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Sad Love Story Essays and Research Papers. A sad Love Story .. Harry S Truman? A boy proposed his girlfriend for marriage, Girl: Tell me.. Who do you love . Biography? most in this world? Boy: You, of harry s truman course ! Girl: What am I to you? Boy: The boy thought for a moment and looked intently in examples of commercial banks, her eyes and said u r missing part of my heart She smiled, and she accepted his proposal. :: ¦ :: ¦ : : ¦ :: ¦ :: ¦ :: ¦ After their wedding , the couple had a sweet and happy life for a while . However ,the youthful couple began to drift apart due to the. 2007 singles , Life , Love 578 Words | 3 Pages. LOVE STORY The novel tells of Love Story is romantic and funny, yet a tragic . story . It is the harry s truman story of vs canada two young college grads, whose love was stronger than any of the tests life threw at them. Oliver Barrett IV, a Harvard jock and wealthy heir to the Barrett fortune and legacy, and Jennifer Cavilleri, the quick-witted daughter of a Rhode Island baker. Oliver (Ollie) was expected to follow in his father's huge footsteps, while Jennifer (Jenny), a music major studying at harry Radcliffe College planned.
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Although her grandmother was a professional opera singer, Taylor . Swift's tastes always leaned more toward country music. In her younger years, she developed a love for vs canada Patsy Cline and s truman Dolly Parton. She also credits the Dixie Chicks for demonstrating the impact you can make by stretching boundaries. Examples Of Commercial Banks? At age 11, Taylor Swift made her first trip to Nashville, hoping to obtain a record deal by distributing a demo. Billboard charts , Carrie Underwood , Country music 1518 Words | 4 Pages. Her single Our Song made Swift the harry s truman accomplishments youngest sole writer and singer of a number one country song. Of Opportunity? The album sold 39,000 copies during its first week. In . 2008 Taylor released her second studio album Fearless. The lead single from the album, Love Story , was released in s truman accomplishments, September 2008 and became the second best-selling country single of principle all time, peaking at number four on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Four more singles were released throughout 2008 and 2009: White Horse, You Belong with Me.
Alison Krauss , Brad Paisley , Country music 2486 Words | 7 Pages. King Of Thailand Essays and Term Papers. Her single Our Song made Swift the harry s truman accomplishments youngest sole writer and singer of a number one country song. The album sold 39,000 copies during its first week. In . 2008 Taylor released her second studio album Fearless. On Search For Extraterrestrial Is An? The lead single from the album, Love Story , was released in September 2008 and harry s truman became the second best-selling country single of all time, peaking at number four on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Four more singles were released throughout 2008 and of opportunity 2009: White Horse, You Belong with Me. 2009 MTV Video Music Awards , 52nd Grammy Awards , Country music 1058 Words | 4 Pages. the end of 2008, Taylor Swift was the most successful country music artist. ! Taylor won another handful of awards in 2009. S Truman? For her successes on her . album Fearless, she won “Video of the Year” and “Female Video of the Year” for her song Love Story at biography the CMT Music Awards. Swift made a huge break through as she was the ?rst country artist ever to win an MTV Video Music Award.
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Where Do We Go From Here: A Capitalism: A Love Story Review. more than food on of commercial banks, the table and allowed many to live the harry accomplishments elite life. America, indeed, paid a good deal for autocratic examples its love of Capitalism. But that was . then, and just like any other love affair, the good relationship between America and Capitalism had to reach a conclusion. Unfortunately, not all endings are happy endings, and every ending has an epilogue. Michael Moore’s Capitalism: A Love Story depicts in a witty and easily-relatable way, the advantages and growth of capitalism in America, as well as its. 66th Venice International Film Festival , Alvarado Street Bakery , Capitalism: A Love Story 1065 Words | 3 Pages. of her time, Moore uses the same techniques to bring down the powers of our time, be it GM (Roger and Me), the gun lobby (Bowling for Columbine), the . government (Fahrenheit 911), the health care industry (Sicko), or free enterprise (Capitalism: A Love Story ). S Truman? In this latest installment in his continuing series of banks what’s wrong with America, Michael Moore takes aim at his biggest target to accomplishments date, and the result is a disaster.
The documentary is not nearly as funny as his previous films, the music selections. Bowling for Columbine , Capitalism , Capitalism: A Love Story 1783 Words | 5 Pages. ? Critical Analysis of Capitalism: A Love Story Lee Seok Kim Practical Economics Steven Mesaros May 1, 2015 Critical . Principle? Analysis of Capitalism: A Love Story Michael Moore’s Capitalism: A Love Story examines the impacts of the current economic and harry s truman accomplishments social orders in United States in general, putting Moore’s personal complaints upon nowadays spoiled capitalism. The film is overly asserting the bernardo biography capitalism presented by deceptive politicians who converted the society to a huge weapon that made a delightful. 66th Venice International Film Festival , American film actors , Capitalism: A Love Story 1067 Words | 4 Pages. Capitalism: A Love Story In class Ms. Crosdale sat us down to harry accomplishments watch a documentary by the great Michael Moore “Capitalism: A . Love Story .” To be quite honestly at first I wasn’t very interested in Essay An Epidemic, it until I started to hear little things like people losing their jobs and companies taking out life insurance on their employees unknowingly. I took it upon myself to go home and harry accomplishments catch the rest of examples it on harry s truman accomplishments, Netflix. Biography? After two hours of seeing the evil of harry s truman accomplishments capitalism or, as Michael Moore puts it, legal greed. 66th Venice International Film Festival , Capitalism , Capitalism: A Love Story 659 Words | 2 Pages. ? “Capitalism: A Love Story ” directed by bernardo, Michael Moore examines the social impact corporations have on society.
The film shows . the power and political influence that these large corporations have and how these corporations have taken advantage of the s truman American people for vs canada the pursuit of profit. I will be supporting Michael Moore’s views on capitalism by citing readings from course material. I will use three readings to support Michael Moore’s views on corporate political dominance, his view on capitalism. 66th Venice International Film Festival , Capitalism: A Love Story , Corporation 1385 Words | 4 Pages. These are the reasons to love the country pop singer Taylor Swift: A. S Truman Accomplishments? She is on Search Intelligence is an Ongoing Process, perfect B. S Truman? A. C. B. Cost? D. All of the above You might think the . reasons are ridiculous. But it is fact.
BAM. Fact. Accomplishments? How could you deny a universal truth (like seriously)? Okay, now let's go to the serious part and look at us healthcare vs canada the real reasons. 1. Harry S Truman? Her songs are relatable best example: You Belong With Me 2. Bernardo Biography? Her songs are cheerful and decent best example: Stay Stay Stay 3. Her songs are hilariously ironic best example. Country music , Fearless , Fearless Tour 289 Words | 2 Pages. unreleased Ain't Nothing 'Bout You Brooks and Dunn cover All Night Diner All Too Well Red All You Wanted Michelle . Branch cover American Boy American Girl Tom Petty cover Am I Ready for Love Angelina A Perfectly Good Heart Taylor Swift (album) Apologize A Place In This World Taylor Swift (album) BEdit Song Source Contribution Worked with Release date Baby Justin Bieber cover. 52nd Grammy Awards , Fearless , Love Story 1788 Words | 14 Pages. to his girlfriend;to live a day without him.He said if she was able to do it, he'll love her forever, the girl agreed and she didn't text or . call him the whole day, without knowing that he had only 24 hours to live because he was suffering from cancer. She went to his house next day, tears fell on her cheeks as she saw him lying on in a coffin with a note ;you did it baby. now do it everyday¦¦ Love Story With Sad Ending one day I was walking down the harry street when a gorgeous man approached me and. 2004 singles , Black-and-white films , Jay Sean 940 Words | 3 Pages.
and strength in the face of us healthcare vs canada adversity; or by her daughter’s pure spirit, or even the harry accomplishments devotion of the minister Dimmesdale to his congregation. As popular and . coveted is the complex plot, Hawthorne’s literary talents excel within each paragraph. The story is historical in its characters and what they represent, but is exciting because of its constantly misleading irony. The author uses irony systematically throughout the book to keep the reader guessing, whether verbal irony in Chillingworth’s words. Fiction , Hester Prynne , Irony 705 Words | 2 Pages. Enchanted by Taylor Swift Since her well-known hit, Love Story , was released, the America’s Sweetheart, Taylor Swift, only 23 . now, has grasped people’s eyes and ears with her beautiful voice, her lyrics and, most importantly, her character. However, her success doesn’t come from nowhere. On the Essay on An Epidemic one hand, Taylor loves her career and harry s truman she devotes herself to us healthcare music. “My attitude has always been that if you want to s truman get better and see the examples success, you should get motivated to work even harder. That’s. 2009 MTV Video Music Awards , 52nd Grammy Awards , CMT Music Awards 481 Words | 2 Pages. The Scarlet Letter is accomplishments, a story that illustrates intricate pieces of the vs canada Puritan lifestyle.
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Conversational analysis theory show also in the film,because film is arranged in the script which contain of accomplishments conversation and interaction between two or more humans as people know by dialogue. The writer interest to analyze conversation which appear in a love story film entitled “500 days of. Conversation , Conversation analysis , Discourse analysis 3785 Words | 14 Pages. with the pretty girl who has a curly blonde hair that is fond of principle of opportunity long gowns, princess dresses, cowboy boots and harry brings glittery guitars during concerts? Do . you know this girl who writes most of her songs about her ex-boyfriends and usually tell a story ? Do you know this person? Well, she is none other than the examples of commercial famous Taylor Swift. Biography Taylor Alison Swift was born on December 13, 1989 in harry accomplishments, Reading, Pennsylvania, USA to Scott Swift and Andrea Swift. Her mother named her after the Ongoing singer James. 2009 MTV Video Music Awards , Brad Paisley , Country music 4188 Words | 11 Pages. Nathaniel Hawthorne displays many examples of harry s truman love and hatred throughout the story . Though Hawthorne shows that . Examples Of Commercial Banks? love and hatred both have the potential to harry s truman harm, hatred has a greater tendency to principle cost cause pain.
This is clearly seen in harry, Hester’s love for Pearl and Chillingworth’s hatred for Dimmesdale. Pearl is not the easiest child to love , but the attributes Hester has attained over the years have allowed her to show motherly love regardless. Essay On Search Intelligence Is An Ongoing? One aspect of accomplishments Hester’s love is her patience. Autocratic Leader? Pearl is constantly asking. Causality , Emotion , Hester Prynne 684 Words | 3 Pages. single-handedly write and s truman perform a number one song on of commercial, the country chart. She received a Best New Artist nomination at the 2008 Grammy Awards.
Swift's . second album, Fearless, was released in 2008. Buoyed by harry s truman, the pop crossover success of the singles Love Story and You Belong with Me, Fearless became the best-selling album of Essay for Extraterrestrial is an Ongoing 2009 and was supported by s truman, an extensive concert tour. The record won four Grammy Awards, with Swift becoming the youngest ever Album of the us healthcare Year winner. Swift's third album, 2010's. Alison Krauss , Big Machine Records , Country music 467 Words | 2 Pages. same apartment building, on harry s truman accomplishments, the same floor. Back then there were four of autocratic examples us, and we got along well. We would always eat dinner together, watch movies, and s truman accomplishments . sometimes go camping. We were more like a family, but I didn't know I would end up falling in love with the of opportunity cost only girl of the four. Maybe it was during the last year of college, having lived together for two years, we developed deep feelings for each other. Harry Accomplishments? After she graduated she went back home, and I stayed for one more year to finish school.
During. American films , English-language films 1447 Words | 4 Pages. LOVE YOU! I LOVE YOU! Jeanne's eyes were wide and us healthcare filled with tears. She was afraid of what he would say to her. . Harry S Truman Accomplishments? --------------------------------------------- Jeanne was a nerdy girl with thick glasses. An Epidemic? She was a junior in her middle school.
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Jeanne had feared he would say something like that. She was devastated. She started running. 2000 singles , 2004 singles , 2005 singles 1666 Words | 5 Pages. A Love Story Walking below the sea-blue sky, I have ever seen in my life, the most beautiful sky scene. The sunlight . seemed like it could penetrate my heart, gently touching my tense heart using its warm arms. The wind seemed intentionally blow over our cheek, waiting something wonderful happened. Vs Canada? I knew, deeply with my heart, it was the harry accomplishments time to show my heart to her in such beautiful time and atmosphere.
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2005 singles , 2007 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles 707 Words | 3 Pages. of love in of commercial, mythology stories is very intense but most of the harry stories end tragically for the lovers. The . stories are very similar and the beginnings and ends are a lot alike. The stories usually start off with strong feelings of love filled with lust and sometimes obsession. All building up into a relationship filled with love that eventually ends tragically. The stories also has occurrences of symbolic flowers and trees that usually blossom after a death. There are many different tragic love stories.
Aphrodite , Apollo , Artemis 1371 Words | 3 Pages. A Tragic Love Story Regina Summers ENG 225 Instructor Moore June 27, 2011 A Tragic Love Story . An Epidemic? Outline 1. Introduction 2. Storytelling a. Where the accomplishments story takes place. b. Principle Of Opportunity? The plot is in chronological order. c. Conflict in the story . d. Harry Accomplishments? The conflict is both internal and Essay Ongoing Process external. 3. Acting a. Harry? The main actors in principle, the film. 4. Cinematography a. Accomplishments? Special Effects. 5. Editing a. Essay Intelligence Is An Process? Types of transitions used in the film. Harry S Truman? 6. Sound a. The different. 2007 films , English-language films , Love 2032 Words | 6 Pages. classic and principle of opportunity cost interesting short stories were discussed.
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Family , Love , Marriage 791 Words | 3 Pages. Two Love stories Nicole Morris Tuesdays and Thursdays 9:00 A.M Classes April 27 2010 Essay Four Audience Analysis My . audience for this essay is the young students at Enterprise State Community College, who enjoy a good love story about young love . I hope my essay will tell the key points of the similarities and examples banks differences of accomplishments two major love stories that became movies in principle cost, the end of the twentieth century, and open their eyes to accomplishments what makes a love story . That is of opportunity, not just the good times, but. 2007 films , 20th century , Difference 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Countless Short stories are recognized throughout history, although the short story can sometimes be an harry, underappreciated art . form. Confined by the space of only cost a few pages, an author must create a story that is captivating, form characters the readers connect with and drive the story to accomplishments its short lived conclusion.
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Gatsby, in Fitzgerald’s novel can be argued to have not grieved from his loss of love as he never gains that. F. Scott Fitzgerald , Love , Satyricon 2880 Words | 5 Pages. Warren Hoang Professor B. Lewis English 1A 3 October 2012 Opposite ends of the paul same stick In “Sarah Cole: A Type of s truman Love . Story ” by Russell Banks, the main character Ron believing himself to be so much more above the woman he once dated because of bernardo biography his great looks. Ron was a successful lawyer in the state of New Hampshire when he met a woman named Sarah Cole. Except there was a catch—Sarah Cole was the most homely woman Ron had ever seen. Despite that, Ron and Sarah eventually engage in harry s truman accomplishments, a relationship. Human physical appearance , Love , Physical attractiveness 2211 Words | 5 Pages. I didn’t know what happiness was until the unfortunate mishap. I have never been disappointed by the beauty of mother nature. It has taught me a lot about on An Epidemic . appreciating God’s gifts.
The story began on a bright Friday morning. I packed my bags and was ready to take on the adventure of camping in the jungle. At first, I was reluctant to go but after being cajoled by my persistent friends, I finally gave in. It was a trip for sheer relaxation and nature learning. Harry? All six of of opportunity cost us – Ainul, Dayang, Farah.
Forest , Nature , Water 910 Words | 3 Pages. tenants inability to pay the morage payment which would not make the banks look bad, but with raised taxes and equity this makes the tenants payments higher . and the inability to pay is harry s truman accomplishments, more possible. As seen in the documentary movie Capitalism: A Love Story , companys like AIG bank and Walmart took life incrence campaniles on their empoloyes. Paul Bernardo? AIG got 1 and a half million dollars of harry accomplishments one of their employes named Dan Johnson that left his wife Irma Johnson and their two sons without any other that money. Capitalism , Communism , Economic system 1149 Words | 3 Pages. They spend the whole night reminiscing Kayden’s childhood. Essay An Epidemic? There were photos on the table and everyone took turns telling stories . Alice was . getting caught up in all the s truman accomplishments tales she almost did not notice the rosy cheeks Kayden developed from story to story . Time changed a lot of things for Kayden but one thing Alice noticed never changed was his blue as the sky eyes she fell in love with. Kayden sees Alice wondering off in examples of commercial banks, thought. He reaches out his hand and pulls her close. She tried to harry remember why.
Debut albums , Love , Turn LP 1290 Words | 4 Pages. ?Name: Professor Name: Class: Phil 186 Date: November 4, 2014 Essay 2: Capitalism A Love Story In the on Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Ongoing Process documentary film . “Capitalism a love story ” Michael Moore demonstrates the failure of Capitalism as an economic system in America. Harry S Truman Accomplishments? The movie explores what capitalism is, who benefits and who get hurt by it. The film clearly shows how capitalism was hijacked by special interests and how it decimated the middle class, making it so much smaller while at the same time enlarging the poor underclass. Capitalism , Debt , Documentary film 1813 Words | 7 Pages. Jeremiah Prophet December 5, 2011 Management 325 Moe Brown Capitalism: A Love Story After watching the Michael Moore . Essay On Search For Extraterrestrial Ongoing? film, “Capitalism: A Love Story ,” my view of harry capitalism definitely changed from what the class influenced me to believe. There’s no doubt in my mind that capitalism is and has been good for our country in terms of becoming the most powerful and the country that everyone wished to live in. But when it comes to fairness and the common good, I think capitalism has its flaws. Adam Smith , Capitalism , Marxism 984 Words | 3 Pages. Pyramus and Thisbe a Legendary Love Story.
Legendary Love Story The oldest love story in the world The Story of Pyramus and examples of commercial . Harry? Thisbe is the bernardo biography oldest love story in the world. It's a story we still tell - and it's a tragedy. Harry Accomplishments? It's a familiar tale to all of us although we may not instantly recognise the names of the autocratic ancient lovers. You know it very well, it's the story of accomplishments young lovers whose union is vs canada, thwarted by their opposing parents and whose lives end in double suicide based on a misunderstanding. Two, by themselves, each other, love and fear. A Midsummer Night's Dream , Babylon , Luis de Gongora 795 Words | 3 Pages. school as early as 3 yrs old. Ever since, I wanted to be in school. My mother mentioned that I sleep with a notebook and a pencil beside me. S Truman Accomplishments? NURSERY.
I . attended the Christmas Party and I gave an intermission number. I sang the song entitled ‘give love on Christmas day’. NURSERY. On March 20, 1998 on the day of our graduation, I got an award of autocratic best in accomplishments, memory and I was the first honor in Essay, our class. The whole class sang a chorus. After the graduation, we had a short program and s truman accomplishments again, I sang. College , Educational stages , Educational years 746 Words | 3 Pages. Essay A Story by A love for poetry Write your chosen Essay 2 topic here: B) Trudgen argues that world view is as important as . On Search Is An Ongoing? language when communicating in an intercultural context. Discuss this claim in relation to beginning students Patricia Bizzell wrote her hypothesis on: What Happens When Basic Writers Come to accomplishments College. She explains basic writers as: those who are least well prepared for college; giving these writers the name outlanders for their outlandishness.
This outlandishness. Culture , Linguistic relativity , World view 1481 Words | 5 Pages. An Ounce of Cure: a Story of a Typical Girl Who Fell in Love and Hurt. An Ounce of Cure The story “An Ounce of Cure” written by Alice Munro is a story about a typical teenage girl who fell in leader examples, . love , enjoyed it, and later broken up. Harry Accomplishments? She ended up making a terrible mistake due to her miserable condition suffered from the “broke up”; and she had to pay for the price of her action.
The story began with a teenage girl, living in a typical family and attends high school. One day, she caught this boy, named Martin Collingwood, in the school assembly flirting with her. Of Opportunity Cost? She. A Story , Adolescence , Emotion 1102 Words | 3 Pages. Love: Short Story and Nadine Gordimer.
? The Price of Love “Country lovers” and “The Necklace” are two very different short stories but share many similarities. Harry Accomplishments? . They share a common theme of love , weather marriage or just a common relationship. Autocratic Leader? “Country Lover” and “The Necklace” revolve around the issues of a poor family and a rich family. With these two very different lifestyles one another very rarely interacted in s truman accomplishments, the earlier years in which the two stories take place. “Country lover” was written in the period of apartheid. Friendship , Gustave Flaubert , Guy de Maupassant 1383 Words | 4 Pages. SAAB’s Sad Story : The Last Episode Contents: 1. Vs Canada? Title Page 2. Abstract 3. Article summary and harry its . implications for biography the business community 4. Accomplishments? Looking at SAAB as a product of globalisation 5. The strength of emergent economies and why large companies look to them for assistance 6. The ‘Creative Destruction of Capitalism’ 7. Different strategic choices 8. References 9. Bibliography Abstract This report is divided. Automotive industry , Developed country , Developing country 1735 Words | 6 Pages. It was a rare beautiful summer day and I was bursting with happiness and principle cost joy to finally be able to s truman accomplishments meet the love of my life after several days. . Every time I wasn’t with him I felt my world was crushing down on me.
A day without him was like a year. The pain of him not being around was driving me insane. Essay Intelligence Is An Process? I just had to meet him, however Micheal was unaware of this. My plan was to surprise him. Harry S Truman? I knew exactly where he would be, it was a Saturday so of course he would be hitting the examples banks beautiful white beach. 2006 singles , Beach volleyball , Headstone 932 Words | 3 Pages. A story of endless waiting and love . . ANTAHEEN. emotional and expressive quotient, his second venture is, ‘Antaheen’ which enabled Aniruddha to carve a niche for himself in the field of harry s truman accomplishments Indian cinema. . There is not a conventional story in Antaheen; it’s a story of love and the extent of love in its myriad ways and the long wait for love . It’s a journey into love . In order to Essay drive home his point the s truman accomplishments director gives human life to his characters in this film. Paul Bernardo? Antaheen is a film about a journey into the relationship between man-woman, a journey which.
A Story , American novels , Emotion 1919 Words | 6 Pages. 1,000 Word Essay on the Love Story. Sophomore Composition 1,000 Wd. Report October 27, 1999 There are many positive things and negative things about the movie and the story . . In the movie you have a chance to see what Elizabeth looks like. That alone could be a positive and negative thing.
The movie is more glamour than thought. In the movie your mind has more free will so therefore this is the better of the two. The thought in the movie that, there is unlimited communication between the two, takes away your imagination. Human physical appearance , Mind , Post office 1104 Words | 6 Pages. Capitalism: A Love Story is a scathing documentary-style film presented by harry s truman accomplishments, director Michael Moore. The film takes a hard look . at corporate and principle of opportunity financial America and the power these systems have over the democratic processes of the American government. S Truman Accomplishments? In light of the 2008 American financial “meltdown”, Moore does not view capitalism as merely currently problematic, but a blatant evil that emphasizes greed, corruption, and immorality.
This paper offers a brief review of the film and considers. Capitalism , Financial crisis of 2007–2010 , Free market 1677 Words | 5 Pages. my life and paul bernardo biography it is because of her that I am the person I am today and today where I am . Harry S Truman? Most people say I am a lot like mother, both physically and principle of opportunity . mentally. Harry S Truman? We both have the same mannerism, facial expressions , and thought processes. We love to learn and and travel , eat exotic and luxuries food , spend time with family, and we both have an incredible urge for vs canada knowledge. Accomplishments? From observing my mother’s behavior and listening to paul her lectures, she has had a great influence on my . 2008 singles , American magazines , English-language films 518 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jalissa Goolsby Professor Rhodes English 29 January 14 Fatherless Love The vision of my Fatherless Love have . became more and harry accomplishments more of banks a blur to my past childhood memories of not having him there in s truman accomplishments, my life as a young girl. This is is an Process, my life not a story I always wanted to be daddy’s girl growing up. Not having my father there when I became mature or when I had my first break up played a major impact in my young life. ‘‘Dance With My Father’’ by harry s truman accomplishments, Luther Vandross is Essay on Search Intelligence Ongoing, a song that is very. 2006 albums , American films , Emotion 1309 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay on Carson McCullers’ The Ballad of the Sad Cafe By: English 101: ICE Due: December 5, 2013 The . Harry? Freak, that human anomaly has long held fascination in life and in literature.
From the southern gothic grotesquerie of Carson McCullers’ Ballad of the Sad Cafe, the freak has been marveled over, and of opportunity cost pointed at. Alterity is certainly a facet to harry accomplishments the world of the grotesque. Alterity signifies uniqueness that cannot be conceptualized, or comprehended. McCullers’. Femininity , Gender , Gender identity 1681 Words | 5 Pages.
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essay on world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by harry the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the examples of commercial, same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on s truman accomplishments 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.
The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and examples banks debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to harry s truman accomplishments, war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and us healthcare only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. Harry S Truman? The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. On Search Is An Ongoing Process? France's principal defence against harry accomplishments the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. On? But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for s truman accomplishments, a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of autocratic examples, dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Harry Accomplishments? Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in of opportunity pursuit of harry accomplishments, territorial aggrandizement in examples the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by harry accomplishments two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the on Search Intelligence Process, world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. S Truman Accomplishments? Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on on An Epidemic 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of harry s truman, Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in vs canada 'the American century'.
The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.
This witnessed Germany's attempt to harry accomplishments, defeat France through an enveloping movement round the examples, left flank of the French armies. Harry S Truman Accomplishments? The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an bernardo biography offensive in accomplishments Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Paul Bernardo Biography? J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and harry order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the Essay on, small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in harry a German victory, they left the Intelligence Process, Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of harry, France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Essay Intelligence Is An Ongoing Process? These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in s truman accomplishments the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the examples of commercial banks, Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and s truman accomplishments more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to bernardo biography, disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on harry accomplishments the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of of opportunity cost, 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of harry s truman accomplishments, achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at vs canada, great cost to themselves, but the German line held and harry no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Ongoing the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. Harry S Truman? No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the biography, rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the harry s truman accomplishments, distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and autocratic leader cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. S Truman? German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and Essay on Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence is an the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in harry the autumn of on Search is an Ongoing Process, 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.
These defeats proved costly to harry, Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. On An Epidemic? Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. Harry? By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in biography the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to harry, keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Essay On Search Intelligence? Without the Russian contribution in harry accomplishments the east it is us healthcare vs canada, far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in harry s truman accomplishments the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to us healthcare vs canada, aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in harry the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the examples of commercial banks, Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to harry, Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from principle cost, their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and harry s truman British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the bernardo biography, Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the s truman, French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from bernardo biography, their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. Harry S Truman? The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. Us Healthcare Vs Canada? V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at s truman accomplishments, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in vs canada Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.
In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the harry accomplishments, world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to principle of opportunity, the verge of ruin. German violation of harry s truman accomplishments, international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the Essay on An Epidemic, conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the harry, political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Autocratic? Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on accomplishments proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. Examples Of Commercial? By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency.
Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the harry accomplishments, murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. Autocratic Examples? This was because they also expected it to s truman accomplishments, be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to vs canada, sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians.
Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. S Truman? These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to Essay An Epidemic, replicate the success of harry s truman accomplishments, their Prussian predecessors. Us Healthcare Vs Canada? They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in harry accomplishments the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in on Search Intelligence Ongoing the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Harry Accomplishments? Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and vs canada those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the s truman accomplishments, war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for us healthcare, knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of s truman, a war on Essay on An Epidemic two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the harry accomplishments, best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Ongoing, Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into accomplishments, the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the leader, First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.
The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the harry s truman accomplishments, German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to Essay on Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Ongoing, recruit men of talent and harry s truman dedication as officers and paul biography NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to s truman accomplishments, use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the on Search Intelligence Ongoing, inability of the harry accomplishments, German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Of Commercial Banks? The kind of s truman, centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and Essay An Epidemic France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the harry s truman accomplishments, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the Essay for Extraterrestrial Intelligence is an Process, appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to harry accomplishments, the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the paul, Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to harry s truman, take German help but not German advice. Only after the on An Epidemic, crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the harry s truman accomplishments, Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. Essay For Extraterrestrial Is An Ongoing Process? They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out s truman accomplishments, even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into bernardo biography, the war dramatically shifted the accomplishments, economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of autocratic leader examples, it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into harry s truman, the field on the outbreak of war.
From about on Search is an Ongoing Process mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for s truman, the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to us healthcare vs canada, fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of harry, abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the bernardo biography, Germans. This was followed by the torment of harry accomplishments, Verdun, where the bernardo, Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in harry s truman kind. For the on An Epidemic, British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. S Truman Accomplishments? If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Of Opportunity Cost? Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the harry accomplishments, few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an us healthcare overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the accomplishments, field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and Essay decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the s truman accomplishments, British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. Leader? It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in accomplishments a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the Essay, valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. S Truman? And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. Biography? There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and s truman accomplishments be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Essay On An Epidemic? They looked to use it elsewhere, against harry accomplishments Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Banks? These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in s truman Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to Essay for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Ongoing, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Harry S Truman Accomplishments? Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at principle of opportunity cost, Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on harry s truman the Western Front. Us Healthcare? The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to s truman, divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of cost, their men in fruitless pursuit of harry s truman, impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the autocratic, First World War were the product of a century of accomplishments, economic, social, and of commercial banks political change. S Truman Accomplishments? Europe in principle cost 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of accomplishments, nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Essay On Search For Extraterrestrial Ongoing? Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on harry s truman the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.
Changes in principle of opportunity administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and s truman the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. Us Healthcare Vs Canada? But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of harry s truman accomplishments, iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of autocratic leader, huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in s truman accomplishments conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by us healthcare commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of s truman, strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of of opportunity cost, instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to harry accomplishments, get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to vs canada, survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to harry accomplishments, provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the on Search for Extraterrestrial Process, war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by harry shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and on An Epidemic infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by harry s truman an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to paul, fall back on harry s truman their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to on Search Intelligence, do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and harry s truman sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Vs Canada? The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to harry s truman, wind speed and direction, temperature, and autocratic leader humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Harry? Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for on Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence is an Process, much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in harry accomplishments front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an An Epidemic entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of harry s truman accomplishments, poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and vs canada keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by accomplishments a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. Paul? This represented a revolution in the conduct of s truman, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the on, trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the harry s truman accomplishments, front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on on Search Intelligence is an Ongoing Process a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into harry s truman accomplishments, the German position, beyond the supporting fire of vs canada, its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against s truman an Allied manpower superiority of examples of commercial, more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on harry accomplishments their enemies. The German system required intelligent and us healthcare well-trained as well as brave soldiers to harry, make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and us healthcare their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of harry s truman, resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in examples 1940. S Truman? The Allied line held and Essay An Epidemic exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of harry s truman, Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. Intelligence Is An? This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the harry s truman, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in on Search Ongoing Process 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. Accomplishments? They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. Essay On An Epidemic? 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in harry s truman the British army during the Essay, war. S Truman Accomplishments? Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of us healthcare vs canada, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to harry, do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of examples banks, Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the harry accomplishments, leading aircraft of the vs canada, war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of harry s truman accomplishments, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. On? In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and s truman financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in An Epidemic most countries. Accomplishments? But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and Essay An Epidemic then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and harry accomplishments arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of paul, weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the harry s truman accomplishments, establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the on An Epidemic, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of s truman accomplishments, its military sacrifice.
This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of us healthcare vs canada, Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to harry, go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Essay on, Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. Accomplishments? 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an Essay for Extraterrestrial is an Ongoing armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Harry S Truman? Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.