the Criterion service provide additional motivation for students to write and revise their essays when writing on summary of the, their own. How are the Criterion scores used for placement?

Students may be assigned to classes on the basis of anemia case study, their scores on a Criterion service-scored essay or the combination of a Criterion service score and other indicators. The electronic score should not be the sole basis for a placement decision. It is best to combine a Criterion score with the score of a human reader in the same way that institutions combine scores from two different human readers. If the of the wild two scores differ by more than one point, a different reader should also evaluate the essay. How is the Criterion service used for assessment purposes? Some institutions use the Criterion service scores for exit testing combining a Criterion service score with the score from a reader in the same way they combine scores from two different readers. Anemia Study. If the two scores differ by more than one point, a different reader also evaluates the essay. Some institutions use the Criterion service for benchmark testing, assigning the Criterion service-scored essays at specified points during an the significance paine’s common sense was that it, academic term.

How can the study Criterion service be used in a writing lab? When the Criterion service is used in a writing lab, tutors and writing mentors have access to topics, feedback and student portfolios. They also have a way to education communicate with instructors about student progress. Use of the anemia case Criterion service in a writing lab facilitates writing across the curriculum when students use the lab to check in-progress writing for all of their classes. Class Exposed In The Essay. Providing access to an open-ended instructor's topic allows students to write an essay about any subject assigned by any instructor. The interactive features of the case Criterion service promote communication between classroom learning and writing lab support. How do students feel about being scored by a machine? Most of today's students have had experience with instant feedback in computer programs and are comfortable with the idea of computerized scoring. Can the Criterion service score essays on other topics?

Yes. Using the Scored Instructor Topic feature, teachers can create their own topics that are parallel to the Criterion service library prompts, and the students' essays will receive Criterion scores upon completion. A link in did archimedes, the Criterion service provides step-by-step instructions on how to create either a persuasive or expository topic that can be scored. A Criterion score is an anemia, overall score (usually on a 4- or 6-point scale) that is given to an essay. The Criterion service scoring compares a student's writing to thousands of essays written and evaluated by writing instructors. The essays used to when did archimedes live build the scoring models have been scored by trained readers and study were written by students under timed-testing conditions. The writers had no opportunity to revise, use a spell-checker or reflect on what they had written. So when students write on functionalism, the Criterion service topics in a regular class, working under more relaxed conditions, instructors and students should recognize that students' scores may not precisely compare to those of the samples. The Criterion score is a holistic score based on case study, the traits of word choice, convention and fluency/organization. The Criterion score also takes content relevance into The Change in the 21st Essay, account by analyzing the degree of similarity between prompt-specific vocabulary and that of the response. Does Criterion provide trait scores?

Yes. The trait scores are shown as Developing, Proficient and Advanced. Anemia Study. These are based on a normative range, where the structural functionalism majority (60 percent) of case, student scores falls. Tertiary Education. Responses scoring within this range are considered proficient at case study, this grade level. Responses scoring below this range are considered developing these traits at this grade level. Responses scoring above this range are considered advanced at this grade level. How does the Criterion service come up with its scores?

The Criterion service is paine’s based on a technology called e-rater ® that was developed by Educational Testing Service. The e-rater scoring engine compares the new essay to samples of essays previously scored by readers, looking for similarities in sentence structure, organization and vocabulary. Anemia Case Study. Essays earning high scores are those with characteristics most similar to summary the high-scoring essays in the sample group; essays earning low scores share characteristics with low-scoring essays in anemia case, the sample group. What is the technology used in the e-rater scoring? The e-rater scoring engine is an application of Natural Language Processing (NLP), a field of computer technology that uses computational methods to analyze characteristics of structural, text. Researchers have been using NLP for the past 50 years to translate text from one language to another and to summarize text. Anemia Study. Internet search engines currently use NLP to retrieve information.

The e-rater scoring engine uses NLP to identify the when did archimedes features of the faculty-scored essays in case study, its sample collection and store them with their associated weights in a database. When e-rater evaluates a new essay, it compares its features to of Hands: Century those in the database in order to assign a score. Because the e-rater scoring engine is anemia case study not doing any actual reading, the validity of its scoring depends on the scoring of the sample essays from which the e-rater database is created. Can students trick the Criterion service? Yes. Did Archimedes. Since the e-rater engine cannot really understand English, it can be fooled by anemia case, an illogical, but well-written, argument. Educators can discourage students from deliberately trying to fool the Criterion service by announcing that a random sample of essays will be read by independent readers. The Criterion service will also display an Advisory along with the e-rater score when an essay displays certain characteristics that warrant attention compared to other essays scored against parsons structural the same topic. Must students be connected to anemia case study the Internet to use the Criterion service? Students can initially compose their essays offline, using any word-processing application.

However, they will ultimately need an Internet connection to be able to cut and paste their essays into The Change in the Essay, the Criterion essay submission box so their work can be scored and analyzed. For assignments that are timed, essays should be composed online only to ensure accountability by case, all students and to Exposed Canterbury Essay accurately reflect their writing skills in this environment. Can I import student identifiers from my data management system? Yes. The Criterion service has import capabilities for anemia case study, administrators at several levels. A Criterion Administrator can easily import by The Change of Hands: in the 21st Essay, using templates provided in the system.

Details are provided in both the HELP text and the Criterion® User Manual and Administrator Supplement . Can I save my data? Yes. The Criterion service has export features that easily allow users to create export files, and study an archive portfolios feature that can be used to create export files in a comma-delimited format (.csv) that can be opened by most text editors and spreadsheet programs. Detailed instructions for The Importance Canterbury, both features are provided in the Criterion ® User Manual and Administrator Supplement . Understanding the anemia Analysis of Organization and Development in Student Essays. There is The Importance of Social Class Essay now broad acceptance of automated essay scoring technology for large-scale assessment and classroom instruction. Instructors and educational researchers encourage the development of improved essay evaluation applications that not only generate a numerical rating for an essay, but also analyze grammar, usage, mechanics and discourse structure. In terms of classroom instruction, the goal is to develop applications that give students more opportunity to practice writing on their own with automated feedback that helps them revise their work, and ultimately improve their writing skills. This technology is a helpful supplement to traditional teacher instruction. Specifically, it is more effective for anemia study, students to receive feedback that refers explicitly to The Importance their own writing rather than just general feedback.

The Criterion service's capability to case study analyze organizational elements serves as a critical complement to other tools in the application that provide feedback related to grammar, usage, mechanics and of thomas it style features in student essays. Which organizational elements are analyzed? This cutting edge, first-of-its-kind technology employs machine learning to identify organizational elements in student essays, including introductory or background material, thesis statements, main ideas, supporting ideas and conclusions. The system makes decisions that exemplify how educators perform this task. For instance, when grading students' essays, educators provide comments on the discourse structure. Instructors may indicate that there is no thesis statement, or that the main idea has insufficient support. This kind of feedback from an instructor helps students reflect on the discourse structure of their writing.

How did the system learn how to do the analysis? Trained readers annotate large samples of student essay responses with essay-based organizational elements. Case Study. The annotation schema reflects the organizational structure of essay-writing genres, such as persuasive writing, which are highly structured. The increased use of define tertiary, automated essay-scoring technology allows for the collection of a large corpus of students' essay responses that we use for case study, annotation purposes. How can this analysis help students? As students become more sophisticated writers, they start to call wild think about the organizational structure in their writing. The Criterion service application offers students feedback about this aspect of study, their writing. Students who use the tool can see a comprehensive analysis of the existing organizational elements in their essays. Of The. For instance, if a student writes an essay, and the system feedback indicates that the essay has no conclusion, then the student can begin to anemia case study work on this new organizational element.

This kind of automated feedback is an initial step in students' improvement of the organization and of the of the development of their essays. This kind of feedback also resembles traditional feedback that a student might receive from a professor. Understanding Organization and Development Feedback. The algorithm developed to automatically identify essay-based organizational elements is anemia case based on samples of teacher-annotated essay data. Two readers were trained to annotate essay data with appropriate organizational labels. What is the agreement rate between two readers on the labeling task? Two readers are in tertiary education, general agreement on case, all labeling tasks. What is the agreement rate between the system and the reader? The trained reader's assessment is in tertiary, general agreement with the anemia study system. In the vast majority of of thomas was that it, cases, ETS researchers generally found either exact or adjacent agreement (within one point) between the Criterion service scores and case study those of a trained essay reader.

Both used the same scoring guidelines and scoring system. Does the common sense system label each individual sentence with a corresponding organizational label? Yes. Case. Sometimes multiple sentences are associated with a single organizational element, and the entire block of text is talcott parsons functionalism highlighted and appears to be assigned a single label. In fact, each sentence is labeled individually. Does the system label according to anemia case sentence position only? No. Many features, including word usage, rhetorical strategy information, possible sequence of did archimedes live, organizational elements and syntactic information are used to determine the final organizational label. The Criterion service is available 24 hours a day and only requires an Internet connection and a web browser, and is PC and Mac®compatible. It can also be used on the iPad®, but an external keyboard is recommended. For a complete description of minimum and recommended standards and network configuration suggestions, please refer to the System Requirements Sheet.

Where can I find additional information about the Criterion service and the e-rater technology? The research papers on case, the ETS website are sources of more information about the Criterion service and its underlying technology. If you are interested in ordering, have questions about pricing or would like to speak to Ownership 21st a Criterion Specialist, contact us today. Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. You've gotten back your SAT scores. On your score report, there's information about how you did on Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math, compared to students in the previous year's graduating class who took the SAT. But what about your essay? How does your essay score compare to everyone else? There's no percentile information for that in the score report. Find out what an average SAT essay score looks like (and how you stack up) in this article! First, a quick reminder about how SAT essays are scored: two graders score each SAT essay on a scale of 1-4 across three different dimensions: Summed together, this means your score can range between 2 and 8 for each area. There is no longer one single total SAT essay score, just Reading, Analysis, and Writing essay scores. Logically, it would seem that the average SAT essay score in each domain should be a 5 (since that's halfway between 2 and 8).

The most recent SAT essay score data bears this out except when it comes to the Analysis dimension. The average SAT essay score for students graduating high school in 2017 was 5 out of 8 for Reading, 4 out of 8 for Analysis, and 5 out of 8 for Writing (source: CollegeBoard 2017 Total Group Report) . To get a better idea of how frequently different essay scores were assigned, I created several different SAT essay score distribution charts that show how many students got each essay score for Reading, Analysis, and study Writing . Talcott Parsons Functionalism? The data in study, this first chart shows the define, distribution of scores across all three dimensions for students who graduated high school in 2017. Distribution of SAT Essay scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. (data source for all graphs: CollegeBoard) From this chart, we can see that there's the same general trend for the numbers of students who got various Reading and Writing scores, while there's something quite different going on with Analysis scores. Let's separate these scores out into separate graphs, starting with Reading and Writing essay scores. Case Study? Distribution of talcott parsons structural functionalism, SAT Essay Reading Scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. Distribution of SAT Essay Writing Scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. If you compare the anemia case, graphs for of Social Exposed the distribution of Reading and study Writing scores, you'll see a striking similarity between them when it comes to how many students got each score on Reading and Writing. There's a huge drop-off from the middle range of scores (4-6) to the upper and lower ends of the scale.

Because so many people score towards the middle on SAT Essay Reading and Writing scores, it's safe to say that if you score a 3 or below, your essay score is definitely lower than average; if you score a 5-6, your score is pretty average; and if you score a 7 or above, your score is significantly higher than average. Things are a little murkier when it comes to talcott functionalism the Analysis essay scores. Let's take a look. Distribution of SAT Essay Analysis scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. In contrast to the trend for Reading and Writing scores, Analysis scores are heavily skewed toward the bottom of the scale. Anemia Case Study? Even though the average Analysis score for of thomas common was that 2017 was a 4 out of 8 (which is towards the middle), the Analysis score the most students received was 2 out of 8. Why did so many students score lower on case study Analysis, while still managing to live do okay on Reading and study Writing? The most likely answer is that the Analysis dimension is the part of the SAT essay task that is call of the, most different from what students have had to do on other standardized test essays. Instead of giving their opinion on the passage in the SAT essay prompt, students are asked to analyze the author's opinion. While this analysis is pretty straightforward once you manage to anemia case study wrap your mind around it, it is very different from the significance of thomas common sense was that it what students had to do on the old SAT essay (and what students are still asked to do on anemia study the ACT essay) and other standardized essays like DBQs.

Because of the different trends for Analysis scores on the SAT essay, an Analysis score of a 6 or above puts you well above average; a score of 3-5 is solidly middle of the pack; and a score of 2 is call of the, low. If you did get a 2/8 Analysis score, the good news is that you can most likely boost it to case at least a 4 (if not a 6 or higher) by reviewing these 15 SAT essay tips. When colleges look at structural functionalism, your SAT scores, however, they usually won't look at your essay scores all by case study themselves. Most schools look at your overall SAT score first, your Evidence-Based Reading and The Importance of Social Class Exposed Tales Writing and Math scores next, and your essay scores last (if they care about your SAT essay scores at all). This leads into my next point. How Much Does My Essay Score Matter? Because your essay score no longer affects your Writing section score on anemia the SAT, the The Change of Hands: Ownership Century, importance of the anemia study, SAT Essay has decreased significantly. More and more schools are dropping the requirement for define students to submit SAT with Essay scores entirely, and schools that do require the SAT Essay often place much less importance on anemia case your essay score than on the significance of thomas paine’s was that your other SAT scores. Still, there are highly competitive programs and schools that use SAT scores to case place students in the appropriate level classes that require students to submit SAT Essay scores.

For these kinds of schools, while your SAT essay score still won't matter as much as almost any other part of your application, you'll still want to Class Exposed in The Essay aim for a high enough score that you're not immediately disqualified (or so that you don't get bumped down into case study, remedial writing). So what's the of the call of the wild, average SAT essay score you should target for more competitive schools? Our advice is to study aim for at common was that, least a 6 out of 8 on Reading, Analysis, and Writing. Higher essay scores (particularly on anemia case the Analysis dimension) are even better, but a 6 out of 8 shows that you have above-average writing skills on a standardized essay written at the end of parsons functionalism, a multihour-long test. In cases where admissions offices might wonder if your application's personal statement was a fluke, your SAT essay scores can confirm that you do have a certain level of anemia, writing ability. And the SAT essay rubric requirements to of Social Class Exposed in The get a 6 out of 8 on each section are a pretty reasonable minimum standard for anemia colleges to of Social in The expect students to meet. What If My SAT Essay Scores Are Below Average?

If you're struggling to get a 4 or above on anemia study each SAT essay section, don't despairyou're not alone, and there is did archimedes, hope. Start by reading our collection of SAT essay blog articles. I recommend starting with our introduction to the new SAT essay prompts, our SAT essay tips article, and our explanation of the SAT essay rubric. Next, follow along as I write an SAT essay, step-by-step. With these four articles, you'll learn just what is required to excel in each dimension of the SAT essay and how to approach reading the prompt, analyzing the passage, and writing the essay. Case Study? For further help, you can take a look at how to create your own SAT essay templates and how to get a perfect 8/8/8 score on the SAT essay. If you're struggling with identifying how the authors of tertiary, SAT essay prompts build their argument, we also go into the six most common argumentative essay devices. Finally, if you think you'd benefit from more personalized feedback on your essay writing, you might want to try out PrepScholar SAT. You'll get to write essays on official SAT essay prompts and receive feedback from graders on what you're doing well and how you can improve and boost your score to case study the next level.

Now that you know what an average SAT essay score is, what should be your target? Learn more with our article on in the what a good SAT essay score is for you. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Case Study? Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by live a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on anemia how you can improve. Parsons? We'll also give you a step-by-step program to study follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and of Social Canterbury loves advising students on how to excel in study, high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on paine’s common your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?

Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on anemia case Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on talcott parsons structural functionalism Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in case, a variety of other topics! Looking for summary call wild Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT is a registered trademark of the case study, College Entrance Examination Board TM . The Change Of Hands:? The College Entrance Examination.

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Clearing the anemia, Muddled Path of Traditional and Contemporary Mindfulness: a Response to Monteiro, Musten, and Compson. In their article, Monteiro, Musten and Compson ( 2015 ) explored the of thomas common, criticisms regarding the proliferation of anemia case study, contemporary mindfulness programs by attempting to represent the positions and The Change Ownership in the Century, concerns of the traditional Buddhist community. They noted that traditional Buddhists have raised alarms over the proliferation of mindfulness programs primarily because such contemporary applications have significantly diverged from case, canonical definitions of mindfulness as derived from the vast corpus of traditional Buddhist texts and of Hands: 21st, practices. In addition, they characterized such objections by traditional Buddhists as a groundswell of anemia case, protest, particularly when concerns are raised over the absence of the significance common was that it, ethics, or sila , in anemia study, clinical and nonclinical mindfulness programs. They also touch on issues pertaining to a clash of worldviews between religion and science, as well as the teaching of secular mindfulness programs in corporations and the military. Monteiro et al. Define Education. ( 2015 ) framed the debate, first in terms of two streams, the traditional Buddhist community (which is anemia case study, depicted as fiercely critical of the other stream)namely, contemporary mindfulness, as propagated and practiced by secular and parsons structural functionalism, clinical mindfulness practitioners. This framing has some merit, as the concerns raised have been the subject of case study, much debate and attention in both the popular press and Buddhist blogosphere, such as Purser and the significance paine’s common was that, Loys ( 2013 ) Beyond McMindfulness, Norths ( 2014 ) op-ed piece The Mindfulness Backlash in the New York Times , Thompson ( 2014 ), The Mindfulness Wars, Whitakers ( 2013 ) 2013 as the year of mindfulness: Critics and defenders, and Rocas ( 2014 ) The Dark Night of the Soul. In addition, numerous Buddhist teachers and religious studies scholars have weighed in on case study the medicalization and in the 21st Century, psychologization of mindfulness, considering how such reinterpretations alter the meaning, function and ends of anemia case, such secular practices (Bazzano 2013 ; Brazier 2013 ; Buswell and Lopez 2014 ; Cohen 2010 ; Lopez 2012 ; Samuel 2014 ; Stanley 2013 ; Thanissaro 2012 ; Wallace 2007 ). When Did Archimedes Live. In addition to analyzing and anemia case study, describing the trend towards the decontextualization of mindfulness and the role it plays within an integrated Buddhist path of liberation, a number of scholars have also described, perhaps more importantly, how contemporary mindfulness applications have undergone a refashioning and summary call of the wild, make over in anemia case, order to The Importance Class in The Canterbury Tales Essay accommodate the needs of case study, Western society deeply rooted in individualism, consumer capitalism, along with its pragmatic demands for the significance of thomas sense was that it, tangible and worldly benefits (McMahan 2008 ; Schedneck 2013 ; Stanley 2013 ; Wilson 2014 ). I do not think we need be alarmed about the adaptation of Buddhist practices for secular ends. I call to case mind a statement the Buddha made in the weeks before his death: The Tathagata has no closed fist of a teacher with respect to teachings. By this he meant that he had taught everything important without holding back any esoteric doctrines, but I like to interpret his words to mean that we can let anyone take from the Dhamma whatever they find useful even if it is for secular purposes. In their characterization of The Change of Hands: Ownership, a growing and case, sometimes-fraught debate between traditional and contemporary mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) apparently have chosen to omit the equally numerous criticisms and defensive retorts coming from contemporary mindfulness advocates (Goldstein 2013 ; Halliwell 2011 ; Hunter 2013 ; Nicklebine 2013 ; Segal 2013 ), which have not been exactly congenial to the traditional Buddhist community. More importantly, this narrow framing of the summary call of the, issues serves to case study deflect attention away from the mystification of mindfulness, a term Wilson ( 2014 ) has recently used to describe the intentional rhetorical tactics and processes involved in extracting and uprooting mindfulness from The Change Ownership Century Essay, its grounding in a religious tradition, informed not only on a foundation of morality and ethics, but which is motivated by soteriological aims for anemia study, the cessation of when did archimedes, dukkha , liberation from samsara , and a compassionate commitment to act for the welfare of all sentient beings. It is this process of mystification that also accounts for case, the widespread misconception in education, the West that Buddhist practice is synonymous with mindfulness meditation.

Such cultural appropriation was of course the outgrowth of the mainstreaming mindfulness for clinical and case, non-Buddhist populations, a movement that has now come to permeate the mass media with its appeal as a convenient remedy for the everyday stresses and anxieties of the Western consumer. Mixed Messages of Contemporary Mindfulness. Another problem in this categorization scheme is that while contemporary mindfulness is defined as all forms of mindfulness programs that are not explicitly based in Buddhist practice (Monteiro et al. 2015 , p. 1), the define tertiary education, most established, popular, and researched clinical program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), now advertises its training and curriculum as a vehicle for embodying and transmitting the dharma in a wholly secular and universal idiom. It is a recontextualizing of dharma, not a decontextualizing of it Center for Mindfulness ( 2014 ). Williams and Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 , p. 15) have even gone so far to say that MBSR and MBIs are a recontextualization of the Buddhist teachings in all of study, their essential fullness.. In fact, the preface statement to the standards and principles expected of define, a MBSR teacher explicitly makes mention of the fact that MBSR derives much of its approach from Buddhist practices, underscoring that mindfulness is the heart of Buddhist meditation. Prospective MBSR teachers are expected to be a committed student of the dharma, as it is anemia, expressed both within the Buddhist meditation traditions and in more mainstream and universal contexts exemplified by MBSR (Center for Mindfulness 2014 ). This strong requirementto be committed to the dharma, with an explicit emphasis on Buddhist meditationis qualified, however, by a curious exemption clause: This has nothing to do with being or not being a Buddhist (Center for Mindfulness 2014 ). How should one make sense of these mystifying statements? It appears that MBSR teacher training is indeed explicitly based in Buddhist meditative practice and in a Buddhist context; its teachers are expected to be committed to the dharma and undertake long, 710-day silent retreats, preferably in the Western Buddhist vipassana tradition. At a meeting of MBSR teachers in when did archimedes live, Northern California, Saki Santorelli, the anemia, Executive Director for the Center for Mindfulness, emphasized the need for more in-depth teacher training and Ownership 21st Essay, declared that the Center for Mindfulness (CFM) is in the business of training dharma teachers.

And a senior MBSR teacher-trainer at the CFM has adamantly stated, I really feel MBSR is not secular and that MBSR is very spiritual and holy. Anemia Case. If you look inside the did archimedes, curriculum you will find it is inspired from the essence and heart of the Dhamma. Cullen ( 2011 ), a seasoned MBSR teacher, identified MBIs as a new lineage and study, an emergent stream of a new American dharma, one that is widely accessible, non-dogmatic, and pragmatic. Given the explicit use of such terms as dharma, spiritual, holy, and lineage by these senior MBSR teachers, these declarations do not exactly have a secular ring but border on the evangelical. Indeed, the juxtaposition of the traditional versus the contemporary mindfulness streams appears to be blurred and questionable, if not, misguided. It is in the, understandable, however, why Monteiro et al. Study. would subscribe to such a polarization between the two streams, as well as the ambiguous stance the Center for Mindfulness has towards Buddhism as a tradition and religious practice. First, distinguishing contemporary from traditional (Buddhist) mindfulness is dependent upon a selective reading of clinical mindfulness programs, particularly MBSR. This is due to the fact that MBSR is usually presented as wholly secular, medical, scientific, evidenced-based clinical program, devoid of any religious affiliations. And this emphasis on the secular and scientific is certainly the of the call of the wild, case when mindfulness-based programs are targeted for implementation in anemia, public schools, or in seeking grant funding from live, federal agencies such as National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Department of Defense (DoD).

In these cases, advocates engage in self-censorship, taking care not to case study emphasize the Buddhist connections. In other words, depending on the recipient, MBSR is billed, on when did archimedes the one hand, as an either wholly secular and anemia case, contemporary program, or on the other hand, as a sacred, spiritual, and of thomas common sense it, holy practicea faithful recontextualization of the study, dharma. In attempting to have it both ways, MBSR has succeeded in extending its scope and reach, but at the expense of an impending identity crisis. The chameleon and call of the, shape-shifting nature of case, MBSRs public face is a growing source of confusion. Training for MBSR teachers explicitly draws from Buddhist sources (albeit in a highly modified and truncated fashion), and its senior teachers have even declared MBIs are a new transmission of the dharma. Exposed Essay. Many Western Buddhist centers (mostly Western Insight Meditation and some progressive Zen centers) even offer MBSR courses alongside traditional Buddhist classes.

Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 , p. 12) has even referred to anemia study MBSR and other related MBIs as Dharma based portals. Despite this intermingling, there is still an intentional distancing from summary of the call of the, Buddhism as a faith tradition, which should come as no surprise, since in a secular society, many consider religious traditions to case study be suspectthe legacy of outdated, corrupt, and authoritarian premodern institutions. CFMs qualifying statement that MBSR teacher training, has nothing to do with being or not being a Buddhist (Center for Mindfulness 2014 ) can also be seen even within Western Buddhism. Because Monteiro et al. Of Hands: Ownership In The Century Essay. have focused on case the extreme end of a spectrum that they label as traditional Buddhism, they failed to consider the middle ground of contemporary Western Buddhismwhich has already distanced itself from religious Buddhism. In fact, in many Western neo-vipassana centers, one can be a Buddhist practitioner without having to become a Buddhist. The taking of Buddhist vows in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha (the traditional ceremony of Buddhist conversion) is generally not offered in such centers nor on meditation retreats, and Ownership in the 21st Century Essay, the taking of Buddhist ethical precepts is usually limited to case while one is on a retreat, rather than as a commitment to the whole of ones life. mindfulness continues to when did archimedes live operate in a religious or quasi-religious fashion, despite its advocates frequent insistence that it is not the case (or, at case study least, need not be) connected to talcott parsons religion. As weve seen, religion and anemia case study, values are downplayed by mindfulness authors to The Importance Class Tales garner large audiencesbut in many cases, the reason they want an audience in the first place is because they are convinced that mindfulness and other elements derived from Buddhism have a real ability to alleviate suffering (the goal of religious Buddhism).Mindfulness is connected to a whole set of self-disciplinary and lifestyle practices that are given moral weight by their promoters.

Even if we accept the protestations of many advocates that mindfulness is not a religion per se, it is nonetheless doing the work of religions. such spiritually-laden language appears to be incongruent with the general presentation and conceptualization of MBIs in relation to their operationalization within clinical settings. Thus, the identity of MBIs as well as their primary underlying intention (i.e., a means of improving psychosomatic well-being or a tool for spiritual development) appears to be slightly confused, and this is potentially confusing for service-users. Although, I am aware that sometimes, the study, presenters of mindfulness practices on the one hand, want to argue this [mindfulness] has nothing to summary of the wild do with Buddhism, it is secularbut at the same time, they want to argue this is the essence of the Buddhist teachings. Ive often told them, you know, you cannot have it both ways. It is either secular, or you want to say its the case, essence of Buddhism, therefore it's a Buddhist practice. You cannot have it both ways. This phenomenon of dual identities may have legal implications in terms of an live evasion of professional accountability and a potential violation of informed consent laws. As Brown ( 2013 ) pointed out, there is a growing controversy that Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) providers may not be meeting the reasonable-person standard providing service users (clients) the study, information necessary to make informed decisions. Structural. Because both MBSR and MBIs can be considered forms of CAM, providing only information limited to anemia case medical risks is insufficient. Religious affiliations, ties or content must also be fully disclosed since these factors have bearing on patients long-range goals and values, which can include religious commitments (Brown 2013 , p. 201). When Did Archimedes Live. When contemporary mindfulness providers communicate that their treatments have nothing to do with Buddhism, they are engaging in self-censorship and a tactic of what sociologists refer to as camouflage (Brown 2013 , p. 209).

Brown ( 2013 , p. 209) described this communicative strategy as elaborative techniques of concealing and gradual exposure. A good example of such a flagrant bait-and-switch camouflage technique can be seen in tactics used to recruit new Scientology cult members with the pseudo-scientific E-meter stress test. The camouflage tactic of promoting contemporary mindfulness as exclusively and purely secular and scientifically based is used to appeal to a segment of the anemia, population would consider Buddhism incompatible or even a threat to their own religious beliefs. This failure of full disclosure may fall short of meeting the standards of informed consent, which legally and the significance of thomas paine’s common sense it, ethically requires whether such a treatment may, according to attorney Richard Steinecke, offend a religious, ethical or personal belief of the patient (Brown 2013 , p. Anemia. 208). According to the reasonable-person standard of informed consent, protecting patient rights requires respecting the personal autonomy of patients to make their own decisions and, in Class Canterbury Essay, order to do so, they must have access to the necessary information that is anemia case, material to their decision making. Drawing from the work of parsons, ethicist Beauchamp ( 2010 ), Brown ( 2013 , p. 201) reiterated his main premise that patients cannot intentionally participate in CAM without understanding the consequences of their actions for anemia case, both health and religion. Jon Kabat-Zinn minimizes spiritual vocabulary during his eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction classes. But as students graduate, he recommends that they find an ongoing meditation group such as an Insight Meditation Society, an organization that Kabat-Zinn describes as having a slightly Buddhist orientation (p. 209). One reason why Kabat-Zinn and his MBSR teachers are so adamant that ethics remain implicit in their curriculum is that it is part of this camouflage strategy. Parsons Structural Functionalism. In order to cast the widest possible net and mainstream mindfulness, an case study explicit commitment to ethics and or any appearance of tertiary, religious affiliations with Buddhism would compromise that strategy. The camouflage strategy is particularly salient as MBSR and other MBIs are frequently offered to a vulnerable population, especially when such cases also involve experimental research.

Brown ( 2013 ) argued that in such instances therapeutic misconception may be occurring, whereas the patients who are consenting to anemia study such mindfulness treatments believe they are receiving medically and scientifically based therapies, when in reality they are gradually be introduced to religious practices, without full disclosure or informed consent. Even if such disclosure was forthcoming, Shonin et al. ( 2013 p. 3) also pointed out the of Hands: Ownership, claims that MBIs are grounded in the Buddhist teachings, or other such language as being inspired or informed by Buddhism, need to case study be honest and forthright in that such adaptations are by no means congruent with the traditional Buddhist perspective. Up until now, MBSR and MBIs have maintained that the ethical dimension of their treatment is covered already by professional standards (such as the define education, Hippocratic Oath), especially if such service providers are licensed psychotherapists or health service providers. However, many ethicists have criticized the professional practice standard as being inadequate in providing full disclosure of non-medical risks. Questioning the Buddhist Roots of Contemporary Mindfulness. Monteiro et al. devoted a considerable amount of time expounding on anemia case study the function and purpose of the Eightfold Path as a means for understanding behaviors and attitudes that are skillful and wholesome, as well as for contextualizing and defining right mindfulness ( samma sati ). They went on to make the claim that Eightfold Path could best be understood not only as a set of of Social Class Exposed in The Canterbury, guidelines for the development of skillful conduct, meditative concentration, and wisdom but also as an universal cosmic law of nature.

They claimed that the Eightfold Path is actually a causal law of nature, not an invention of the Buddha or any other teacher, any more than gravity, for case study, example, was the invention of Newton (Monteiro et al. 2015 ). While their source for this claim is derived from The Change of Hands: Ownership in the 21st Century Essay, (Gethin 2001 , p. 220), their cherry picking and case, further extrapolations derived from this passage are quite problematic for The Importance Class Exposed, a number of reasons. First, Gethin ( 2001 , p. 225) later clarified (in the same chapter that Monteiro et al. referenced) that the Noble Eightfold Path ( ariyo atthangiko maggo ) was always primarily conceived of as a way of practicing or of study, going along and that the eight factors of the path have always been thought of as eight items that are to be collectively brought to rightness. Gethin went on to point out that in when did archimedes live, the early stages of the path, the aspirant learns to anemia case study abandon wrong views, which is still at the level of ordinary right view. At this stage, the aspirant still has many doubts as to whether the path will ultimately lead to the cessation of suffering. It is summary of the call of the, not until the aspirant develops supermundane right view, which is considered noble, that the aspirant dispels all doubt, knowing with full confidence that the path truly does deliver on its promise. Anemia Study. Such a conversion experience is also known in the Pali literature as becoming a stream-enterer ( sotapanna ), which is actually characterized, according to Gethin ( 2001 , p. 225) as one who has complete trust ( avecca - ppasada ) in the significance paine’s was that, the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, as one who has overcome doubt. Clearly, developing complete trust in the three jewels implies a direct knowledge of, and deep commitment to, the Buddhist teachings. Case. Monteiro et al.s ( 2015 , p. 3) assertion but there is no reason in principle why familiarity with explicitly Buddhist teachings are a necessary condition for such liberation is in the significance paine’s it, direct contradiction to Gethins account of the stream-enterer on the path to liberation is one who develops has complete trust in anemia study, the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. Second, the comparison of the Eightfold Path as a universal and causal law of nature, not unlike that of when did archimedes, gravity, is a faulty analogy. Surely, the natural laws of gravity existed prior to Newtons formulations, but the premise that the specifics of the case study, eight-path factors are eternal, universal, and cosmic laws operating on when human beings in a similar fashion as gravity causes apples to fall from a tree is to commit a category error.

There are similar tropes often trotted out by the contemporary mindfulness community, such as we need not become believers in anemia case study, Islam in order to use algebra, or become converts to Hinduism in order to use subtraction, or that there is no such thing as a Christian physics. These analogies are often used as attempts to defend cultural appropriation of the significance common was that it, mindfulness from Buddhist sources while simultaneously disavowing any affiliation and connections to Buddhism. The reason such analogies are faulty is because science and its natural laws are not a cultural enterprise (Coseru 2014 ). Cultural artifacts, in anemia case study, this case, the formulation of the Noble Eightfold Path by the Buddha, is not amenable to, nor can be reduced to, scientific explanation. Gravity, algebra, and subtraction are not cultural artifacts nor are they culturally determined. As Coseru ( 2014 , p. 1) pointed out, the principles of tertiary, mathematics [or laws of case, gravity] apply regardless of religious beliefs or cultural norms and that there is a world of did archimedes, difference between the domains of scientific inquiry and culturally determined human values and endeavors. Case. Whereas scientific laws are descriptive of the fundamental principles operative in the physical universe, human values are concerned with what humans do, that is, with cultural practices writ large. Beethovens 9th symphony is not truer than Mozarts, Jazz is not truer than classical music, and mindfulness meditation is define education, not truer than contemplative prayer because truth is not their currency, at least not scientific truth. As symbolic species, we have a tendency to imbue everything we do with meaning, and to seek meaning in everything we do. Anemia Case. That is The Change of Hands: Ownership in the Century Essay, why we have social and cultural institutions. I don't mean to suggest that scientific inquiries and the kind of inquiries we pursue in the humanities and the social sciences should be kept apart, just that phenomena that fall under one description are not amenable to descriptions in other domains.

Moreover, where lawfulness does operate in accordance with the Buddhadharma, it is that which pertains to the operation of karma and its results (extending across lives) and in the relation of the practices to the results of practice. But properly, these are matters that are described as paccatta veditabbo vinnuhi to be realized personally by the wise (Bodhi 2014c ). They are not matters publicly demonstrable such as the physical laws of gravity (Bodhi 2014c ). By making an appeal to universality, Monteiro et al. appear to making a case for a trans-historical Buddhism, one which is immune to social, cultural, and historical contexts, thereby making it portable and adaptable for any secular purpose (Ivy 2005 ). Their claim that the outcome of the training transcends Buddhist teachings is anemia case study, not new (Monteiro et al. 2015 , p. 3); in summary call wild, fact, it can be traced directly to Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ) assertions that the dharma is study, analogous to the fundamental physical laws of the universe, coupled with the claim that MBSR is the essence of a universal dharma. For example, Kabat-Zinn ( 2011b , p. 57) exclaimed, The word Dharma refers to both the The Change 21st Century Essay, teachings of the Buddha and also the way things are, the anemia, fundamental lawfulness of the universe. When Did Archimedes. So although the Buddha articulated the Dharma, the case, Dharma itself cannot be Buddhist any more than the law of gravity is English because of structural, Newton or Italian because of Galileo. It is a universal lawfulness. This statement resonates with other similar talking points that Kabat-Zinn has made both in writings and in public lectures, such as the Buddha was not a Buddhist. The Buddha wasnt a Buddhist.we turn the Buddha into some big thing.

But his fundamental teaching, you can think of case study, him as more as a scientist, like a Galileo or an Einsteinwith very, very deep insight into the nature of his own experience. But from the point of view of did archimedes, mindfulness, and although it is spoken of as the heart of Buddhist meditation, its about paying attention. How Buddhist is that? Its about awareness, how Buddhist is that? Its about loving-kindness, how Buddhist is case, that? Or compassion? So, if we drop into its essence [mindfulness], which has always been its essence, then those kinds of questions are second-order. Its not like we are secretly trying to the significance paine’s common sense was that turn everyone into anemia Buddhists, as if that was our hidden agenda. In the above public statements, it is apparent that Kabat-Zinn distances mindfulness from the significance of thomas, its Buddhist roots, arguing that the mental states and qualities resulting from the practice of anemia, mindfulness meditationsuch as paying attention, awareness, loving-kindness, and when did archimedes live, compassionare not exclusive to the Buddhist domain.

This rhetorical strategy tracks with Wilsons ( 2014 ) analysis of how the cultural appropriation of mindfulness is anemia study, a progressive, multi-stage process. Of Hands: Ownership. As Wilson pointed out, first Buddhism was made more palatable by singling out mindfulness as the heart of Buddhism, making Buddhism itself more marketable to the West. The next stage involves purging Buddhism and case study, any overt associations to talcott parsons functionalism Buddhism in order to study promote and sell mindfulness. This purging of of the, Buddhism in anemia case, order to promote secular mindfulness has rested squarely on the way the term Dharma has been appropriated by Kabat-Zinn. Dharma has a wide range of meanings including law, truth, righteousness, and doctrine (Davis 2004 , p. 21). However, as Davis ( 2004 , p. 22) pointed out, the decision to appropriate this term as a stand alone essence of the Buddhist teachings, as well as strategic means for purging its association with the Buddhist path, reduces its meaning to mainly its philosophical and psychological aspects. In fact, Davis argued that this rhetorical move negates and define education, discounts a crucial aspect of how the dhamma was conceived and taught in many of the Buddhas discourses, which emphasized the application of the Dhamma - Vinaya which refer specifically to the restraint of a persons unskillful mental and physical activity, and the cultivation of skillful mental and activity, for the purpose of developing insight and thus gaining total liberation from suffering (Davis 2004 , p. 22). There are a number of passages in the Pali Tipitaka where the Buddha makes it very clear that he taught the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by anemia case, the Tathagata (Bodhi 2014a ). Mindfulness is an English word, not a foreign Sanskrit, Pali, or other Asian term.

It can be used comfortably without any indication of being specifically Buddhist, and therefore was of use for Kabat-Zinns agenda. At the same time, he intended mindfulness to mean not only awareness and meditation but also a shorthand for the Buddhist tradition, so that Buddhism could be brought into non-Buddhist settings by simply substituting a different word that would not set off alarm bells. Arguably, then, when Kabat-Zinn speaks of Class Exposed Canterbury Tales, mindfulness-based stress reduction he in fact means Buddhist-Based (or at least Dharma-Based) Stress Reduction, given this intended double definition of mindfulness (italics in original). At the Buddhism in America conference, Kabat-Zinn explained his view: The Dharma, to anemia study me, is pointing to something that really is live, universal The cultural and ideological overlays, and the historical elements of [Buddhism], beautiful and study, honorable and wonderful as they are, are not necessarily the heart of the Dharma, which transcends them. However, the define tertiary education, premise that the Dharma can be extracted from the study, Buddhadharma, and essentialized, is the significance paine’s common it, equivalent to anemia closed system thinking (Wilden 1980 ). No system, especially the teachings of the Dharma, is of the of the wild, ever totally closed, or ever totally independent. Moreover, the notion of a universal essence actually contradicts one of the core Buddhist teachings of no-self nature, or annatta , for an essence assumes the characteristic of a thing independent of interactions, relationships and case, a social-historical context. In many respects, Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ) and Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) fall prey to the belief that contemporary mindfulness is a universal, noncultural form of Buddhism, reflective of live, a collective blind spot among North Americans to downplay the importance of anemia case study, culture. Sociologists have pointed out that for most North Americans, culture and its effects on them, are largely invisible and hidden from view (Bellah 1985 ; Stewart and Bennett 1991 ). This tendency to downplay or minimize the cultural dimension shows up in the contemporary mindfulness movements celebration of personal freedom, authenticity, and the emphasis on of Hands: the primacy of the individual as the sole moral agent and source of anemia case, authority. One possible irony of the mindfulness movement is that it emerged in part from movements that desired to reform Buddhism and get back to its original, authentic teachings of the historical Buddha.

Many early Western authors espouse a radically modified form of Buddhism pruned of what they call Asian trappings that were accumulated by supposedly impure mixtures of basic Buddhism with local cultural traditions and outside religions, such as Confucianism or animistic cults. .Yet, this newly pared-down Buddhism that supposedly returns to Indian roots is eminently prepared to be applied to Ownership Essay the worldly cultural concerns of Americans, especially those in the middle-class, mainly white communities that have dominated the public conversation over what American Buddhism should be. .Thus the immense popularity of mindfulness does not represent, as its proponents sometimes allege, a universal, noncultural Buddhism. Instead, the application of case, mindfulness to when live so many aspects of anemia case, American culture is in fact clearly yet another practical benefits approach to Buddhism, pursued in this case by American Buddhists and sympathizers. Though some believe they have done away with attachment-based utilizations of Buddhism, in fact their stripped-down approach makes aspects of Buddhism available for attachment to tertiary education new culture-specific concerns such as overeating, wasteful consumption, parenting difficulties, and workplace stressso available, in fact, that many of the anemia case, people developing such applications are not Buddhists themselves. In tracing the development of the contemporary understanding of mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) turn to Sharfs ( 2013 ) critique of Buddhist modernism, linking the therapeutic turn in mindfulness to the Theravada revival movement of the early twentieth century. Talcott Functionalism. Sharfs critique, however, went beyond establishing such a link, as he also provided historical examples that show the secularization of mindfulness/meditation reaches much farther back in Buddhist history. For example, Sharf traced the notions of bare attention and present-centered awareness to other historical instances besides the Theravada reform movements, particularly the popularization of Chan meditation in anemia case, eighth-century China. In this latter case, Sharf noted that some Zen (Chan) sects promoted a method of meditation to the laitya method that emphasized dwelling within present moment experience with promises of a fast-track to of Hands: 21st Century Essay liberation. However, a number of Zen reformers, such as Dahui, were vehemently critical of this method of case study, present-centered awareness, and considered it to be a form of meditation sickness, whereby the meditator becomes passively content with quiescence, losing interest in and responsiveness to the suffering of the world. Sharfs critique revealed that even in the Buddhist world, mindfulness meditation has been decontextualized and stripped of its moral and philosophical theories, and of Social Exposed Canterbury Essay, that such critiques have been commonplace among Buddhists reformers for at anemia study least a millennia.

There are also a number of The Importance of Social Class Exposed in The, historical inaccuracies regarding the Theravada reform movement that are in need of correction. While Mahasi Sayadaw is anemia, often attributed to be the of Social Class Exposed Canterbury Tales, forerunner of the Theravada vispassana reform movement, his role was paved by many prominent Burmese monks before him, such as the notable Ledi Sayadaw (Braun 2013 ). Mahasi Sayadaw was also an case accomplished textual scholar who had a full mastery of Buddhist doctrine (Bodhi 2014b ). He certainly would not have downplayed ritual for functionalism, ordinary Buddhist practice, but during his meditation retreat rituals were not conducted. Thus, he was quite different from the secular proponents of modern mindfulness. Even S.N. Goenka, who might also be considered a Buddhist modernist, actually incorporated ritual into his meditation courses, with chanting and his invocation of the blessings of the Bodhi Dhatu, Nirvana Dhatu upon anemia case study, the meditators at the beginning of each days practice. Moreover, neither Buddhist modernism nor Mahasi Sayadaw were responsible for the dry insight method which bypassed development of the jhanas . The path of the bare insight practitioner is already found in the Visuddhimagga and the Pali commentaries. Paine’s Was That. For intensive meditation practice in any tradition, intricate doctrinal instruction may not be not given, but an accomplished Buddhist teacher will guide the students on the basis of his own knowledge of doctrine through the anemia case, stages of development. In the case of the Mahasi method, bare mindfulness of the present is the starting point of the practice, but with the tertiary education, progress of the practice the student is case study, guided into the stages of parsons functionalism, insight according to anemia study the classical model laid out in of the call wild, texts like the Patisambhidamagga and anemia case, the Visuddhimagga (Bodhi 2014b ). Contrary to Monteiro et al.s ( 2015 ) claim that the Theravada reform movement required no familiarity with Buddhist philosophy or traditional commentarial texts such as the Abhidhamma , one the foremost pioneers and leaders of this movement, Ledi Sayadaw, was a strong advocate for systematic study, textual learning, particularly the Abhidhamma , on the part of the laity (Braun 2013 ). While it is The Change of Hands: in the 21st Century, true that both Mahasi Sayadaw and Ledi Sayadaw downplayed the cultivation of anemia, concentration ( samadhi ), they stressed meditation as a practice depended on textual learning.

The de-emphasis on learning and guidance from traditional Buddhist commentaries occurred after it was imported by American insight meditation teachers. Cultivation of Therapeutic Well-Being vs. a Transformative Vision of Moral Engagement. The description and function which Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) provided of contemporary mindfulness-based interventions is essentially therapeutic, with an overall focus on the cultivation of individual well-being. They presented a components model of mindfulness-based interventions targeted to MBIs that have their origins in MBSR and which are claimed to have connections to Buddhist principles of practice. Of Social Exposed In The Tales. They also include mindfulness-based mind fitness training (MMFT), which is anemia, a recent adaptation of MBSR for delivering pre-deployment mindfulness programs to military personnel. The first component is define tertiary, described as contemplative practices that are spiritual and/or religious and as serving to center us, bring us away from mental dispersal, and connect us with our immediate experience. Typically, these practices consist of study, a combination of sitting and walking meditations. They are clear that such contemplative practices are adapted for participants in parsons structural functionalism, MBIs courses. These adaptations are significant, both in function and purpose, as evident by the aim as described: to connect individuals with their immediate, present-moment experience.

Describing the meditative practice of MBIs as a means of study, centering and reducing mental dispersal, appears to be equivalent to reducing mental ruminations about the past and future in order to enhance the connection with immediate experience. Viewed as a therapeutic modality for sensory enhancement, contemplative practice is construed as focusing on everyday activities to cultivate a mode of The Importance Exposed Canterbury Tales, attentiveness for case study, dealing with the stresses and anxieties of ordinary life (Purser 2014 ). Perhaps the signature example of this mode of mindfulness-as-sensory enhancement is the mindful eating of a raisin, the first MBSR exercise introduced in the beginning of an eight-week program. Summary Of The Call Of The. The mindful of eating the raisin brings the anemia study, immediacy of summary, experience back to life; the participant comes to know and appreciate the raisin in a different way by anemia case study, focusing attention on when the sensations of eating it. This mode of contemplative practice focuses on anemia the epistemological aspect of meditation. The self-as-knower engages in a meditative practice that results in a sensory enhancement of the immediacy of live, experience and which, in no doubt, has therapeutic benefits. Buddhist contemplative practices also focus on the epistemological dimensions of experience, particularly those whose purpose and function is to enhance concentration and mental stability (e.g., s amatha , calm abiding). Anemia Case Study. However, such concentration practices are often considered as foundational supports or preliminaries to the development of define tertiary, insight and case, wisdom. Parsons Functionalism. The practice of insight meditation, along with other related practices whose purpose are the development of anemia, wisdom, or prajna , are aimed to effect a fundamental ontological shift in being and radical transformation of the self, or the one who knows. The outcome is not merely therapeutic in nature (sensory enhancement in structural, the service of individual well-being or stress reduction) but the emergence of a radical transformation in ones vision of reality coupled with a spontaneous moral engagement with the world.

However, there is another epistemological aspect of Buddhist philosophy (and by implication Buddhist meditative practices), which has to anemia case study do with a fundamental error of perception. This perceptual error is often referred to as basic or fundamental ignorance, but such a translation falls short in explicating the innate and did archimedes, reflexive perceptual process that is also considered the anemia study, root cause of dukkha (and for now, this term will not be rendered or translated as suffering, which will become more apparent later). Basic ignorance, or delusion, is derived from the Sanskrit term avidya (in Tibetan ma - rig - pa ). The antonym is vidya , which is often translated as seeing. However, in The Change Ownership in the 21st, this context, it refers to the perceptual capacity for clearly seeing the true nature of reality and things as they are (this includes subjects and objects), that is, as impermanent, interdependent and lacking any intrinsic reality (Garfield 2015 , p. Study. 26). Dukkha , however, is caused by a perceptual process. It is not that we engage with the world, or contemplate ourselves, and infer or decide that we or the things around us are permanent, independent and have identifiable intrinsic natures. Rather, we take the world and ourselves to be like that in our immediate perceptual engagement.

Perception itself is therefore shot through with reification. As Garfield made clear, the perceptual process is talcott parsons functionalism, tainted and distorted by the superimposition of anemia study, reification; a process that is not in the conscious domain of a cognitive skill or even philosophical analysis. In fact, Garfield preferred the term primal confusion, to better describe avidya , delusion or basic ignorance. The Buddhist path culminating in tertiary, the development of wisdom is aimed to dispel primal confusion by developing and cultivating the power of anemia case, insight to uproot the innate and latent tendencies that infiltrates the perceptual processes leading to the reification of both self and objects. Thus, the cessation of dukkha requires a thoroughgoing reorientation, facilitated by the orchestrated synergies of the education, entire Noble Eightfold Pathaimed at the deepest strata of ontology in order to effect a fundamental transformation in epistemology. In contrast, according to Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ), the reduction of suffering, allegedly through Buddhist-based concepts, amounts to the cultivation of experiential awareness (isnt all awareness experiential?), but such concepts, they went on to add, are not at all unique to study Buddhismthey are also operative in such psychotherapeutic approaches as Gendlins focusing therapy, which also trains clients to be attentive to their bodily felt sensations. It should be apparent by in the 21st Century Essay, now why it is so important to clarify exactly what is meant by Buddhist philosophy in order to understand both the study, commonalities as well as the major points of departure between contemporary and traditional mindfulness.

Moreover, because the term Buddhism is a modern invention of European orientalists, and it, is far from being monolithic, making sweeping claims to Buddhist philosophy without contextualizing such claims is fraught with perils. The tendency to anemia case date has been towards a cross-cultural conflation and summary call of the, an uncritical transposition of Buddhist terms, principles and concepts from the religious domain into clinical and therapeutic contexts. Anemia Study. This is problematic as many Buddhist terms have a wide semantic range and their intended meaning, role and function can only talcott be understood within their respective religious and historical contexts, which means taking into account their embeddedness within a soteriology and anemia study, systematic path oriented towards liberation and awakening. There are a number of examples of where such linguistic and conceptual conflation is resulting in what Rosch ( 2007 , p. 259) referred to as a confusion of levels. For example, Dorjee ( 2010 ) made an important distinction regarding the role of mindfulness as a precursor to, and as a separate mental faculty from, the development of wisdom and insight. She distinguished the therapeutic mechanisms of MBSR, such as decentering and deautomatization of of thomas sense was that, mental events, from the higher stages of the meta-awareness of mind that are developed during the fourth foundation of mindfulness as practiced within Theravada Buddhist tradition. In this latter stage of advanced mindfulness training, well after the attention has been stabilized and anemia, refined ( samadhi ), there is often a pronounced dissolution of the subtle sense of I, me or mine and a deep insight into of Hands: Ownership 21st Century Essay nature of the codependent origination (Dorjee 2010 ; Olendzki 2010 . Similarly, such advanced levels of mind-training can be found in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which culminates in the arising of wisdom and pristine awareness ( rigpa ) (Wallace 2012 ). This dimension of the mind is anemia, radiant, luminous and clear, and transcends the six modes of define tertiary education, consciousness (the five physical senses and the ordinary mental consciousness). It is known in Theravadin commentaries as the pure ground of becoming ( bhavanga ), and also manifests during dreamless sleep and at the moment of death (Wallace 2012 ). Study. In the the significance of thomas sense, Tibetan tradition, this experience of non-dual awareness is anemia, no longer even viewed as mindfulness. When words and phrases such as insight, wisdom, witnessing, dukkha seeing things as they are, and direct perception are lifted out of a Buddhist context and of the call, reused in Western therapeutic mindfulness discourse, their meanings change significantly. Anemia Case. Perhaps the most conflated term and structural functionalism, overused phrase in usage in a therapeutic mindfulness context is anemia case study, insight and seeing things as they really are. Dorjee ( 2010 ) pointed out that within the therapeutic mindfulness context, insight is more descriptive of the decentered perspective on our thoughts and feelings, or what Wallace and Shapiro ( 2006 ) referred to as reperceiving. This signifies taking a more detached stance in relation to ones thoughts and summary of the of the, feelings. Anemia Case Study. This is The Change in the, a very different level of insight as compared with how the term is used within the Theravada tradition, which, as alluded to earlier, is more descriptive of a penetrating insight into the three characteristics of impermanence ( annica ), not-self ( anatta ), and all conditioned phenomena as suffering ( dukkha ), accompanied by anemia case study, a complete dissolution of an independent self (Dorjee 2010 ). Both Dorjee ( 2010 ) and Rosch ( 2007 ) also called attention to how the decentered perspective that is developed in MBSR (an eight week program) is often conflated and confused with some of the call of the, most advanced meditative states in the Buddhist traditions, including Dzogchen. This can be seen in the discourse among numerous Western mindfulness authors such as Bishop et al. Anemia Case Study. ( 2004 ), Brown et al. The Importance Exposed Canterbury Essay. ( 2007 ), Kabat-Zinn ( 2011 ), and Teasdale et al. ( 2002 ) who are fond of the phrase seeing things as they really are. However, in a Buddhist context, this refers to the penetrating insight into the three characteristics and a complete dissolution of the anemia case study, observer-observed dichotomy.

In a clinical and contemporary mindfulness context it is spoken of in a more generalized and therapeutic sense, describing a basic recognition and ability to the significance of thomas paine’s common sense detach from the contents of mental events. Rosch ( 2007 , p. Anemia Case. 263) characterized these distinctions in terminology as being descriptive of relative sanity in a therapeutic context versus the Buddhist wisdom-insight developed through prolonged periods of advanced meditative practices. This trend towards linguistic conflation extends to the significance of thomas sense the meditative practice domain, in which case, traditional Buddhist practices are refashioned, modified or completely changed to such an extent that they bear little similarity to their original function and purpose. What remains is a reductionistic form of Crypto-Buddhism. For example, MBSR utilizes the body scan which is proclaimed to be based on anemia the first foundation of mindfulness practice, as found in the Satipa ?? hana sutta ( Discourse on the Foundation of Mindfulness ). Cullen ( 2011 ) made the claims Perhaps it is important to reiterate here that MBSR is informed by and grounded in the application of the four foundations of mindfulness and did archimedes live, the view that mindfulness, as taught in this program, has elements of all of the brahma viharas seamlessly integrated into it. The qualifier here is, of anemia, course, the ambiguous notion of what it really means to be informed by and grounded in Buddhist meditative practices. For example, the body scan practice as it is taught in MBSR, is often conducted in a supine position with eyes closed.

The basic instructions given are to when begin noticing sensations, starting with the feet, and moving progressively through the limbs, torso, and ending at the top of the anemia case, head. In her ethnographic study of MBSR classes, Rosch ( 2014 ) found that participants described this session as a form of relaxation, with many reporting that the of thomas it, practice was used as an anemia case aid to facilitate the onset of sleep. Many of the participants also said that it helped them to sleep or actually put them to sleep, some reporting happily that they had never stayed awake for when did archimedes, the entire CD. Rosch ( 2014 , p. 13) also observed, that during the group MBSR sessions, a chorus of snores typically accompanied the body scan. Compare this account of the body scan with the traditional 32-part body scan practice in the Satipa ?? hana Sutta which systematically reviews and contemplates the anatomical constitution of the body as a means to study reduce ones attachment to The Importance of Social Class Canterbury Essay the body. Contemplation of the body instructions are oriented to seeing its impurities, even directing attention to case study contemplating bodily orifices, feces, guts, pus and so onand other more repulsive features, all with the aim to induce a realization that there is nothing inherently beautiful or attractive about the nature of the body, in order to counter the tendency towards conceit (Analayo 2010 , p. 148). Even the monk Mahayasi Sayadaw, a twentieth century Theravada reformer, instructed his students to dwell upon the impurities of the body in order to develop an aversion to it. Additional practices in the contemplation of the body include mindfulness visualizations of a decaying corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, being eaten and devoured by various creatures, such as crows, hawks, vultures, wormsprogressively decaying until even the skeleton bones turn to dust. The contemplative practice of a decaying body is meant to make vivid the inevitably of death and impermanence of all beings.

It appears that the of the, body scan as practiced in MBSR is a recontextualization of the modernist adaptation of Burmese Buddhist meditation teacher Ledi Sayadaw and Indian teacher S.N. Goenkas variation on scanning body sensations. The practice of scanning body sensations was applied as a way of developing equanimity to the pain that comes from sitting immobile for many hours on intensive vipassana retreats. In this context, participants were taught to view sensations as being transient vibrations, thereby hopefully eliminating all desire and case study, aversion from parsons structural, their minds (Rosch 2014 ). The body scan in MBSR does not instruct participants to view sensations as transient vibrations in order to endure painful sensations while remaining vigilant, alert and immobile in a sitting posture, nor to develop a detachment to the body, nor does it encourage participants to see the inevitability of the bodys death and its inherent unattractiveness. Instead, the body scan in MBSR is case, guided by therapeutic aims: the summary call of the wild, practical benefits derived from relaxation can result in self-acceptance and healing.

Monteiro et al. Case Study. ( 2015 ) accused the traditional mindfulness communities as not greeting nor positively welcoming the exponential number of clinical and scientific studies investigating the efficacies and mechanisms of MBIs. They went on to state, Many [in the traditional mindfulness community] have found deconstructing mindfulness into its mechanisms and active components disconcerting. Alan Wallace is talcott, specifically targeted as being representative of these disconcerting sentiments, given his critical questioning of the metaphysics of anemia study, scientific materialism in the field of contemplative neuroscience, which, in his view, is inconsistent with the teachings of the Buddha. What really appears disconcerting hereand essentially a non-sequituris conflating investigative studies into the underlying mechanisms and active neural components of tertiary education, mindfulness with a metaphysical critique of scientific materialism. It also seems quite odd to single out Alan Wallace as holding an anti-scientific position given his instrumental role in forging the early dialogues between scientists and the Dalai Lama at anemia case the Mind and Life Institute, as well as his pioneering scientific research on the Shamatha project in collaboration with numerous neuroscientists. Monteiro et al. went on attempting to persuade that there is ample and conclusive evidence for when, the clinical efficacy of anemia case study, MBIs based on a single meta-analytic study they cite (Eberth and Sedlmeier 2012 ). What is not mentioned here are the did archimedes live, numerous methodological issues with MBI studies, such as the wide variance with how mindfulness across various studies is study, conceptualized, variations in the significance sense it, program design, small sample sizes, inadequate controls of confounding factors, a lack of randomized control trials and anemia study, active control groups, a lack of long-term follow-up data and longitudinal studies of talcott structural, MBI participants, an overreliance on questionable self-report measures, wide variations in teacher experience and competence, and poor monitoring of participant adherence to practice protocols (Shonin et al. 2013 ). Monteiro et al. also omitted an important meta-analytic study on the efficacy of mindfulness meditation that was recently published (Goyal et al. 2014 ). Goyal et al. reviewed 18,753 citations of meditation studies and found only 47 of them to have active control groups. For programs with active controls, there was no effect or insufficient evidence that mindfulness meditation was anymore effective than exercise, progressive relaxation, or group therapy.

Perhaps the disconcerting sentiment in the traditional mindfulness communities has more to do with the hype and overblown conclusions regarding the anemia case study, scientific evidence associated with MBIs. However, such concerns are now being expressed from within the contemplative science community itself (Logothetis 2008 ). In fact, the Mind Life Institute recently convened a working group of neuroscientists and clinical researchers to address strategies for countering the when did archimedes live, hype and evaluating the validity of case, media reports on scientific studies of of the wild, mindfulness (Kerr 2014 ). Anemia Case Study. According to Britton, public enthusiasm is parsons functionalism, outpacing scientific evidence, noting that most MBI studies which lack active control groups are being passed along as scientific evidence, often by anemia case study, those who stand to benefit from mindfulness programs (Heuman 2014a , p. Summary Of The Call Of The Wild. 1). Britton goes on to warn that experimenter allegiance is often overlooked when such studies are reported. When the researcher also happens to be a creator of a clinical mindfulness program it can, according to study Britton, count for a larger effect than the the significance sense, treatment itself (Heuman 2014a ). Monteiro et al. Study. maintained that contemporary and traditional mindfulness share a singular and structural, common intention to alleviate suffering in the world as it is now, implying that these two streams share the same roots. Such is not the case. There is common ground, but only on the surface. The goals and anemia study, aims of contemporary and traditional mindfulness diverge; the former is concerned with the alleviation of worldly suffering and the practical benefits derived from mindfulness practice.

Traditional mindfulness (embedded within the tertiary, Buddhist Eightfold Path) is concerned with the cessation of dukkha and, depending on the specific tradition and case study, context, culminates in the fruition of awakening and the attainment of nirvana . Of The Call Of The. The telos of contemporary mindfulness is therapeutic in nature. Anemia Case Study. Contemporary mindfulness is conceived as a therapeutic form of self-help and when, self-care, which, as Monteiro et al. Case. ( 2015 , p. 4) pointed out, operates within a pragmatic and commercial context that expects quick relief from distress and is focused on capital gain. Buddhist, or traditional mindfulness, operates within a soteriological context or path ( marga ) that creates a commonality of concern which informs all the functionalism, various strands of case study, its religious endeavormoral values, ritual observances, doctrinal teachings, and contemplative exercisesinto a unified network of practices focused on liberation (Buswell and Gimello 1994 ). Rather than being motivated by quick relief from parsons structural, distress and capital gain, some Buddhist traditions consider the path of liberation as evolving over many lifetimes, involving deeper levels of renunciation from worldly life. A common misconceptionthat contemporary and traditional mindfulness share the same intentionis based on the suffering trope; this can be attributed to a mistranslation of the Buddhas statement, I teach one thing and one thing only: suffering and the end of suffering. However, as Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) has pointed out, the correct translation is, In the past, monks, and also now, I teach suffering and the cessation of anemia, suffering. Moreover, Bhikkhu Bodhi has also clarified that any utterance of the Buddha was always guided by the intention to enhance the welfare and happiness of those receiving his message. The Buddhas statement regarding the cessation of suffering was made in a particular context, specifically in response to a question someone had asked the did archimedes live, Buddha in the hopes that he would engage in metaphysical speculation. Study. Taken out of context, many contemporary mindfulness teachers have misconstrued this statement as being representative of the whole of what the Buddha taught. As Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) has pointed out, the Buddha taught on a wide range of topics besides suffering and its cessation, including important topics like the workings of karma, moral and ethical behaviors and dependent co-origination, as well as many practical topics for householders, such as marriage, the distribution of common was that, wealth, and household budgets. Anemia Case Study. Summarizing this misconception, Bhikkhu Bodhi ( 2013 ) stated: But his words are not always tied to the theme of suffering and its cessation. To insist on confining them to this topic is to The Change of Hands: Ownership in the drastically narrow the range of the dharma. We can now see why dukkha is so pervasive, and case study, so why the term dukkha does not admit of easy translation into a language that does not encode this view of The Change of Hands: Ownership in the 21st Century, reality.

Suffering, dissatisfaction, unease, stress, anxiety and pain are all kinds or aspects of dukkha, but none of them exhaust it. Siddhartha Gautamas genius was not simply to study see that we suffer, or that many of us are unhappy. That has been noted many times by philosophers in many traditions. His genius was instead to see that dukkha is the fundamental structure of our lives, what Heidegger would have called our existentiale. To be human is to summary call wild live in dukkha. In describing the current practice of traditional mindfulness, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) seem to privilege the Anapanasati and Satipa ?? hana suttas , the primary instructions for mindfulness training in the Theravada tradition. These suttas have also been the mainstay for anemia case, Western neo-vipassana insight meditation centers and it is of Social Class Tales, no coincidence that these centers are the study, most closely aligned with MBSR. However, associating traditional mindfulness to only these two suttas from the Pali Nikayas does not do justice to the significance paine’s common the wide range of conceptions and anemia study, practices of mindfulness within the Buddhist tradition. Tertiary Education. For example, even within the Theravada tradition, there are many other seminal texts and commentarial treatises (such as the Milindapanha , Abhidamma , Visuddhimagga ), with each offering nuanced understandings of the moral phenomenology of study, mindfulness.

Beyond this, the when, Mahayana traditions (such as Chan, Zen, Pure Land) and the Tibetan Vajrayana (Mahamudra, the Tantras, and Dzogchen) each have unique conceptions of mindfulness and anemia study, its function on different stages of the path. Classic teachings by these later traditions, along with the teachings of such Buddhist adepts as Asanga, Kamalasila, and Shantideva have rarely entered the contemporary mindfulness discourse. Rather than encouraging the meditator to see through the illusion of the talcott structural, Self which is observing phenomena, its language implies such a position can be adopted, and by doing so one can enhance ones control of (particularly negative) mental and emotional experiences. At a subtle level, such habitual positioning may actually reinforce ones sense of case study, self such that, if one were to continue practicing beyond a course (as MBCT encourages), the very progress such practices are designed to facilitate on the Buddhist path would be blocked by an unrealistic view or assessment of the meditative process. (italics in original). There are a number of of the call wild, unexamined assumptions that such a therapeutic stance entails.

First is the notion that the individual client has full control and agency for their own emotional reactivity, as well as their ability to decenter from the contents of case, their experience. Lomas et al. ( 2014 ), however, have recently challenged this assumption, noting that clients currently suffering from depression may lack the mental strength to engage in the challenging work of decentering from negative cognitions, and that MBCT could potentially exacerbate mental ruminations (see also Teasdale et al. 2003 ). Second, the assumption that a client has full agency over their cognitions also assumes that they are fully responsible for their own healing, a popular narrative in the complementary and alternative medicine domain. This philosophy is closely aligned with much of the The Importance of Social Exposed in The Tales Essay, self-help and study, pop psychology literature which proselytizes mindfulness can tap into the significance of thomas paine’s common sense inner resources that will facilitate recovery from, or at least acceptance of, an illnessand in anemia case, some cases, serve as preventive medicine from the talcott functionalism, onset of stress-related diseases and chronic illnesses (Barker 2008 ). Anemia Case. It is Class in The Canterbury Tales Essay, also closely related to the therapeutic practice of increasing a clients sense of conscious control over their thoughts and emotions (often referred to as client motivation), and more recently, has been promoted as developing more willpower (McGonigal 2013 ; Moloney 2013 ). The policy implications of study, these claims are also suggestive that a clients misery (along with the full agency and The Importance of Social Class Canterbury Tales, capacity to heal) and mental suffering is simply located inside their head, and therefore mindfulness-based interventions provide the means for enhancing self-regulation, self-management, self-acceptance, and self-control. In contrast, Foucault has noted how these types of psy discourses present a benevolent face with their professed claims at of self-emancipation, while their actual usage may make individuals more manageable and disciplined within current institutional structures (Illouz 2008 ). Payne ( 2014 ) has suggested that the contemporary mindfulness community has failed to recognize their highly privatized, atomistic, and neoliberal conceptions of the case study, autonomous self/individual. This cultural bias places a heavy burden on the individual, as the source of suffering is viewed as a lack of self-regulation and entirely self-made. Mindfulness-based interventions are in close resonance with the ideological basis for blaming the victim, as it is the individual (not the social context, history, or factors such as socio-economic status, inequities) that is the significance paine’s common it, held fully responsible for their own emotional reactivity, mental suffering and anemia case, misery, as well as their own illnesses. In addition to when did archimedes the fields of psychology and anemia case study, medicine, Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) also claim mindfulness approaches have given new perspectives to organizational psychology and changing organizational cultures. However, there is The Change of Hands: Ownership in the 21st Century, not a single empirical study to study date in any of the top-tier organizational studies journals that provides convincing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions in organizations have led to substantive and fundamental changes in organizational culture. Define. Even the most visible and anemia, publicized corporate mindfulness program at Google, Search Inside Yourself, for which over 2000 Google employees have taken, has not yielded any publishable or empirical results with regards to corporate culture change. The issue of whether mindfulness-based interventions could have unintended consequences in talcott parsons functionalism, suppressing or marginalizing critical thought that investigates the very context, structures, and systems of causes that give rise to social suffering will be addressed later in this article.

Both streamscontemporary and traditional mindfulnessare devoted to means of case, responding to human suffering. For contemporary mindfulness, it is of Social in The Tales, via therapeutic interventions that enhance skills in self-regulation, reducing the proliferation of negative cognitions and mental ruminations. For traditional mindfulness, it is via a comprehensive mental and ethical training system whose soteriological aim is the full path of liberation from the cycle of samsara. While these streams share a mutual interest in acknowledging the plight of human suffering, the commonality is nominal and at anemia study the surface-level only. Once beneath the surface, their aims and talcott parsons structural functionalism, intentions substantively diverge as contemporary and traditional mindfulness address suffering and the nature of mind at qualitatively different levels of depth and ontology. Conflating both the means and ends regarding these two streams only contributes to conceptual confusion. The claim that contemporary mindfulness retains the essence of a tradition was shown earlier to be a strategy of appropriation and anemia study, radical decontextualization (Wilson 2014 , p. 44).

Ethics in Mindfulness: Their Absence or Presence Is Not the (Only) Question. Monteiro et al. ( 2015 ) attempted to represent the Buddhist critique of contemporary mindfulness as stemming from: (1) debates and fundamental differences between religion and The Change Ownership in the 21st, science; (2) incompatible conceptual frameworks, and mainly; (3) a decontextualized and secularized form of mindfulness that is void of an ethical foundation. Study. Recent advocates of contemporary mindfulness have launched fierce criticisms and rhetorical attacks on the Buddhist tradition. Talcott. For example, Sam Harris ( 2014 ) exemplified this when he characterized the Buddhist religious tradition as an accidental strand of anemia case study, history and tells those in the mindfulness movement that they no longer need to of Hands: 21st Century Essay be in the religion business. Or take the book, Search Inside Yourself : The Unexpected Path to Achieving Success , Happiness ( and World Peace ), written by Googles top in-house mindfulness advocate, Tan ( 2012 ). Case Study. The inside front cover flap immediately signals that the authority for mindfulness certainly cannot be the domain of The Importance Exposed Tales, bald people in funny robes. Rather it lies with the scientists in anemia case, white lab-coats, as Tan cited study after study to back up his claims that mindfulness delivers greater happiness, prosperity, health, and career success. And when it comes to mindfulness, Tan insisted, everything can be completely secular. Dan Harris ( 2014 ), co-anchor of ABCs Nightline and Good Morning America , and the author of the best-selling book 10 % Happier , said, I always thought mindfulness practice was for people who live in the significance sense it, yurts, or collect crystals as it turns out, there is all this science that says it can boost your immune system, reduce your blood pressure, and anemia study, rewire key parts of your brain, as he decried meditations massive PR problem, code for shedding any associations with anything that smacks of tradition. Sam Harris gave an obligatory nod to tradition, Thats not to when did archimedes say that people who have brought meditation to the West havent done great and anemia study, truly heroic things but now we are at a new stage. The science has shown that this can truly have a revolutionary impact on the brain, at least its strongly suggestive of that. These are familiar tropes of the contemporary mindfulness movement: that science, in common was that it, validating mindfulness practice, has liberated it from the flaky, foreign, irrational, outdated and spooky metaphysics of religious tradition. This rhetoric is troublesome in anemia case, that it casts the when, Buddhist tradition as amounting to nothing more than an outdated set of cultural accretions. Such messages betray not only anemia case study a terrible lack of understanding of the very nature of religion in general and parsons structural, Buddhism in particular, or what it means to anemia study engage meaningfully with a tradition, but they also perpetuate a naive belief in the unassailable authority science and the form of logic derived from it.

These views are representative of scientism, a fundamental belief that scientists alone hold the key to of Social Class Exposed in The Tales understanding reality, and anemia, that key is the range of scientific methods accepted by the orthodox scientific community (Wallace 2014 ). Contrary to Monteiro et al.s characterization, the debates are not between religion and science, but religion and scientism. When contemporary mindfulness advocates marginalize the Buddhist religious tradition, they are essentially defending the beliefs of scientific materialism, dismissing any methods or evidence that is incompatible with this belief system. Why engage in a dialogue with tradition when it is considered, at best, as basically irrelevant, or even as a detriment and anachronistic to the progress of the mindfulness movement? The messaging is that it is of strategic necessity that Buddhism be purged, that all residues of tradition jettisoned, if mindfulness is to be widely propagated as a scientifically approved method immune to cultural and historical influences. In other words, we cannot trust what tradition has transmitted for the last 2600 yearsit is prima facie suspect. Only by education, placing our faith in science can we validate the value of mindfulness. With regards to the second claim, the issue of incompatible conceptual frameworks, the problem is more than merely one of transporting terminologies from a soteriological to a clinical context. Rather, what is often missed among contemporary mindfulness advocates is a modernistic bias that presupposes that the anemia, modern world-view is universal, immune to The Importance of Social Exposed Essay it own cultural assumptions.

Mindfulness, no matter whether traditional (religious) or contemporary (secular), is always situated by a context, and such contexts frame meanings. A stripped-down and decontextualized model of contemporary mindfulness is case study, problematic only because it assumes that mindfulness has an essence free of context, and by extracting that essence it can be better understood, studied and talcott structural, practiced. The mindfulness movement suffers from a massive blind spot because it obviously grows out of a distinctly American context that has prided itself on the narrative of scientific progress, the belief in study, the individual as the sole nexus of meaning, an entrepreneurial ethos, and other underlying and generally unexamined assumptions that are anything but universal, much less Buddhist, but are simply absorbed from did archimedes live, our social environment. This narrative also creates a radical break with the past, which conspires to reinforce the view that mindfulness operates outside of, rather than within, the existing social and historical context. In this respect, the mindfulness revolution is a big bang innovation myth, a uniquely American cultural phenomenon. Monteiro et al. framed the Buddhist critique as mainly being a matter of the omission of ethics in contemporary and clinical applications of mindfulness, but this formulation misses the case study, heart of the matter.

The issue is not whether ethical dimensions of mindfulness are present or absent, implicit or explicit in contemporary mindfulness applications, but a set of The Change of Hands: in the Century Essay, assumptions that view ethical frameworks for contextualizing mindfulness practice as an inconvenient add-on, a set of anemia case study, prescriptions, rules or moral imperatives for define education, behavior and action. Monteiro et al. added to this confusion by presenting the anemia study, Buddhist ethical concerns as simply being a matter of developing right ( samma sati ) versus wrong mindfulness ( miccha sati ). Contemporary mindfulness teachers go to great lengths to explain their position that ethics must remain implicit in order to avoid potential value conflicts in secular settings where mindfulness practices are offered. The Importance Class In The Canterbury. There are a variety of arguments offered that support this position: the practice of clinical and study, contemporary mindfulness practices naturally lead to ethical behavior; that ethical dimensions are built-into the practice itself; ethical outcomes depend on the mindfulness teacher embodying and modeling ethical behavior, and so on. Summary Of The. There appears to be an avoidance of moral inquiry in anemia study, contemporary mindfulness discourse, along with a general reluctance to consider how the practice of mindfulness and questions of the good are unavoidably intertwined.

This is due partially to the fact that the contemporary mindfulness movement is operating within a market society, where the The Importance of Social Class in The Canterbury Tales Essay, dominant ethos is market logic and anemia, the value neutral discourse of economics. Thus, there is a powerful appeal to avoid engagement with moral and ethical questions when economistic conceptions of when, virtue have entered spheres of life that were traditionally buffered from market logic (Sandel 2013 ). Letting the market decide questions of the good, assuming that ethical behavior will naturally arise out of case, either the practices themselves or via the professionalism and embodiment of teachers, or through the happenstance of parsons structural, inductive self-discovery, might be referred to as the laissez-fare mindfulness school (Wilson 2014 , p. Anemia Study. 194). Disentangling Buddhist Ethics: Moral Engagement and the Problems of Social Suffering. Like many other contemporary mindfulness teachers, Monteiro et al. are fond of viewing MBIswhether applied in clinical, corporate, or public sector contextsas another Buddhist utilization of skillful means or upaya . Monteiro et al. and others, such as Kabat-Zinn, have appropriated this Buddhist concept as a way of retrospectively explaining how their adaptations of The Change of Hands: Ownership, mindfulness to modern contexts is developed in a manner consistent with Buddhist teachings. Anemia. Their interpretation of skillful means is that it is equivalent to a pedagogical tool for adapting mindfulness practices to live the needs of a secular and cultural context, however, omits a few important details. The concept of skillful means can be traced to the Mahayana schools, and figures prominently in case, the Lotus Sutra , a classic text in that tradition. In the Lotus Sutra , numerous parables show the Buddha taking on different forms and deceiving his audiencespurely out of compassion in order to lead them to the final destination of liberation and awakening.

Even the Theravada tradition (which Monteiro et al. is suggestive that because of education, its close adherence to the monastic code of anemia study, ethics, the vinaya , is a version of Buddhist fundamentalism), also has teaching stories from the sutras that exemplify the Buddhas skillful means. A classic teaching story is Kisa Gotami, who tragically loses her infant son and pleads to talcott parsons the Buddha for him to bring her son back to life. The Buddha agrees, but only if Gotami can first bring to him a mustard seed from a home that has never encountered the death of a loved one. Case Study. Gotami, of course, despite the many homes she visits, cannot find any home or family that has not witnessed death. She returns herself healed and define education, becomes a nun and disciple of the Buddha. In all of the examples and allegories, whether in Mahayana or Theravada texts, it is the fully awakened Buddha and highly advanced Bodhisattavas who employ expedient, skillful means to lead their followers to case study the path of liberation. This skillful use of deception (Buddhist variants of the Trojan Horse) was reserved for Buddhas and Bodhisattavas. As (Wilson 2014 , p. 91) pointed out, when people like Kabat-Zinn and other mindfulness teachers such as Monteiro et al., draw on the concept of skillful means, they authorize themselves via the example of the Buddha to change aspects of the common sense was that it, tradition to better suit the different environmental circumstances of Buddhism outside of its premodern Asian historical context. Mindfulness in corporations is also considered as an example of this modernizing of study, skillful means. The skillful Trojan Horse metaphor is often used to defend claims that introducing mindfulness programs into corporations will naturally and eventually lead to a major transformation of corporate behaviors and practicesaway from self-interest and narrow concerns for maximizing shareholder profitsto more humanistic, compassionate, and socially responsible organizations that are concerned for the public good. Corporate mindfulness advocates have often compare their initiatives with the work of the Buddha, noting that he often taught kings, merchants, and feudal village leaders. This is true, but misleading.

While the Buddha taught the dharma to leaders and the merchant class, what he taught was not a mindfulness-based intervention so they could simply feel better about of Social Class Exposed in The Tales Essay, themselves, nor did he simply provide them a meditative technique for improving their concentration so that they could obtain even more wealth and riches, rather, the Buddha advocated a wiser form of ethical leadership that counteracted the mental poisons of anemia study, greed, ill will and delusion. Monteiro et al. have positioned their assessment of MBIs in terms of the degree to which these methods are in summary of the call wild, alignment with basic Buddhist principles, which they have circumscribed in terms of right mindfulness, insight into the root causes of suffering, and the inclusion of the ethical components of mindfulness. Anemia Case Study. This is admirable, but also limiting, for their assessment fails to critically examine how MBIs are limitednot because they fall short of emulating Buddhist principlesbut because of their adherence to a therapeutic culture and discourse of self-help that is define tertiary, premised on a highly privatized sense of self and neoliberal conceptions of subjectivity that is clinically withdrawn from the public sphere. There have been numerous claims that MBIs are based on the four foundations of mindfulness (Cullen 2011 ; Kabat-Zinn 2011 ; Stahl 2014 ). What is actually meant by the claim that MBIs are based on one of the most highly revered discourse of the case study, Buddha, the Satipattthana Sutta , remains ambiguous. The four foundations of mindfulness provide exact instructions on the practice of mindfulness meditation (Analayo 2010 ). The original, overarching purpose and context of these mindfulness practices were based on paine’s common sense was that it the renunciation of greed, desires and study, discontent with the talcott parsons structural functionalism, world, and anemia case study, these instructions in the four foundations were considered as a vehicle for a direct path to liberation ( nibanna ). The discourse is divided into did archimedes live four sections, pertaining to mindfulness of the body ( kaya ), feelings ( vedana ), mind ( citta ), and mind-objects (also called dhammas , or phenomena). Mindfulness of the body ( kayanupassana ) comprises fourteen subjects of meditation, with mindfulness of the case study, breath ( anapanasati ) being the most popular. Define. Mindfulness of feeling ( vedananupassana ) is of three types, pleasant, painful, and neutral, referring to both material and spiritual feelings. Mindfulness of mind ( cittanupassana ) is differentiated into contrasting states of mind, namely, with and without lust, hatred, delusion, a mind contracted or distracted, exalted or unexalted, surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated or unconcentrated. Anemia. Finally, mindfulness of mental objects or phenomena ( dhammanupassana ) consists of summary call wild, five categories: the five hindrances, the six internal and external senses, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the four noble truths. Anemia. In addition, the instructions also include contemplations directed towards observing the live, arising and passing away of these phenomena in the stream of experience. While MBIs may claim and appear to draw, albeit highly selectively, from the four foundations of mindfulness, their extraction from the context of Buddhist liberation radically alters the case, nature and meaning of these practices.

Mindfulness meditation becomes psychologized and reoriented to improving and enhancing ordinary worldly lifea method for alleviating the stresses, anxieties and worries of middle-class lifestyles. There is, of course, nothing problematic in utilizing Buddhist techniques for therapeutic and parsons, clinical purposes, but to claim that MBIs are equivalent secular expressions of the four foundations of mindfulness goes too far. How is it, for example, that MBIs which emphasize nonjudgmental awareness engage in the third foundation of mindfulness which entails discriminating unwholesome states of mind to contemplating the presence (or absence) of higher states of mind? How do MBIs provide instructions in the fourth foundation of mindfulness, which includes contemplating the seven factors of case, awakening and the four noble truths (including the eight fold path)? There is also a strong emphasis in the Satipa ?? hana on common it both internal and external phenomena, especially in terms of anemia case, noting their impermanent nature. MBIs, however, tend to be much more internal in focus. There is also very little emphasis or training in contemplating the conditioned and impermanent nature of the five aggregates (material form, feelings, cognition, volitions and consciousness). This perhaps explains why several practices are omitted in summary call wild, MBIs, such as contemplating the body as a decaying corpse, contemplating the inevitability of the death of ones own body, and case, viewing the did archimedes, body in terms of the four elements (components of the first foundation of mindfulness). As I previously pointed out, the body scan in MBIs only has a distant family resemblance to the 32-body part practice in anemia case, the Satipa ?? hana . Of Social. In the latter text, the body parts are visualized and anemia case, contemplated with a view of seeing them as composite, impermanent and unattractive. The whole aim of Class Exposed Essay, this practice is to reduce attachment to the body as well as conceit, not merely to anemia case release tension and stress. Granted, those who enroll in 8-week MBI courses are there for relief of chronic pain and stress, not for ultimate religious liberation from the wheel of The Change of Hands: Ownership 21st, birth and death, detachment from the body and worldly concerns, and anemia case study, the abandonment of Ownership 21st Essay, craving.

Perhaps the most dubious claim among MBI advocates is that ethics are implicit, and need to remain so, in both the practice and in the teaching of mindfulness in anemia study, secular settings. The Importance Of Social In The Tales. Monteiro et al. turned to a single study by Shapiro, Jazaieri and anemia, Goldin ( 2012 ) to justify their claim that implicit ethics, as exemplified in of Hands: Ownership in the, MBSR, leads to an increase in ethical decision making and moral reasoning. What they fail to report is that this study is based on an extremely small sample size of 25, mostly Caucasian women, lacking both randomized and active control groups. Furthermore, the study relied completely on anemia case self-report data using the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), both of which have been the subject of severe criticisms in the clinical literature (Grossman and Van Dam 2011 ). The debate on whether ethics are implicit in mindfulness practice itself, or whether ethics should remain implicit in the teaching of parsons structural functionalism, secular mindfulness, is partly driven by a fundamental misconception that the case study, ethical aspects of call of the wild, Buddhist mindfulness practice and its path of spiritual-moral development are derived from case study, adherence to prescriptive behaviors and was that, ethical imperatives, or the intentions of a self-as-agent. In other words, Monteiro et al., Kabat-Zinn, and others in the MBI community view ethics and anemia, morality through a Western Judeo-Christian lens, equating them to a set of abstract principles to of the call of the which one can be compelled to ascend. The usual reservation raised by MBI teachers is that there is no room for allowing ethics or moral discourse into secular mindfulness programs as it could potentially be seen as an imposition of religious dogma or pose value conflictsis premised on anemia study this Western view of it, ethics. Attempting to anemia case hermeneutically force Buddhist ethics into an MBI curriculum unaware of such ethnocentric biases is bound to result in misconceptions and facile understandings.

Monteiro et al. proposed a confusing admixture of virtue ethics, a distorted conception of Mahayana Buddhist ethics as utilitarianism, deontological claims to universality via a misreading of Gethin, and a strained attempt to convert traditional Buddhist teachings into secular counterparts (the Four Noble Truths now become the cultivation of moral courage). Keown ( 2001 ), whom Monteiro et al. Of Hands: Ownership In The Essay. cite throughout this section, warned against the subtle danger of cultural misappropriation in attempts to selectively import Buddhist morality into Westernized views. At this point, one begins to wonder what the case study, aim is here given that Monteiro et al. Did Archimedes. stake out contemporary mindfulness in the very beginning as mindfulness programs that are not explicitly based in Buddhist practice. Even (McCown 2013 , p. 65), who is cited as an advocate for MBIs, seems wary of importing Buddhist ethics into contemporary mindfulness practice as he states, To articulate an ethic based on distinctly Buddhist concepts or uses specifically Buddhist language, then, would run counter to the concepts and practices that have, in smaller or larger part, fueled the growth of MBIs. Perhaps the most problematic and disconcerting exposition in this paper is the interpretation of Mahayana Buddhist ethics, which Monteiro et al. use as an example to justify and rationalize killing, as well as a supposed means to go beyond the anemia case study, seemingly narrow edicts of the Theravada school. Monteiro et al. The Importance Class Exposed In The Canterbury Tales Essay. turned to Harvey ( 2000 ) for justification, some scholars have stated that killing may not be something to case study condemn if it arises from virtuous intentions. The question here is The Change of Hands: Century, who arbitrates whether such intentions are virtuous?

If a military combatant kills in the name of My God, My Country and in the spirit of unity with their unit, is it virtuous? Is such killing virtuous in case, unjust wars or in American imperialist interventions such as in the war in of thomas common sense it, Iraq? Are drone operators trained in mindfulness exempt from all moral accountability because their intentions are simply to defend our national interests? This is evidently no problem for anemia study, Monteiro et al. as one could mitigate that form of unwholesomeness [killing] by simply acting from the Bodhisattavas ideal. The sword is generally associated with killing, and most of us wonder how it can come into connection with Zen, which is a school of Buddhism teaching the The Change of Hands: Ownership 21st Century Essay, gospel of anemia study, love and mercy. The fact is the art of swordmanship distinguishes between the sword that kills and the sword that gives life. Tertiary. The one that is used by a technician cannot go any further than killing, for he never appeals to the sword unless he intends to case kill. The case if altogether different with the one who is compelled to lift the sword.

For it is really not he but the sword itself that does the killing. He had no desire to do harm to anybody, but the enemy appears and makes himself a victim. It is as though the sword performs automatically its function of justice, which is the function of mercy.When the sword is expected to play this sort of role in human life, it is talcott structural, no more a weapon of self-defense or an instrument of killing, and the swordsman turns into an artist of the first grade, engaged in producing a work of genuine originality (quoted in case, Victoria 2006 , p. 110). Monteiro et al. are basically dredging doctrinal support for war and violence through an overly simplistic use of the skillful means ( upaya ) teaching. As described earlier, this doctrinal teaching has been vulnerable to much abuse and misuse. The classic teaching story illustrative of skillful means in the Mahayana is to when live be found in the Upayakausalyasutra , which describes an incident when the Buddha Shakyamuni was still a bodhisattva in anemia case, one of his past lives. In this story, Shakyamuni was on parsons a ship and became aware of a robber on anemia study board who had the intention of killing all the passengers on the ship. To prevent this act from happening, Shakyamuni decides to Class Exposed kill the robber out of compassionsaving not only the passengers, but also the robber from case, accruing even greater negative karma.

Because the summary call of the, Buddha Shakyamuni acted out of great compassion, because his intention was wholesome, his act was morally justified. This story, along with other sutras, have been historically misinterpreted and distorted to sanction warfare and violence. What is omitted and glossed over by case study, those who distort these teachings is that it is a highly advanced Bodhisattva or even a Buddha that is engaging in these acts, not Japanese kamikaze pilots emboldened by Imperial Zen propaganda or by talcott structural functionalism, 18-year-old privates in the US Marines engaging in mindfulness practice for twelve minutes a day as they do in mindfulness-based mind fitness training (MMFT). Moreover, in Buddhist soteriological theory, since awakened Buddhas have put an end to their own karma, they act without intention, that is, their acts of compassion arise spontaneously (without deliberate conceptuality) out of non-dual transcendental wisdom. Attempting to find moral justification via an appeal to the Mahayana for killing, even if such acts are driven by anemia, positive intentions within morally ambiguous situations, is fraught with peril. This is especially problematic when the paine’s common was that it, attempt is to find Buddhist doctrinal support for contemporary mindfulness applications involving police and military forces that are receiving mindfulness training. It is quite dangerous to simply assume that police and anemia study, military forces are engaged in right mindfulness, or are uniquely and heroically acting as awakened Bodhisattavas, carefully discerning and weighing the ultimate cost of shooting or not shooting prior to making the of Social Essay, decision to study kill the targeted person.

The risks of self-deception, group loyalty at any cost, and Class in The Tales Essay, nationalistic jingoism can easily be rationalized as harboring positive intentions. There is really no need to force fit or misappropriate Buddhist Mahayana teachings for such purposes. Of course, there are indeed exceptional and anemia case study, extreme cases, such that not taking a life or not retaliating would lead to even greater tragic losses, such as in the instance of Hitlers expansionism of Nazi Germany, or in a case where a police officer must shoot to prevent a lunatic gunman from killing innocent children at a school site. Define Education. But even for these extreme cases, one could turn to our own Western ethical tradition, utilitarianism, or Kohlbergs ( 1981 ) stages of moral development, for guidance. Perhaps the main confusion in the Monteiro et al. paper as it pertains to Buddhist ethics, and its possible import to contemporary mindfulness, is that it is anemia case study, ultimately not a clean moral theory of action. Ownership Essay. Rather, as Garfield ( 2015 ) suggested, Buddhist ethics should be thought of more as a moral phenomenology of experience . This suggestion might come as a surprise to many, as Buddhist ethics has often been seen through the lens of either utilitarianism or Aristotelian virtue ethics. What is frequently, if not perhaps always overlooked among contemporary mindfulness teachers, is that Buddhist ethics is situated within a complex nexus of thoroughgoing interdependence, dependent origination ( pratiyasamutpada ). Case Study. It is perhaps no coincidence then that MBSR and MBIs have omitted what the Buddha actually declared as to be one of his core teachings (to understand the dharma is to understand dependent origination). When Did Archimedes. Garfield ( 2015 ) was adamant that Buddhist moral phenomenology is concerned with locating human action within a vast causal nexus of interdependence, and of karma , that Moral reflection on anemia case action must take all of these dimensions of dependence into account. To focus merely on motivation, or on character, or on the action itself, or on its consequences for others, would be to common sense it ignore much that is important (Garfield 2015 , p. 313).

Contemporary mindfulness proponents are operating from a faulty premise, at least from a Buddhist moral theory point of view, that ethics are somehow separable from the nature of experience and from meditative practices themselvesin other words, because ethics are still viewed as a set of imperatives or consequentialist calculus for deciphering virtuous intentions and their relation to actionthey miss the essential point. Buddhist practice, as Garfield ( 2015 ) emphasized, is about solving a problem and that problem is dukkha and its triune roots, aversion, attraction and confusion (Olendski 2014 ). The Buddhist eightfold noble path is a solution to the problem of dukkha , and simply focusing on case motivation and intention as the arbiter of Class in The, ethical action is to take an extremely narrow view. Again, Garfield ( 2015 , p. 315) cautioned us against superimposing Western ethical biases on Buddhist moral theory: The eightfold path identifies not a set of rights or duties, nor a set of virtues, but a set of areas of concern or dimensions of conduct. The path indicates the complexity of human moral life and the complexity of the sources of suffering. This also points to anemia study the fact that any ethical orientation to mindfulness must be situated within a larger social context; ethical action only has meaning and sense when it pertains to how actions affect and of thomas paine’s sense was that it, impact the lives of others in the vast causal nexus of interdependence. The issue of whether ethics should be implicit or explicit is a moot point. There is no way of avoiding a moral point of view, as ethical engagement is predicated on our perceptual process. Debating whether ethical imperatives should be introduced into mindfulness programs is the study, wrong question. When ethical engagement is viewed in when live, terms of a reordering of our perceptual process, rather than on embodying virtuous intentions, deciphering actions, rights, duties and study, prescriptions, or virtues we can begin to think of mindfulness in parsons structural functionalism, terms of whether it cultivates, what Garfield has termed morally awakened perception (Garfield 2015 , p. 325).

However, this is only half of the equation. What is anemia case study, often missed in contemporary mindfulness is that elevating ethical concerns in mindfulness curricula, practices, and community discourse raises the stakes to act and of Hands: in the 21st Essay, care for the suffering of others. Such a project means moving beyond the therapeutic to activism. Repositioning ethical dimensions within a framework of causal interdependence also reframes the nature and locus of suffering and welfare, transcending both a self-oriented and other-oriented dualism. This is the case, innovative contribution of the Mahayana, and the bodhisattva ideal, that genuine well-being is always grounded in an ethic of care and action on behalf of all sentient beings, near or far. Sincerity [in carrying out did archimedes, orders] means having feelings and actions of absolute service, giving ones all [to the study, task at when did archimedes live hand]. In doing this there can be no thought of anemia study, personal loss or gain.By carrying out our [assigned] tasks, we become part of the life of the entire universe; we realize our original True Self..This is the live, most noble thing a human can do (quoted in case study, Victoria 2006 , p. 185). This is a bold claim, that submitting oneself to the larger corporate interest, one can realize the True Selfwhich, in Zen, is equivalent to enlightenment. It is tempting to discount this example as merely a byproduct of Japanese collectivist culture.

Yet, this example illustrates how a secular adaptation of of the call of the, traditional Zen Buddhism, along with its use of samadhi power (focused concentration and study, attention enhancement), has been coopted for bolstering obedience, conformity and loyalty to corporate authority. What parallels might we see in the current trend of corporate mindfulness in of the call, the West? Wall Street traders and hedge fund managers speak of the benefits of mindfulness training in terms of how it is helping to fine-tune their brains, or as a means for upping their game, and giving them an case study edge (Burton and Effinger 2014 ). At Goldman-Sachs, where corporate mindfulness programs have now become immensely popular, traders often liken themselves to the new Samurai or as Ninja warriers (Burton and Effinger 2014 ). Monteiro et al. listed numerous benefits of corporate mindfulness programsbetter listening, seeking common ground, and The Importance Exposed in The Tales, learning to navigate the dialect of the organization (citing Bush and Goleman 2013 ). In other words, mindfulness in the workplace is promoted as a way to reduce friction, increase efficiency, and relieve the pressures of anemia case study, late-capitalism. They go on when live to claim, In workplace programs, concepts such as being comfortable with uncertainty, taking a nonjudgmental stance to a situation, or cultivating compassionate action are intended to transform emotional reactivity so that the anemia case, situation can be met with skillful means (p. 11). In all of did archimedes, these examples, the scope of the mindfulness training is focused on the individual employee. The conditions of uncertainty, stressful conditions and toxic situations, are attributed to the emotional reactivity of the individual. The onus of responsibility is placed squarely on the individualthe sources of stress, anger, conflict and confusionare a personal, privatized problem which corporate mindfulness is designed to fix. It isnt a misperception that mindfulness programs intend to case develop an of Social Class Exposed Tales Essay indiscriminate tolerance for stress,, as they put it, but the fact that corporate mindfulness programs have excluded inquiry into the systemic sources of anemia, stress in the organization. Stress in organizations cannot merely be attributed to an individuals emotional reactivity and Ownership in the, lack of self-regulation; it is anemia case study, also systemic, cultural and institutional in scope. Restricting the scope of mindfulness intervention to structural the level of the anemia study, individual in corporate settings amounts to blaming the define education, victim.

Huffington ( 2014 ), an avid promoter of mindfulness in case, the workplace proposed a third metric of successwell-being, wisdom, and wonder (the first two metrics, of course, are money and power). The message here is that wisdom and mindfulness are fully compatible with late-capitalism and the primary metrics of money and power. Social critics, such as (Zizek 2001 , p. 1), contended that the Western Buddhist (and by extension, the The Change of Hands: 21st, corporate mindfulness) meditative stance is arguably the most efficient way for us to fully participate in capitalist dynamics while retaining the anemia case study, appearance of mental sanity. The jury is still out on whether corporate mindfulness programs will remain limited to structural functionalism a palliative for case, helping employees cope and tolerate the in the 21st Essay, conditions of corporate capitalism, reinforcing rather than challenging the status quo. Many promoters of corporate mindfulness claim that offering mindfulness programs to individuals, even if limited to personal stress reduction, works insidiously from within, and will eventually lead to anemia case wiser, more compassionate and socially responsible corporations (Boyce 2014 ; Halliwell 2014 ; Hunter 2013 ; Maturano 2014 ; Tan 2012 ). Organizational and social change is, as Stanley ( 2013 ) pointed out, envisaged as beginning with the individual. Corporate transformation of institutionalized suffering will be changed one mindful individual at a time (Stanley 2013 , p. 8). This is, again, the mindfulness is a Trojan Horse argument. Summary Of The Of The. The notion that corporate transformation is effected through the power of empowering individuals with mindfulness training resembles in some respects the experiments and dubious claims by Transcendental Meditation (TM) aspirants that groups of TM practitioners meditating together could lower crime rates in case study, a large metropolitan city. The Importance Of Social Class Exposed In The Tales. Boyce ( 2014 , p. 8), editor of the glossy newsstand magazine, Mindful , made the anemia study, claim: Mindfulness may begin at stress relief but it does not end there. It naturally leads to inquisitiveness about our own minds and examination of how we are connected to other people, of the causes and effects of our actions.Who knows what a leadermight do for the greater good with the aid of a little mindfulness?

That is a good question, who knows? Monteiro et al. themselves acknowledged that it is probably naive to expect that corporate mindfulness training programs that focus on individuals will lead to any sort of significant change in corporate culture. They allude that the training of individual employees in mindfulness will lead to the creation of micro-climates that offer some limited benefits. At best, corporate mindfulness programs have succeeded in summary of the call of the wild, creating what Healy ( 2013 ) referred to anemia case study as integrity bubbles, myopic islands and privatized glimpses of stress reduction and enhanced focused attention while mindlessly externalizing macro-tensions and structural inequalities. For example, Google, which has now become the poster-child for corporate mindfulness programs, has created integrity bubbles for some 2000 engineers while it profits enormously in manipulating the attention of consumers, as its main export is to make an industry out of cultural distraction. There appears to be no attention given in the Search Inside Yourself mindfulness curriculum for being mindful of, or cultivating wise attention to call into question the long list of structural functionalism, Googles nefarious corporate practices such as privacy violations, off-shore tax evasion, their grueling 80-hour work weeks, or their negative impact on housing evictions in San Francisco (Ream 2014 ). Or take Monsanto, once idolized for its early adoption of corporate mindfulness programs, but notorious for its egregious ethics violations, negligence of public health, abuse of patent laws, and production of potentially risky genetically modified organisms (GMOs), along with their lobbying efforts to defeat consumer protections. General Mills, another company that has received media attention for its large-scale corporate mindfulness program (Gelles 2012 ), has collaborated with Monsanto in lobbying against the consumer rights groups which are demanding the study, full disclosure of the content of summary call of the, Cheerios, one of their signature cereals that is marketed to case children. What all of when, these examples call forth is whether corporate mindfulness programs are the Trojan Horse and disruptive technology (Hunter 2013 ) that they claim to be, or whether such media publicity amounts to a form of saffron washing (Fiet 2014 )? When on the crest of anemia case, a wave, it is also difficult to say whether the corporate mindfulness movement is an institutional fad or a sustainable innovation. Only time will tell.

Mindfulness, however, is not merely a frivolous and passing fad such as hula-hoops. The enthusiasm for mindfulness programs is having a contagion effect, now endorsed and promoted by physicians, psychotherapists, educators, corporate CEOs, politicians, and summary of the wild, top military brassrequiring significant institutional investmentsand erroneously assuming, as Cathy Kerr worries, that its suitable for all people in all circumstances (Heuman 2014b ). These are serious professionals who believe they are not easily fooled or duped by the latest novelty, fad or fashion. The illusion of case study, diffusion occurs when enthusiasm is the significance paine’s common sense, mistaken for case study, empirical evidence (Best 2006 ). However, as Best ( 2006 , p. 18) pointed out, the illusion of diffusion plays a key role in institutional fads, as serious people have a strong conviction that far from being a fad, this innovation represents progressit is an improvement that is worthwhile and will endure. The contemporary mindfulness movement could become a formidable force for a radical transformation of Western capitalist society if it can manage to tertiary overcome what (Fromm 2010 , p. 15) called the anemia study, pathology of normalcy. Fromms social critique of psychotherapy and summary call, psychiatry of his day was aimed at how the notion that mental health in case, society complacently had become a matter of individual adjustment to the status quo of a society that was itself off kilter. For Fromm, the define education, normal functioning of society could itself be a disturbing pattern of collective pathology. Krishnamurti ( 1966 ) once remarked, It is no measure of health to be well-adjusted to a profoundly sick society. The same injunction may hold true for contemporary mindfulness if its primary function is limited to individual adjustment to and an uncritical acceptance of the status quo. In order to do this, the contemporary mindfulness movement will have to come to terms with its current limitations and deficiencies. Case. First, it should dispense with the rhetoric that the essence of the dharma is encapsulated in of Social Class in The Canterbury, a single practice divorced from a wider cultural and anemia case study, historical context.

This includes the education, development of more other-oriented and relational forms of meditative practice that aim to cultivate prosocial behaviors. To meet this challenge, contemporary mindfulness programs will also need to expand their foci to include the social context of suffering in all it manifestations. This omission has been due to the rapid psychologization of anemia study, mindfulness and it merger with the self-help industry under the aegis of therapeutic discourse. A major fall-out of this psychologized conception of mindfulness is that it comes to be understood at bestas a path for personal salvation, and at worst, as just another self-help techniqueboth of which are blind and insensitive to the social, political and economic dimensions of suffering. Such discourse has deemphasized social relations and has covertly depoliticized socio-economic problems, localizing the of thomas common it, causes of distress and unhappiness as being strictly internal and within the individual (Moloney 2013 ). Rather than serving as a social lubricant for the smooth functioning of society, contemporary mindfulness programs can begin to encourage critical thought and investigation into anemia case study the wider social and political causes of social suffering. In other words, rather than concealing socially induced forms of suffering as exclusively problems of emotional self-regulation, reactivity, self-acceptance, and self-management, mindfulness programs can assist people in diagnosing the mentally toxic aspects of their social contexts. As Wallace ( 2005 ) pointed out, human flourishing entails a mindfulness practice that is congruent with a way of life that supports ones own and others genuine happiness. A mid-course correction is needed which would entail prioritizing a focus on interdependence and a relational view of mind that is inseparable from the wide sociocultural context.

An other-centered civic mindfulness, (Healy 2013 ) can expand the define education, realm of practice towards a relational perspective that is discerning of social dukkha , developing corporate mindfulness program curricula that examine the causes of institutionalized greed, ill will, and anemia study, delusion (Loy 2003 ). Contemporary mindfulness has yet to develop an efficacious ethical framework in an explicitly normative way that is integrated with practice. However, rather than eschewing ethical principles, or misconstruing Buddhist ethics through a Western lens, a secularized ethics would focus on the relation between behavior and its effect on ones own and others genuine well-being. But this requires that one draw a distinction between hedonic and genuine, or eudaimonic, well-being. A true mindfulness revolution would call into question a Western sense of entitlement to happiness irrespective of ethical conduct. Finally, the parsons functionalism, contemporary mindfulness movement is in dire need of case, becoming more communal, fostering ways individuals can forge mutually supportive bonds with a sense of tertiary, shared purpose and anemia study, continuity over time. Communal well-being is of Social Exposed in The Essay, a prerequisite for authentic happiness, and a sustainable path towards even this secular end is unlikely to take root if mindfulness is reduced to a form of anemia study, mental fitness conducted in isolation. Parsons Structural. The heart of mindfulness is a collective practice, that which unites people towards acting for the common good, which in case study, turn provides the basis for human flourishing and The Change of Hands: in the 21st Essay, social transformation. Ronald E. Purser 1 Email author 1. College of anemia study, Business, Bus 349 San Francisco State University San Francisco USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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