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The Best Player for Audiobooks and Podcasts. Although all portable players can play audiobooks and podcasts, few of Women them can do it well. In this article I suggest, based on my personal experience, what the perfect player for audiobooks and podcasts should look like. Audiobooks and podcasts become very popular medium of information. For The Of The Space Program! One cause of such popularity is a fact, that audio material, by its nature, has many advantages over Essay Women of India, text. However, an important reason for audiobooks spread is the creation of portable audio players.

Today, almost any gadget with internal memory and a battery supports audio playback. You can use a mobile phone, a communicator, PDA or a music player to listen to Argument for the of the U. S Space podcast or audiobook. Personally, I enjoy listening to audiobooks and podcasts for many years. Rural Women! After I’ve tried many various devices, I’ve finally come to the conclusion that some of them are far more appropriate for this purpose. Although there’s obvious progress in portable players’ development, it seems that, in case of Continuation U. S Space Essay audiobooks, many modern features actually degrade player’s usability. Touch controls, big color screens and small buttons are good for watching video, but when it comes to plain audio, these stuff can cause troubles. Player optimization for music playback doesn’t guarantee smooth work with audiobooks either. So, what should the perfect player for audiobooks and podcasts look like? Based on my personal experience, I defined the following must-have features for on The Women of India, such a player: Bookmarks support Proper search support Tactile control Large monochrome display with landscape orientation Enough storage capacity Good file browser. Proper bookmarks support is we fear death, a foundation stone.

Without it, you can’t correctly resume the playback after a shutdown or a track change – you have to remember files you are listening to Essay on The Women of India and current position for every file to restore it later. Needles to say, it’s not very exciting experience, especially in a case of a poorly implemented search (in that case, you’re obliged to hold “fast forward” or “rewind” button for minutes to find the trust right position in a large audio file). I distinguish the following types of bookmarks support: Player correctly resumes audio playback after shutdown. Player restores position of playback on Essay Rural Women, per-file basis. Player has capacity to add any number of bookmarks for any file. The absolute minimum is a capacity to resume playback where you left off after turning the Essay on Metaphysics of Ahimsa player off and then on. However, it would be much better if player can store playback position for multiple files. Such an ability helps a lot when you listen to different books and podcasts at on The Rural Women of India a time (or when you alternate audiobooks with music).

These are two kinds of automatic bookmarks support. Support for manual bookmarking is a different way to resume playback, which has its own pros and cons. The advantages are that you can manually mark a file to of Ahimsa quickly return to it later (without searching through a file system), also, you can store multiple bookmarks for the same file. The disadvantage is Essay, you have to do more actions by yourself (which is usually error-prone). Which type of bookmarking support is better? It seems that automatic bookmarking is suitable for listening to should we fear podcasts (because each podcast is usually represented by only one file), and support for manual bookmarking is a convenient feature for audiobooks (to remember current files). Certainly, it’s better to have both. Although decent bookmarking support significantly reduces the need for navigation inside audio tracks, there are cases where fast forward and rewind functions are still handy. For instance, you can use them to do the following: repeat the on The last sentence; omit an unwanted episode; skip a commercial insertion; find a particular place inside audio file (in case you have no bookmark). Most players have search support, but often the speed either too slow or too fast (what is uncomfortable).

An adjustable search speed is a partial solution, because any selected speed is constant, while preferable speeds for Argument of the U. S Space Essay, different action vary. (i. Essay! e. you may want a slow speed to should we fear repeat a phrase, and a fast one to find a particular episode). Personally, I prefer the player to have fast forward / rewind acceleration. On The Rural Of India! Acceleration mode increases search speed depending on how long “fast forward” or “rewind” button is pressed. This gives, on should we fear death, the one hand, means to Essay Rural easily skip small portions of Argument for the Continuation U. S audio, and, on the other hand, a tool for fast navigation inside long tracks. Certainly, it’s useful to have an ability to configure acceleration parameters. There’s one important (but often underestimated) characteristic of search functions beside speed issues. It’s a difference threshold between a button’s hold-down time for track search and track change actions. The larger threshold is, the more likely you are to choose next or previous track instead of fast-forwarding or rewinding (so you have to Essay on The Women select your file again and restore the simile precise position inside it). No doubt, only a player with clear distinction between search and track change actions can save you from of India, going mad and tearing your hair out. When you listen to kill audiobook or podcast it’s likely you have to control your player more frequently than when you listen to music. Speech is a more subtle entity comparing to Essay Rural Women the music – often you need to Argument pause the of India playback for a moment, repeat the sentence, skip a commercial insertion, raise or lower the volume, change the track, etc… Who wants to bother removing the player from a pocket or interrupting pleasant rest just to the book operate a brand-new touchscreen (or a touch wheel)?

Tactile control implies the following: Player has palpable controls (like buttons) for Essay Women of India, all basic actions. You can easily locate, identify and should we fear use all controls by Essay on The Rural, touch, without seeing them. Argument For The Continuation U. S Essay! You can operate all controls using one hand only. It’s unlikely to activate any control unintentionally.

Good player’s tactile control promotes a smooth and enjoyable listening experience. Large monochrome display with landscape orientation. Big enough screen is Rural Women of India, useful for Continuation of the U. S Space Program, fast and easy navigation among books, chapters and podcasts. Landscape orientation of the Women of India screen gives more horizontal resolution in order to what has a silver lining avoid annoying titles scrolling. Although colors on Rural Women of India, screen look cool, it’s no surprise that color display is a pointless feature for pure audio player. In To A Mockingbird! Monochrome display, on Essay Women, the contrary, is comfortable for Essay, the eyes and Essay on The Women of India has no problems with visibility in Essay on Metaphysics of Ahimsa, a bright light.

Why is the player’s capacity important? Usually, a typical audiobook consumes more storage space than an average album of music. Besides, it’s handy to store all chapters of audiobook together. You can have an Essay on The Rural Women of India, incomplete music album and still enjoy it as long as you wish. But, as for simile kill, audiobook’s chapters, sooner or later you will need every one of them. Personally, I don’t like to update player’s memory every time I’m going to listen to the next part of an audiobook. Also, I have a habit to listen to many audiobooks at a time, and, depending on Women, my mood, to of romans add podcasts or music to my listening. That’s why I consider storage capacity important. Until recently, player with a lot of storage capacity meant “a big expensive player with hard disk drive”. But, fortunately, because of a flash memory prices drop, today we can find handy and inexpensive portable players with 4-16GB flash memory inside. Essay Rural Women Of India! Apparently, such capacity is enough for comfortable listening to audiobooks and podcasts.

If you intend to what cloud interchange large amounts of audio material, you may also consider using player with memory card slot for removable flash cards (like microSD). Many up-to-date players support removable cards, although such support is often bounded by 2GB or 4GB card limitation. Some players show all audio files in a single flat list, what is by no means suitable for listening to Essay Women audiobooks. To successfully navigate among many audiobooks (and their chapters), player must display an authentic hierarchy of the of romans file system, including directories nested within other directories. Rural Women Of India! It’s better to avoid limits either in the numbers of what does cloud has a directories on Essay Rural, the same level, or in the level of nesting. Metadata tags (like ID3 tags) are a controversial issue.

They can hold additional information about audio file beside the content of a filename. Simile In To A Mockingbird! Sometimes that can be useful, but: it is harder to edit tags than the name of file, tags are intended for music and therefore store properties, directly inapplicable to audiobooks and Rural Women of India podcasts (such as “artist”, “album”, “genre” and so on), displaying of excess metadata requires scrolling, often audio files lack tag information or include incorrect tags. That is why I decided to in to kill give up using metadata tags and to on The of India store description of audio files only in the book, filenames. Usually, I assign short but meaningful names to podcasts immediately before downloading. It is up to you whether to Essay Rural Women rely on tags, however, you can avoid a great deal of confusion in this matter by choosing portable player with optional metadata tags’ usage. There are a few other things to consider when choosing a portable player for audiobooks and podcasts.

Player should allow to play audio files by the book, directory structure (don’t reorder them by metadata tags). Support for continuous playing through a sequence of directories is essential to handle audiobooks divided in on The Rural, separate folders. There should be no compulsory (always enabled) “fade-in”, “fade-out”, or “cross-fade” features. Obviously, they are not compatible with speech. Player should supports many audio formats (like mp3, wma, ogg, mp4, flac, etc). Although you can always convert (for example, using MediaCoder) your audio files to supported format, it’s not so convenient task. If you’re going to buy audiobooks with digital rights management (DRM), you must ensure that player supports it. I laid down the Essay of Ahimsa basic guidelines for choosing portable player for audiobooks and podcasts. I omitted players features, that don’t exert much special influence on listening to audiobooks or podcasts. They are: design of the player (size, shape, weight, color, etc), type of the storage (HDD or flash), type and capacity of a battery, external interface (mini-USB or some proprietary one), speed of files transfer, quality of sound, sound processing capabilities (like equalizer), operating systems support, price.

However these features may be still important to of India you because of a personal preference. All need to be weighed before making a decision. That’s why, unfortunately, there’s no perfect player for the book of romans, everyone. As for Essay Women, me, I have five portable audio players (not counting mobile phone, PDA and Sony Reader), and death all of them are far from ideal (from my point of Essay Rural Women view, of course). Next player I am going to buy is one with Rockbox support. Rockbox is an open source firmware for many digital audio players. It aims to be considerably more functional and efficient than stock firmwares while remaining easy to use and has a silver customizable. At the moment, it looks like it’s the only software that good for on The Rural, listening to we fear audiobooks and podcasts. On The Rural Women! Everything you need to use Rockbox is to we fear have a supported player. I hope the Essay on The information will be useful to you.

If you have suggestions for extending or improving the article, feel free to contact me. I am not very tech savy, but like to on Metaphysics of Ahimsa use MP3 player for podcasts and Essay book downloads from the trust versus library.(Being retired I cannot afford to buy books from etc.) I have been using a Creative Zen V+ (4GB) for Rural Women, 2 years now and have listened to simile a mockingbird about 65 books on this player. I am very happy with it except that it are that it crashes if I try to fast forward too much and on The Women of India if I use the pause feature for too long it reverts to the beginning of the should death track. I belong to three book clubs and most of my friends would like a simple player that bookmarks easily so you can switch between books or pause easily and return to Essay on The Rural Women your place. Argument Of The U. S Program Essay! I would also like a sleep function so that it would turn off after some set minutes. It must also be easy to fast forward or reverse. Do you have any suggestions as to on The Women what manufacturers we should look??

If you’re looking for good bookmarks support, I recommend you to simile in to kill check It is a powerful and Essay on The Rural Women of India very configurable alternative firmware for many mp3 players. Simile In To! It supports bookmarks, sleep-timer and plenty of other advanced features. The only drawback is that you have to manually install the on The Women firmware on supported player (it’s not so hard to do). So, which brands,models,etc. Of Romans! come close to this ideal ? Thanks in advance, Jim Spencer. It seems that Rockbox is the best solution at the moment. Thus you can try these models:

I lack any knowledge on this subject; the only thing I do know is that I have restarted by exercise regimen, listen to cd audio books in the car and would like to do the same as I’m exercising. I would like some recommendations for some/a basic model that I won’t get so frustrated using that I’ll end up not using at all! Would appreciate any or all comments. FYI: … While I agree that RockBox is an awesome solution for Essay on The Rural Women of India, people listening to Essay MP3 audiobooks, it will unfortunately not help those of us using DRM protected WMA audiobooks similar to most of the titles available from our public libraries via Overdrive. As per Essay Rural of India, the Rockbox website FAQ ( “It is should death, very unlikely that Rockbox will be able to play protected WMA files.” and can attest to this personally as I have loaded it onto my Sansa e260. If not for on The Rural Women of India, this caveat, Rockbox would be the perfect Audiobook environment IMO. If your Audiobooks are not DRM protected, I agree with Pavel 100% Pavel, I applaud your well thought out and Essay discussed thoughts on this subject – but since many of us use the free downloadable audiobooks from the library, (overdrive) which are not rockbox compatable – that leaves us with discussing the current retail selection. My CREATIVE Zen V Plus recently died (second to Essay Women of India do so in 2 years) and the book I need a replacement that does not simply “resume” as Apple Ipod does.

All of the Creative MP3 players have bookmark capability however they will not automatically continue playing the rest of the playlist after you have listened to the bookmarked track. I am looking for suggestions. There is a Sony Walkman CD player that has a bookmark feature. I wouldn’t listen to CDs without it. I also have a Sony Walkman Mp3 player which plays all the cds and mp3 discs. This is a terrific little player and it beats my little tiny mp3player because it saves my place and Essay Rural of India I don’t have to spend 2 hours searching through files. my tiny mp3 player sucked every file on my computer and I don’t know how to get a single book without it downloading the entire computer everytime I plug it up to of romans charge it. It also won’t play my self-recorded stuff off the computer. I prefer either a tape player or cd at the moment.

Thanks for the article, Pavel. All the ideas are very true. I, too, love audiobooks and podcasts and listen to them a lot both for entertainment and for learning foreign languages. I’ve been happily using a quite simple and inexpensive Cowon U2 ( player for more than 5 years now, and I must say, it’s IDEAL for audiobooks. It works without a problem with the folder structure, there are bookmarks (one per file, but I never needed more), A-B playback, a playlist, configurable search speed, and on The Rural the user interface is brilliant, simple and intuitive. You can operate it blindly with one hand without taking out of the simile in to pocket! Unfortunately, the time came when I really need a replacement – 512 Mb and Essay Rural of India one playlist isn’t sufficient anymore, as I’m now also using it a lot for my work (teaching). And I thought that wouldn’t be a problem, but I find myself in big trouble – Cowon has long dropped this model line, their current players are too sophisticated and have sensor controls.

I tried ‘Transcend T.sonic 860 8Gb’ – quite a nice piece of what does every cloud silver lining hardware, but with horrible folder structure navigation, horrible bookmarks implementation, horrible A-B playback. Essay On The Women! The features are there, but they are unusable for my purposes. For example, if I start playing a file “track56.mp3” from a bookmark – the device plays it and simile in to a mockingbird then stops, it never takes me to file “track57.mp3”, it doesn’t even allow me to find out in what subfolder the bookmarked “track56.mp3” resides. Is it in /Coursebook3/Level2/Disk3/ or. is it in /Coursebook1/Level1/Disk14/ – if I don’t remember it – I’m lost for Rural of India, ever! Pavel, could you name the players that you own that are the should we fear closest to Essay on The Rural of India the ideal audiobook mp3 player? (I’m currently thinking about ordering a Sandisk Sansa Fuze and installing Rockbox on it). By trial-and-error method I finally found a player that meets the demands.

I bought Cowon D2+ 16GB (with 32GB memory card) and use it for of romans, both audiobooks and lossless music. – large high-quality touchscreen (2.5 in, 320?240 pixels, 16M colors) – long battery life (up to 52 hours for audio playback) – expandable memory (up to 32GB SD/SDHC/MMC card) – 3 customizable hardware buttons. – standard Mini-USB connector (drag-and-drop file transfer) – outstanding sound quality. – many supported audio formats (MP3, WMA, OGG, FLAC, WAV, APE) – comprehensive bookmarks support (up to 256 bookmarks, multiple bookmarks per file, proper handling of Essay on The Rural Women file sequences) – playback resume after power-off. – dynamic playlist (up to 256 entries) – playback boundaries (all files, folder, single file) – folder browsing (gestures supported) – progress bar with instant navigation. – bonus features: video, skins, flash. – dimensions (78 ? 55.4 ? 16.6 mm) and weight (91 g) – not enough hardware buttons (3 instead of 5) – hardware buttons are too small and too close together.

– “resume” requires two extra clicks. Cowon D2+ can run Rockbox, but it’s not fully compatible with that firmware. However, it seems that original D2+ firmware has everything you need for comfortable listening to Argument Continuation Space audiobooks, podcasts and music. Thanks for the info! I was thinking of Essay on The Rural of India Cowon D+, but decided that it’s too expensive and not compact enough for me. Maybe I should reconsider. How convenient is it ot operate it ‘blindly’ with one hand in cloud, a pocket? Another important point: can you configure D+ so that you can pause (and later – resume) playback with just ONE press of a button without delay (and, ideally, without even the screen lighting up)?

I need to pause a lot and I having a precise control over it is a must, plus I wouldn’t like to drain the batterry with all these pauses. On second thoughts I added a few more entries to the “cons” list above. D2 is definitely a little bit too large and heavy and it’s hard to Essay Rural Women of India locate its buttons ‘blindly’. Although player can’t resume playback after power-off with just one press of button, it has a high capacity-battery, so you can simply pause playback (no screen flashes) without turning the what cloud silver player off (battery life isn’t an issue for D2). Anyway, I suggest you to try the player for yourself before forming an opinion about whether it’s right for you. I’ve got the Essay on The D2 now, and even though it isn’t perfect and many things are annoying, I absolutely can live with them. You mentioned almost all of it’s flaws, another thing is it’s fragility, I can’t even imagine using D2 without the protective leather case.

Carrying it around and just using it normally, I would ruin the Essay of Ahimsa beautiful touch-screen in no time. And the of India case of does every cloud has a silver lining course, makes it even bulkier and even less handy. I also got a Sandisk Sansa Fuze to test. Original firmware doesn’t allow any bookmarking, but with Rockbox installed it is very neat and handy, the rotating wheel control is extremely convenient. And the Women player is very inexpensive! Still, I’m reluctunt to part with the in to kill D2. It’s over the top for audiobooks, but it’s great if you also love music and use it to watch videos (the screen is larger and much better than that of the Fuze). Thx for the info you/ve already provided. Pls advise an MP3 for library books that bookmarks easily. Fast forward and back would be wonderful but doubt an MP3 or WMA player has that feature.

I/ve already tried Sansa and now have a SONY walkman which “saves” a place intermittently. Is there an “easy to use” bookmarking MP3 player sold today? I love to on The Rural of India borrow FREE audiobooks from the library, and until recently I’ve been able to listen to them on a Sony D-EJ011. However, they don’t last forever. My first one lasted about three years, then I replaced it with one that lasted 18 months, then I was down to the book of romans less than a year with the Rural subsequent replacements. I was unable to even find one (Sony quit making them) but found a used one that I paid far too much for. It quit after a month. The replacement works — barely — but skips badly.

Quality control must be going downhill. The Book Of Romans! I’m looking for a portable CD player that I can put in a fanny pack and use to Essay on The listen to while cleaning littter boxes, loading the trust dishwasher, lifting weights, etc. And I want one that will resume at the place I stopped listening if I have to pause to answer the telephone. I have Audible, but I have to pay for books, and the files clutter up my computer (or cloud storage). I tried a Durabrand CD 566, and it pauses and resumes at Essay Women of India the same place SOMETIMES but not always. If I’m doing something that requires frequent pauses, I need something a bit smarter. Versus Mistrust! I don’t want to download the CDs to Rural Women of India a computer, either. Takes too much time. Boring. Annoying.

Any good ideas? I was extremely impressed with your extensive recommendations for readers searching for the best way to mistrust listen to audiobooks. You gave graciously of your time and expertise, and on The I would like to Argument Continuation Essay thank you very much! I only had an Essay Rural, MP3 for music, which my children downloaded onto the unit for me. I am quite new at listening to books on tape/cd, but i truly enjoy the books when I am sewing and driving.

I would like something I can pause for an extended period of time, if need be, and immediate start where I left off when I press play. Also important to me is the search function and last sentence recall. I prefer to use the silver controls by touch, as well. Is it possible to update your article for what is currently available? I can’t thank you enough for your time and on The Rural of India attention to this article. Your research into the pros and cons of the book each feature as they apply to audiobook listening is invaluable. I still use my good old Cowon D2+ for music and Essay on The Rural Women of India audio books, despite having Samsung Galaxy Note 3, because “real” buttons are so much better than the touchscreen. However, considering how far mobile phones have advanced since the on Metaphysics time of writing the on The Women of India article, an Android-based smartphone looks like a rather good choice. Android apps are really flexible, the should death only problem is Women of India, touchscreen, but it’s possible to use a headest with control buttons, or even standalone buttons. There seem to be many more decent options to choose from nowadays.

Glad to read your article and the following contributions, especially the links. to Rockbox (and the lists offered there). As the storage capacity of trust my wife’s iPod touch has reached its upper limit, I’m at the same point as Lizabeth, searching a less expensive solution. Essay On The Rural Of India! For today, I’d join this lady with my highest regard, thank you! Great article and just as relevant today as it was 5 plus years ago. I often wonder why no one has launched a kickstarter or indiegogo project for an audio player that focuses on audiobooks/podcasts. These days I’d say an e-ink screen would be great, hard buttons for pocket use, FM radio and what cloud has a silver lining how about taking a ‘normal’ AA battery too ! In the absence of anything better dedicated, my top pick is the Clip+ with rockbox. However there is a new player that is being rockbox’d and looks good – hardware buttons, clear screen and plety of storage space: Hear! Hear! yoyogi regarding the need for a full-featured mp3 player dedicated to on The Rural podcasts and Argument U. S Space Essay audio books. And many thanks especially to Pavel but also to Women others for all the useful information posted here.

I most frequently listen to hour-long podcasts from NPR or France-Culture. The Book! My two most frustrating experiences lately are (1) my player’s inability to restart where I left off in a broadcast after I recharge the battery and (2) fast-forwarding for five minutes in an attempt to find my place only to Rural Women of India have the unit flip back to 00:00:00 of its own inexplicable volition! I would be most grateful for any new or additional information that comes up on trust mistrust, this topic. I can’t spend $999 on an mp3 player. I’ve gotten by for years with ones in the $50 range. But I would be willing to Essay Rural Women make a more substantial investment if a really solid unit with the Argument U. S Program Essay features I need came along. I only require one crucial feature for Essay on The Rural Women, listening to trust my podcasts and it is skip forward feature by say 5 to 15 seconds, by of India, the touch of Continuation U. S Space Program a button. I can’t find this feature in any mp3 player.

All podcast listeners know of the problem which is dealing with commercials throughout the Essay on The Rural Women podcast. Argument For The U. S Space Essay! A magic button for a quick fast forward would be priceless. Any ideas?

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Project Manager Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Picture a desk. It belongs to Bob. He’s the Essay of India, CEO of a major widget operation. Nice golf trophy. Near the of Ahimsa, trophy sits a pile of 700 professional project manager resumes. Yours hides somewhere in the middle. The job market for project managers is Essay, growing fast. Construction, IT, healthcare, energy, and does cloud silver lining, hospitality all see rapid hiring. That doesn’t mean the jobs come easy. Women. Worse, the best jobs go to those who stand out from the crowd.

You need to match your passion, vision, and ability to a position with equal challenges and rewards. That’s why your senior project management resume is simile in to kill a mockingbird, crucial. Essay Rural. Unless it lights up like a rescue flare, that juicy job will pass by like a supertanker on a darkened sea. A project manager resume example better than 9 out of 10 other resumes. How to write a project manager resume that will land you more interviews. Tips and examples of how to put skills and achievements on a project management resume. How to describe your experience on a resume for on Metaphysics a project manager to Essay Rural of India get any job you want.

Here's a sample resume for Essay of Ahimsa a project manager made using our resume builder. Want to Essay on The Rural of India save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. Does Cloud Has A. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What's the on The Women, Best Format for a Project Manager Resume?

Project managers translate the big picture into small-but-crucial details. It’s no shock then that your resume must showcase this ability. Choose a respected resume style like the reverse-chronological format. This format zeroes in on who you are right now. Your skills, your strengths, and your experience. The average resume gets only trust versus, six seconds of Women of India, eye-time. Simile Kill A Mockingbird. To ensure your creative project management resume blows away that average, go all-in for on The Rural layout. Make good use of trust versus, white space, eye-friendly headings, and clear, legible fonts. Finally, save your project management resume template as a PDF to keep the formatting intact. Word documents and other formats can shred your formatting. And if the hiring manager can’t read your resume, that beautiful job passes to on The Rural of India someone else.

Not adept at layouts? We all know someone in the design or marketing world. Death. A quick shout out on Facebook or LinkedIn will almost always turn up a helpful eye. Pro Tip: While PDFs are best, check the job offer to Women make sure they’re not prohibited. Some employers will reject experienced project manager resumes saved as PDFs.

If you need more information, you should also read: Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Every professional project manager resume needs contact information. The problem is, contact info can take up space and the book of romans, clutter up your shining skills. Make your contact info easy to find without dominating the page’s real estate. Consider using margins, putting contact info directly under the heading, or even making use of Rural Women, icons. Add certifications and degree titles, even if you also list them further down. On Metaphysics Of Ahimsa. Employers often spend the Essay on The Women, most time looking at an applicant’s name! Jane Ahlgren, PMP, MBA - - 208-314-3048.

135 Rightward Way. Boise, Idaho, 83701. If you need more information, you should also read: How to Write a Project Manager Resume Summary or Objective. Should you use a project manager resume summary or a resume objective? If you lack piles of on-the-job experience, an versus mistrust, entry-level project manager resume objective is for you. Fresh graduates, career changers, and project managers hunting a new niche should use a resume objective. Applicants with experience in their chosen field should pick a project management resume summary. A summary showcases skills and experience in one go:

Our resume builder will give you tips and examples on how to write your resume summary. You can easily copy them straight into your resume - it will save you a ton of time. Inside our resume builder you will find tips and Women of India, examples for for the Continuation U. S Program Essay your resume. If you need more information, you should also read: How to Describe Your Project Manager Experience. What is project management experience? So, the best project manager resume will spotlight, well. projects. On-the-job experience is crucial for a project manager. Maybe more than for any other kind of applicant. And knowing how to Rural Women put projects on a resume is also crucial for should a project manager.

While listing previous positions is key, showcasing actual projects will be vital. But how to balance the Essay on The Women, two? Solid project manager resume templates start with the Argument for the Continuation Space, most recent job. Use bullet points to play up project wins. Be detailed about Essay Women, your roles and responsibilities. January 2007?April 2014.

Atheon MDC, Massachusetts. Led electronics fab project management for a mockingbird Raytheon MDC’s 85 employees. Managed the highly successful Lean Training project for Essay on The Rural Women three years. Improved quality by Continuation of the U. S, 32%, cut lead times 21%, cut costs 48%. Managed the “Learn by Benchmarking” project. Created opportunities for 20 change-leaders to travel to on The Rural of India other facilities. These employees then returned to share best practices with peers. In charge of electronics project management for major manufacturing facility. Managed lean training program for three years. Trust Versus. Ran the “Learn by Benchmarking” project.

Experience is crucial for project managers. A good layout will get your project management resume more eyeball time. But it’s the experience you choose to share that gets you the job. If you need more information, you should also read: 1. How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) How to List Projects in Your Experience Section. Remember Bob, the CEO? He really wants to Essay hire someone with an the book, MBA and Rural Women of India, a PMP certification, but he doesn’t care so much about experience. Every. Right? Bob cares about experience almost to Essay on The Rural Women of India the exception of all else. Especially for senior project manager resumes, experience is king.

What Bob wants to know is, “ Can you get the job done? ” You’ll answer that question by showing Bob your big wins as a project manager. Since experience is the most crucial part of an experienced project manager resume sample, take some time to brainstorm all the projects you have managed in the past. Project Manager Experience Section - With Experience. Experienced project managers should have a long list of projects. Take some time to flesh out the book of romans this list, then add to it as your remember more over the coming days. With each job application, go back to your master list. Choose the Essay of India, three to six past projects that best showcase your ability to do that job. May 2008?June 2014.

Seton Hospital, Maine. Implemented Lean Training project for all employees. Cut costs by 32% in six months. Oversaw the “Just in Time Restock” project. Of Romans. Cut stockroom waste by 65%. Created our popular supply room relocation project. Essay Women Of India. Cut wasted foot traffic by 88% across all nursing staff. Managed the “Healthier Hospital Food” project. Created and ran the “never out of stock” project.

Ran a project to decrease software conflicts for versus mistrust our front desk staff. See the on The Rural of India, difference? When listing projects on of romans, a resume, you need to on The walk the line between throwing in the kitchen-sink and not adding enough of the right info. The sweet spot? Cherry-picking the Space Program Essay, right wins for Rural of India your professional project manager resume. Argument Essay. You have to prove you’re the perfect candidate for Women of India this job. Project Manager Experience Section - Without Experience. If you lack experience, you’ll still want a nice long list of past projects you’ve managed.

How can you make a long list of experience you don’t have? The beauty of what every cloud has a lining, building a project manager resume experience description is, everyone has some experience managing projects. If you’ve set and met a work goal, managed a resource, led a team, or reshaped any process, you’re a project manager. Inexperienced applicants should follow the same steps outlined above. Brainstorm all the projects you’ve managed in the past. The brainstorming will be harder for the “inexperienced.” Really dig into Essay on The your memory to pinpoint previous successes. August 2009?September 2015. Geurney Bros. Well Drilling. Switched company to new high velocity air technique for better efficiency in big jobs.

Managed project to ensure all-staff-compliance to new Personal Protective Equipment standards. Changed front office to new real-time scheduling software to ensure better job flow and the book of romans, customer satisfaction. Construction Assistant Project Manager. August 2009?September 2015. Geurney Bros. Essay Women. Well Drilling. Assisted in general management of Guerney Bros.

Well Drilling for simile in to four years. Didn’t work as a project manager but I’m very interested in Essay on The Women learning. Again, everyone is a project manager if they think hard enough. The key action is to does cloud has a lining show that in an entry-level project manager resume experience section. If you need more information, you should also read: How to Put Project Manager Skills on Essay on The Rural Women, a Resume. For most resumes, the education section comes after the the book, job experience section. That’s not the case with a professional project manager resume.

That’s because project manager employers want to see a list of skills on your resume that match their needs. We almost always take our skills for granted. We tend to Essay on The see skills as complex abilities requiring degrees and certifications. Often, skills are more mundane strengths learned on death, the job. That’s why it’s key to brainstorm a thick list of on The, your skills. Good examples of project management skills vary depending on field. For example, valuable skills for an IT project manager resume will differ from kill, skills on a construction project manager resume. Include any software project management resume skill, talent, or ability you can think of, as long as it’s relevant to the current job offer. Proficient in Scrum, MS Office, PowerPoint, Keynote, PHP, MySQL, Google Docs. Project Scheduling Strategic Planning Exceptional Verbal and Written Communication Skills.

Scrum Project Scheduling Strategic Planning. Never use a generic “skills list” on a professional project manager resume. Always pick the skills you showcase straight from the Women of India, job description. Next, add other skills not listed in the job description that fit what the Essay on Metaphysics of Ahimsa, employer is Essay Rural of India, looking for. Pro Tip: It’s key to save a long list of your skills, then choose the five or six that best fit each particular job opening. If you need more information, you should also read: Is Your Education Section Underperforming?

It Might Be. The CEO in the head office cares most about has a, your ability to get things done. He or she will focus on Essay Rural Women, experience and skills. That means education doesn’t matter, right? While education isn’t the #1 thing employers look for, it can still help get you the the book of romans, job. That’s why a presentable, attractive education section is essential for a project management resume. College name and location. Years in school. Degree obtained. Colby College, Waterville, ME. Education is more important on Rural Women, an entry-level project manager resume.

If you’re fresh out of the mortarboard, include more info here. To sweeten this section, add projects you led at school like student-driven charity drives, radio shows, school newspapers, or other campus projects. If you need more information, you should also read: How to Add Certifications to Your PM Resume. The right certifications can make or break even the best project manager resume. The heavily certified candidate can create a separate certifications section on their project management resume. Otherwise, add certifications to your “education” section. As always, make and keep a master list of all your certifications. For each job application, tailor your senior project manager resume certifications section to fit the job description. A PMP certification is important but not always necessary.

Other certifications from the Argument U. S Program, Project Management Institute like a CAPM, PMI-RMP, or PMI-SP can also set you above the crowd. Be sure to include non-PMI certifications too, like certifications in Lean training, Agile software, Scrum, Six Sigma, OSHA, or construction management. Not sure which certifications to include? From your master list, pick the Rural of India, entries that match the in to a mockingbird, job requirements first. Next, search the job description for Women clues about the book, other valuable certifications. Construction firms might value an Essay on The Rural Women of India, OSHA certification even if they don’t mention it. How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. Let’s go back to Bob, the CEO with the stack of versus, resumes as high as his hairline. Your mission is to Rural Women make him say the words above as he attempts to skim your project manager resume sample. One way to do that is to add in eye-catching strengths you may not even know you have. These can include achievements, conferences you spoke at, passions, publications, or awards.

Take the the book of romans, time to brainstorm these extra lures. Fifteen minutes spent typing ideas into a spreadsheet can turn up the gold nugget that will get you hired. For example, one candidate we spoke with said: Received the Shingo Research Prize for my “Eggs ’n’ Bacon Policy Deployment” podcast. Guest speaker at the Northeast Lean Conference in 2014. Wrote an article on Essay of India, advanced organizational scheduling techniques for “Northeast PMP Weekly” magazine. Trust Mistrust. Article was linked to by “Forbes” magazine.

Organized the local parent-built playground in Scituate, Massachusetts. Passionate about gardening. Senior Scholar, Colby College, 1992. Employee of the year, Briarwood Inc., 2014. The key point is, the right/wrong project manager resume example above could be from the same person. On The Rural. In one case, she picked perks that matched the job description and in the other, well If you need more information, you should also read: Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Maybe you’ve heard cover letters are a thing of the past.

If so, you heard wrong. Most employers still expect a cover letter along with a creative project manager resume. For a project manager cover letter, keep it brief. Highlight your most impressive accomplishments. The cover letter is on Metaphysics of Ahimsa, your best tool to make a hiring manager think, “ I’d better give this resume a little extra time. Essay. ” Pro Tip: Make the cover letter personal. This doesn’t mean you need to spend two paragraphs talking up the reader’s golf game.

Be brief. To make a cover letter personal, just use the addressee’s name. You can also check out the business’ website and for the Continuation of the U. S Space Program Essay, mention something about on The of India, it that jumped out at you. Plus, a great cover letter that match your resume will give you an advantage over other candidates. You can write your cover letter in our resume builder here . Here's what it may look like: If you need more information, you should also read: 1. Are Cover Letters Necessary? Find Out If You Need One in in to a mockingbird 2017 Cramming all the Essay Rural, best parts of you into a professional project manager resume that glitters can be a real challenge. You can make the process work for death you by adhering to a few important guidelines. Here’s a recap of the strategies we covered:

Pay special attention to a layout that makes scanning easy. Put the focus on wins from on The Rural, your history as a project manager. Always match your project manager resume keywords to of romans each job description. Essay On The Of India. Proofread your project management resume and craft a personalized cover letter. If you need more information, you should also read: Do you have any questions on how to make a project manager resume? Give us a shout in the comments section!

Tom Gerencer is a founder and former owner of MediaNortheast Video Production and Training Without Boredom. A full-time writer in the fields of of romans, personal finance and career advice, Tom lives in West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and a couple of ornery dogs.

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Air Pollution in Mexico City Essay Sample. General information about the problem: As the vehicle population reached more than 700 million, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to suffer from air pollution. Essay On The Women Of India. Some of them reduced the air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to be the most polluted cities in the world. Introduction of the problem: One of them is Mexico City. According to Forbes, Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest cities of the world. Industrial growth of the versus, city, population boom, which grew from 3 million in Essay on The Rural of India 1950 to 20 million today, and the proliferation of vehicles in the city contributed to the Mexico City’s current air quality. Narrowing down the problem: However, with the transportation proliferation contributing to about half of the city#8217;s total emissions, several solutions have to be considered in order to reduce the air pollution in the city. Thesis statement: The government should practice legal regulations and versus mistrust, favor the Rural Women of India, evolvement of environmentally friendly technology and fuel in order to reduce the air pollution level in Mexico City. II. Background.

A. Identify the problem/ show that the problem exists: People suffer from various diseases and the environment is simile kill, being damaged (research). B. What caused the problem: Air pollution is mainly caused by vehicles. C. The effects of the problem: Air pollution can have serious consequences for the human health as well as severely damage the ecosystem. III. Solution 1. Topic sentence: One of the possible solutions is to Essay on The Women of India, continue to enforce legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention. Give grounds to trust versus, the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The air pollution has been noticeably decreased due to legal regulations and governmental programs like PIICA, PROAIRE and PORAIRE III Describe your solution: Diminish taxis. • As taxis are diminished, less harmful gas emissions are produced Disadvantages: • Taxis are convenient. Essay On The Women Of India. • Taxi driver as a job. Topic sentence: Another possible solution is to pass a law on telecommuting. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): Less gas emissions on telecommuting days (research) Describe your solution: Pass a law on telecommuting. • Can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction; • Is relatively inexpensive to implement; • Expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by offering them more flexibility in U. S work and lifestyle. Essay Women. Disadvantages: • May incite legal issues between organization and employers • Lack of interaction with co-workers. • Not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting. Topic sentence: The last, but not the least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel.

Give grounds to simile in to kill, the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The research indicates that usage of hydrogen fuel will definitely decrease the air pollution level. Describe your solution: Hydrogen should replace gasoline. Advantages: • Reduction in air pollution due to zero emissions. • Hydrogen is abundant (renewable source) • Hydrogen is expensive to produce. • Hydrogen refueling stations construction require big amounts of money VI. Mexico City is often said to be the most polluted city in on The Rural Women the world. It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and global air quality levels as well. Therefore, specific measures have to be taken in order to reduce the air pollution level. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on telecommuting and use hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for the environment. Therefore, the government should enforce these solutions and stop the air pollution in Argument for the of the Space Essay Mexico City.

Air pollution in Mexico City. As the vehicle population reached more than 700 million worldwide, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to suffer from air pollution (Walsh, 1999). The level of air pollution in any city is a global concern. The reason is Essay Rural Women, that air can travel freely from place to place; consequently, the polluted air from one city can travel to another. The polluted air has numerous negative consequences for what does every has a silver human health and also severely damages the ecosystem. Some of the Rural, cities reduced the versus, air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to be the most polluted cities in the world. One of them is Mexico City. Rural Of India. According to simile in to, Forbes, the Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest cities of the world (Luck, 2008). The government and people have take measures in order to reduce the air pollution in Mexico City before it is too late. The government should practice legal regulations and Essay Rural Women of India, favor the usage of hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline in simile in to kill a mockingbird order to reduce the air pollution level in Mexico City.

Mexico City is one of the world’s largest metropolitan areas, containing more than 20 million inhabitants, 3.5 million vehicles, and 35,000 industries (McKinley et al., 2005). More than 20% of Mexico’s entire population lives in its capital and more than 30 % of the country’s industrial output is produced here (Edgerton et al., n. d.). Although Mexico City is considered one of the Essay Rural Women, world’s largest cities, it is still growing at a rate exceeding 3% annually. Moreover, the number of vehicles daily traveling on its streets makes up more than three million (Edgerton, et al., n. d). Argument Continuation. All the of India, factors listed above contribute to we fear, Mexico City’s poor air quality. Mexico City is a perfect example of one of the on The Rural, burgeoning cities that experience severe air pollution. What Does Every Cloud Silver. The ozone concentration in Mexico City is one of the highest in the world, being more than four times higher than the accepted norms. Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other harmful gases also exceed the Mexican health advisory level (Walsh, 1999). Essay On The Rural Of India. Nevertheless, comprehensive air quality management programs since 1990 have contributed to of romans, major reductions in the concentrations of some pollutants such as lead, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide (Molina Molina, n. d.).

Sulfur in diesel fuel has been reduced from 0.5% to 0.05%. Many old buses and trucks of Mexico City were replaced by Essay Rural Women of India, newer ones powered by more modern and cleaner engines. In addition, unleaded fuel was introduced at that time to the book of romans, make the vehicle emissions relatively cleaner (Edgerton et al, n. d.). Although the Essay of India, above measures contributed to a slight positive change in Mexico City’s air quality, serious air pollution problems still persist. The poor quality of Argument for the Continuation of the U. S Essay, air is the result of several factors: emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels in motor vehicles and for industrial processes, energy production, high dust levels due to local constructions, population growth (Molina Molina, n. d.). Those human demands on the ecosystem are changing the landscape with important atmospheric consequences as well as causing threat to human health. People suffer from various diseases starting from insignificant ones like headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions to more serious ones like chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and on The Rural Women, even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys (“How can air pollution hurt my health?”, n. d.). Kill. Although it is not possible to determine the total impact of Mexico City’s poor air quality on Essay Rural public health, McKinley et al. (2005) calculated that only a 10% reduction of particulate matter in the air would save 3,000 lives and 10,000 new cases of chronic bronchitis each year, and that reduction of of Ahimsa, ozone would save 300 lives. As approximately 80% of particulate matter and Essay on The of India, nitrogen oxide, 45% of volatile organic compounds, and 30% of sulfur dioxide come from mobile sources, their emissions’ level should be reduced (McKinley et al., 2005). One of the possible solutions to reduce air pollution from vehicles is to continue enforcing legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention.

As mentioned above, Mexico City’s government has taken several measures and attempted various programs in order to decrease the level of air pollution in the city. The first plan Programa Integral para el Control de la Contaminacio?n Atmosfe?rica (PICCA) was started in death 1990 and had major attainments, including the introduction of two-way catalytic converters, the phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the establishment of vehicle emissions standards (McKinley et al., 2005). The second program, PROAIRE 1995-2000 (Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire en el Valle de Me?xico Program to Improve Air Quality in the Valley of Mexico) had other major accomplishments, such as the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in Essay on The Rural Women gasoline to improve combustion efficiency, and carried out restrictions on the aromatic content of fuels and on the sulfur content in trust versus mistrust industrial fuel (McKinley et al., 2005). Essay On The Rural Women. These programs have had significant impact on reduction of air pollution in the city. What Does Cloud. That is Rural Women of India, why more of these kinds of the book of romans, programs should be implemented in Essay Women Mexico City, so the city can finally reduce the levels of simile in to a mockingbird, air pollution to acceptable norms. For instance, the government should implement policies concerning taxis. According to Connolly (1999), taxis and Essay on The, individual cars that replaced traditional buses are the most polluting of all forms of should we fear, transport. Approximately 110,000 taxis “circulate the Essay on The Rural Women, streets of Mexico City” (McKinley et al., 2005, p.1955).

Because of the large number of kilometers traveled each day by taxis, their emissions are quite high. Even though taxis account for only 3.4% of Mexico City’s vehicle fleet, the their emissions make 3.6% of particulate matter, 11.5% of on Metaphysics of Ahimsa, sulfur dioxide, 10.7% of carbon monoxide, 10.2% of nitrogen oxide and 14% of volatile organic compounds of Essay on The Rural Women, all transportation related emissions (McKinley et al., 2005). Thus, all the taxis around the city have to be diminished. Instead of every has a silver lining, taxis, the government should provide the residents with more buses and minibuses. The advantage of this policy is obvious: if there would be no taxis traveling in the city, less harmful gases would be emitted. Moreover, the analysis made by McKinley et al. Essay Rural Of India. (2005) suggests that a turnover of the taxi fleet due to its size and age would benefit from over $70 million US in reduced health impacts from trust versus mistrust, air pollution, and would also benefit from fuel savings, whose costs summed up together, is greater than this measure’s investment cost.

However, there are several drawbacks to this solution. Firstly, taxis are very convenient for people who do not have their own car to travel around more efficiently or to on The Rural Women, travel to places, which locations are not known to you. For instance, taxis are very beneficial for the tourists who do not know the city. Moreover, most people earn money by working as a taxi driver and total ban of we fear death, taxis would deprive them of their way of earning money. Therefore, most people might disagree with this policy and solution generally. On The Rural Of India. Another possible solution is to pass the law on telecommuting. Telecommuting or telework basically means working from a place rather than traditional office environment, usually from home.

The distance traveled by a person is a significant factor in air pollution because less distance traveled, less undesirable gases are emitted. As telecommuters work from home, they tend to travel less often. Of Romans. The research indicates that on the telecommuting days, the distance traveled by vehicles is decreased by 76%. Women Of India. Consequently, there are fewer gas emissions; to be more precise, there is of romans, a reduction by 64% of total organic gases, 63% of carbon monoxide and Rural, 73% of oxides of nitrogen (Sampath, Saxena Mokhtarian, 1991). Other advantages of telecommuting are that it can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction; it is relatively inexpensive to implement; it expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by offering them more flexibility in work and lifestyle (Sampath et al., 1991). However, some employers and employees would disagree with this solution because there are some disadvantages. Firstly, telecommuting may incite legal issues between organization and employers. Some of the what does cloud silver, issues they may face are workplace safety and compensation issues (Mills, Wong-Ellison, Werner Clay, 2001). The organization cannot guarantee employee’s safety because employee works out of the office.

And if any accident happened to the employee, the organization would not want to compensate employee’s medical expenses because the Women, employee cannot prove that the accident occurred in the scope of the book, employment. Secondly, lack of interaction with co-workers and isolation from society due to telecommuting, can have negative affects on Essay Women individuals’ behavior and attitudes as well as can lead to negative consequences, like anxiety, depression, and we fear, even physical ailments (Gainey, Kelley Hill, 1999). Moreover, not all jobs are suitable for on The Rural Women of India telecommuting and some employers dislike supervising employees they cannot see (Mills, et al., 2001). Nevertheless, telecommuting should be considered as one of the versus, possible solution, because it is a perfect way to reduce vehicle traveling during the day, consequently reducing air pollution levels. The last, but not the Essay on The Rural Women, least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel. The transportation sector is in to a mockingbird, currently consuming gasoline and diesel at high rates.

More than half of the globally used oil is used for transportation (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). The harmful emissions to on The Rural of India, the environment are due to its usage. Therefore, alternative fuels should be used more. Some types of in to, alternative fuels are bioalcahol (methanol, ethanol), biodiesel and hydrogen. Essay On The Rural. Kouroussis and Karimi (2006) compared the fuels listed above and came to conclusion that the use of hydrogen as a fuel would be the most beneficial one. A transition from fossil fuels to hydrogen would decrease the the book of romans, air pollution level because almost zero emissions occur, with water being the only by-product. Essay On The Of India. In addition, hydrogen is the most abundant element on the Earth, so there should not be concerns about running out of of romans, its stocks. Essay Rural Women. Moreover, car industries should produce more automobiles with a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

Currently, BMW is the only one. BMW also made the automobile to be powered either by hydrogen or gasoline, as the for the Continuation U. S Space Essay, availability of hydrogen refueling stations is low (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). However, there are several disadvantages to this solution. Firstly, hydrogen made from electrolysis of water is very expensive. At 25 °C, 65 watt-hours are needed to electrolyze one mole of water, which is Essay Women of India, 4.8kWh of electricity to generate one cubic meter of we fear, hydrogen. This electricity comes from the alternator which of course is Essay on The Rural, powered by the engine, which uses energy (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). So, fuel economy is decreased by the same means you are trying to improve fuel economy. But there is an alternative way to produce hydrogen, which is to split the water molecules through the use of wind or solar energy, what is less expensive (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). Another disadvantage is that the number of hydrogen refueling stations is very low. So, if individual runs out of the gas, it will be difficult to find a station to refuel the automobile immediately. Essay On Metaphysics Of Ahimsa. To construct new hydrogen gas stations will require the government to allocate huge amounts of money.

Weinert (2006) estimated a hydrogen station construction to cost from $500,000 to over $5 million, depending on station size (30 kg/day 1,000 kg/day). This amount includes the capital costs, installation costs, feedstock costs and Essay, fixed operating costs. Despite the disadvantages, producing and using hydrogen instead of gasoline holds the promise of pollution reduction in Mexico City. Mexico City is often said to be the most polluted city in the world. It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and kill a mockingbird, global air quality levels as well.

Therefore, specific measures have to be taken in order to reduce the air pollution level. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on telecommuting and Essay on The, use hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for the environment. Therefore, the government should enforce these solutions and stop the air pollution in Mexico City. In To Kill. Connolly, P. (1999). Mexico City: our common future? Environment and Urbanization, 11(1), 53-78. Rural Women Of India. Edgerton, S.A., Arriaga, J.L., Archuleta, J., Bian, X., Bossert, J.E., Chow, J.C.,… Zhong, S. (n.d.).

Particulate air pollution in Mexico City. A Collaborative Research Project. Retrieved from Gainey, T. W., Kelley, D. E. and Hill, J. A. Argument Of The Program. (1999). Telecommuting#8217;s impact on corporate culture and on The of India, individual workers: Examining the effect of employee isolation. Society for the Advancement of Management, 64(4). How can air pollution hurt my health? (n. d.). Retrieved from Kouroussis, D. and Karimi, S. (2006). Alternative fuels in transportation. Bulletin of Science, Technology Society, 26(4), 346-355. Luck, T. M. The Book Of Romans. (2008). The world#8217;s dirtiest cities.

Retrieved from McKinley, G., Zuk, M., Hojer, M., Avalos, M., Gonzalez, I., Iniestra, R., … Martinez, J. (2005). Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Environmental Science and technology, 39(7), 1954-1961. Essay Women. Mills, J. E., Wong-Ellison, C., Werner, W. and Clay, J. M. (2001). Employer liability for telecommuting employees. Cornel Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,42, 48-59. Molina, M. J. and Molina, L.T. (n.d.). Improving air quality In megacities: Mexico City case study. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US.

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Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of Citation and How Google Scholar and the Principle of Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing. The paper consists of two short essays on citation matters. The aim is to get the academy thinking about citing and referencing from Essay of India, a student point of view. The first essay (on the student journey of citation) is an attempt of a framework for simile in to a mockingbird, the academic writer, from the time they are an undergraduate student to Women of India, an academic researcher. The worldview of citing and referencing is argued to develop in accordance to academic level. The second essay is on academic writing and the principle of least effort. With a few searches on Google Scholar, cyberplagiarism and the pilfering of citation context was demonstrated. With emphasis on patchwriting, the temptation of the academic writer to corner cut is not argued as being exclusive to students but more apparent by students. Mistrust? Technology is Essay Rural Women also argued to create a conflict for the academic writer showing a path where they can reduce effort. Keywords: Citation, Academic Writing, Principle of Least Effort, Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting. It is the attempt to we fear, combine two research interests that gets me here.

The first interest lies with the effect citing and referencing has toward knowledge production. After all the references academic writers use and the context in which they cite prior work must have an effect on on The Rural of India the end product. Within this interest, Robert Merton and of romans, the sociology of science, the social constructivist movement and information science are given priority. The second interest lies within publications on education and Women of India, how citing and referencing is taught. Issues surrounding the role of technology, plagiarism and resulting academic writing styles is what does every cloud has a lining given priority. By combining these two interests, the focus is on the student and the environment they operate within to become accomplished academic writers. By calling the paper citation matters, there is an obvious double meaning. The opportunity to Essay Rural Women of India, use a title of a paper to express the importance as well as get people thinking about citing is hard to resist. In essence, this paper consists of two short essays on matters relating to citing and referencing. The first paper is a suggested worldview of citing and referencing the student requires during the phases of undergraduate student, postgraduate student and academic researcher.

The general trend of these three phases is Argument U. S Essay that the academic writer plays the citation game less and less straight in on The Rural Women of India tandem with increasing their comprehension of the social construction of knowledge. The second essay consists of a demonstration via Google Scholar of how easy it is to does every cloud has a lining, plagiarise from the internet. With a few simple searches, enough content was found on Google Scholar to not only pilfer ideas but to potentially spare an on The Women academic writer from reading a text by relying on the resulting citations. The ability for academic writers to copy and paste scholarship is argued to be a concern that can increase the temptation for least effort. The resulting discussion from the demonstration also argues that the initiated academic is more familiar with how to manipulate academic literature, so is what every cloud less likely to get caught (when compared to the uninitiated student) . 1. The Student Journey of Essay on The Rural Women of India, Citation. With an interest in Essay on Metaphysics getting students to comprehend the importance of citation matters I propose a framework I interpret as the student journey of on The of India, citation. The framework is broken down into three phases in line with a student progressing from undergraduate to postgraduate to academic researcher.

Differences in academic discipline is acknowledged but considered extraneous because the focus is on for the of the U. S Space Essay a student progressing by academic level. With each of these three phases, I am recommending a text that symbolises the phase. Essay Women Of India? The small number of references is intentional, as the aim is for the readership to has a silver lining, consider reading the references for themselves. To elaborate on what I am meaning by a student journey of citation, I am referring to the (point in time) worldview of citation practice a student should realise as an Women of India undergraduate student, postgraduate student and as a researcher. The aim is to demonstrate what I see as a minimum specification of the academic writer to be roadworthy in the context of Essay, using citations and references. Phase 1: The Undergraduate Student.

Merton, R. K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. v-ix. While Robert Merton's interest lay with the sociology of science, he also made a significant contribution to citation analysis. In his Foreword to Eugene Garfield's book on citation indexing, Merton emphasises peer recognition and how (what I will interpret as) capital for the scientist is Essay on The Women of India measured by peer recognition. After all only a scientist's scholarly community are best equipped to Essay of Ahimsa, assess the true worth of a piece of research. When considering the student journey of citation the following quote best sums things up: 'Citations and references thus operate within a jointly cognitive and moral framework. In their cognitive aspect, they are designed to provide the historical lineage of knowledge and to guide readers of on The Women, new work to simile in to kill a mockingbird, sources they may want to check or draw upon for themselves. In their moral aspect, they are designed to repay intellectual debts in the only form in which this can be done: through open acknowledgement of Women, them.' (Merton, 1983,

Typically, the undergraduate student completing assignments will be assessed according to a box ticking processes including accurate and appropriate citing and referencing. At this stage, instilling into Essay of Ahimsa the student why they cite and reference rather than it being something one must do to avoid an academic misconduct charge is the suggestion. It is understandable that in the higher education marketplace there are resource constraints, a dependency on student support systems and quantitative measurements for assessments. Their incorporation however could be seen as part of the problem surrounding academic writing. Do we really teach the fundamentals of why we cite and reference or is Essay Rural of India this all just a big assumption we work around? Returning to Merton's quote, emphasis on the lineage of ideas and intellectual debts when it comes to citing and referencing is quite simply a minimum specification for the scientist (or academic writer) of the future. The interpretation provides a good solid foundation to comprehending why we cite and mistrust, reference. Merton's interpretation is not immune from criticism and it can be seen as idealistic and Essay on The Rural of India, incompatible compared to the current citing and referencing practices that go on. Merton's unsullied proposition for citing and referencing could also be seen as too positivistic for ones taste. If however one identifies with Merton's idealistic message, there is an acknowledgment of the truth we aspire to find when researching an idea. Small, H. G. What Does Every Has A Silver? (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Essay on The Rural of India, Science , 8(3), pp.

327-340. Henry Small's paper represents the contribution of information science when it comes to citing and referencing. While Small's paper adopts quantitative analysis there is a social constructivist influence to it. The core element of the paper is highlighting that citations represent symbols of concepts, methods or anything citeworthy in the text. U. S Space Essay? 'This leads to the citing of works which embody ideas the author is discussing. The cited documents become, then, in a more general sense, 'symbols' for these ideas.' (Small, 1978, p.328). What Small is getting at, is the moment an author cites a document they are in effect creating its meaning (which in Small's eyes, consists of the symbol making). Citations as concept symbols could in effect symbolise 'any statement which may be taken as characterizing or describing the Rural cited document' (Small, 1978, p.329). The consequence of this thinking is that peers are the what every has a silver lining ones that determine the meaning of a document.

So as an on The Rural Women of India example, Merton (1983) in Essay of Ahimsa a paper by Author A in 1984 could be cited as an interpretation of citing and referencing in line with the times. But a paper by Author B in 2013 could interpret Merton (1983) as out of touch. When associating Small's paper with students and citation practice, I propose that the idea of citations as concept symbols be seen as a deployment tactic for any student doing original assignments. While this type of Essay Women of India, assignment is typically representative of postgraduate assignments there is Essay also applicability for undergraduate dissertation students and such like. Both Merton and Small's interpretation need to be considered in conjunction with each other but Small's deployment tactic could be seen as a progression from the Essay on The Rural of India more defensive stance of Merton. For assessments, the box ticking is still going on, the citing and referencing still needs to be tip-top but the progression is in the level of independence and citation evaluation the death writer needs to Essay Rural Women of India, have.

By using a citation as a concept symbol, the aim is also to promote interpretation and death, evaluation of ideas into one's own words and not just filling space with quotations. Citations represent ideas and we need to Essay on The Women of India, use citations to express the ideas we want to Essay on Metaphysics, say. Latour, B. (1987) Science in Action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, pp. 21-62. Bruno Latour's chapter on on The of India literature develops the idea of should we fear, peers deciding the fate of research by acknowledging citation context, which he reframes according to positive and negative modalities. The context of a citation can put spin on of India a critical paper so it appears less damaging to the reader and for the U. S, a lesser known paper can be embellished so it appears as fact. Further still, the 'presence or the absence of Essay of India, references, quotations and footnotes is we fear death so much a sign that a document is Essay on The serious or not that you can transform a fact into fiction or a fiction into does a fact just by on The Women of India, adding or subtracting references' (Latour, 1987, p.33). A take on Latour's thinking is that we carve the literature of others in conjunction with our own interests to impress others when it comes to saying what we want to say. Citations are just one weapon in in to kill a mockingbird our armoury when writing to achieve this aim. Latour sees the scientific article as a rhetorical vehicle and of India, that whenever there is debate we get support from our allies (who I see as changeable) to every cloud has a silver, give more authority to what we want to on The Rural Women of India, say. The student should by this stage comprehend Merton's ethos and be capable enough to incorporate Small's deployment tactic of citations.

On top of that, the student becoming an academic researcher needs to come to on Metaphysics, terms with citation context and not be blinkered to overlook the Essay on The Women of India tactical game playing that occurs in scholarly communication. 'Whatever the tactics, the general strategy is easy to grasp: do whatever you need to the former literature to render it as helpful as possible for the claims you are going to make. Argument Continuation U. S? help your allies if they are attacked, ensure safe communications with those who supply you with indisputable instruments. oblige your enemies to Essay Rural Women, fight one another. Simile? if you are not sure of winning, be humble and understated.' (Latour, 1987, pp.37-38) An example of tactical citation practice is what Latour refers to as the perfunctory citation, where citations by an author can infiltrate a pre-existing citation network (also known as a citation circle). The primary concern with this perfunctory citation is that it makes some citations more meaningful than others. In an age of evaluation metrics based on citation practice, the perfunctory citation risks downgrading the citation from a representation of an idea to of India, that of a tradable commodity. Another concern with the tactical deployment of citations is that while they can make you look a million dollars, they can also be used against for the Continuation Program Essay you and if someone puts the effort in, your citations can be scrutinised with disastrous results (Latour, 1987, pp. 33) Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) may not be for everyone but as an individual chapter it is a great guide in informing the researcher of the future one form of how the scholarly communication game is played.

Latour's writing in this chapter comes across as militaristic but in Rural Women of India doing so, the message is pretty clear: Use the work of peers and anything else at your disposal to say want you want to say but prepare yourself if there is a worthy opponent. The first point to emphasise is that the proposed student journey of citation is not a theory of citation. If that is your interest, I would suggest reading Gilbert's (1977) persuasion hypothesis (who predates (Latour, 1987) in reference to rhetorical and perfunctory citations), then look at all of the papers that have cited that paper as a guide to further reading. The student journey of we fear death, citation is a suggested framework for on The Rural Women, the comprehension of in to kill a mockingbird, citing and referencing the academic writer requires from the Essay on The Rural of India moment they start as an undergraduate student to a published academic author. The crawling, walking then running framework is unlikely to be something invested within course design but if the versus desired outcome is to teach students to use citations effectively and respect referencing it is a progressive framework to gravitate the student toward. Another observation that can be made (and the choice of texts was quite intentional for this) is how the texts coincide with interpretations of knowledge production. There is a progression from Merton's sociology of science laying emphasis on peer recognition, to Henry Small combining information science and social constructivism to Latour's progression of social constructivism to Actor Network Theory. The principled nature of citing and referencing looks to Essay Rural Women, have morphed into on Metaphysics of Ahimsa a 'peculiar trade in a merciless world' (Latour, 1987, p.60) where gamesmanship and rhetoric are key. Women? The range of versus, interpretations could be seen as a reflection of the changeable social structures of knowledge production but could simply be an outcome of increased debate within a specific field where no stone is left unturned. Essay Women? There are also practical considerations to Argument of the U. S Program Essay, consider.

We don't always have the time and means to read and reflect on everything we want but we do manage to make the Women of India time and means to trust mistrust, read what we need and say what we want to say. If we don't do that for academic writing, we could be there forever, getting lost in tangents, considering ifs and buts to protect ourselves from the Essay of India same peers we seek approval from. 2. Academic Writing and the Principle of versus mistrust, Least Effort - Supported by Some Thoughts on Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting and Google Scholar. The proposition is that in current times Google Scholar can be used by academic writers as a tool to corner cut and reduce effort. Most of the readership will be aware that Google Scholar contains the bibliographic records of scholarship (and when lucky, copies of the article itself) as well as grey literature and information held in institutional repositories. While this abundance of on The, information creates new possibilities there is also the versus mistrust concern over deviant citation behaviour that can occur. To test my contention, I will demonstrate how easy it is to cyberplagiarise and take the Essay on The Rural Women of India citation context off a paper. Before the demonstration I would like to clear up a few definitions. By cyberplagiarism (or cyber plagiarism, also referred to versus mistrust, as Digital plagiarism (Barrie and Presti, 2000)) I am referring to Essay Rural Women of India, the relationship between information on in to kill the internet and Essay Women of India, a consequential type of plagiarism behaviour. Those involved with assessments will no doubt identify with the authors arguing that the what does cloud has a silver ease of information on the internet has led to the rise in plagiarism (Eysenbach (2000); (Kralik (2003); Pupovac, Bilic-Zulle and Petrovecki (2008); Szabo and Underwood (2004)). While cyberplagiarism can entail papers being acquired from the internet (Smith (2003); Oliphant (2002)), the focus of Essay on The, this piece will be the form of cyberplagiarism where content from the internet is copied and pasted without acknowledging the originator.

The crux with cyberplagiarism is not only taking the ideas off another but also the citation context. The second concept of what does every cloud lining, patchwriting refers to two papers by Essay on The Rural Women, Rebecca Howard (1993, 1995). Howard (1993, p. 233), defines patchwriting as 'copying from death, a source text and then deleting some words, altering grammatical structures, or plugging in one-for-one synonym substitutes'. The combination of Essay on The Women of India, Howard's papers dispute the conventional attitude towards plagiarism, whereby those that commit this form of simile in to kill a mockingbird, academic misconduct are unethical or poorly socialised with citation practices. Patchwriting is associated with plagiarism, can lead to plagiarism but is Essay on The of India its own entity.

For example, Patchwriting can be an acceptable technique when combined with a reflective or evaluative touch at the earliest stages of writing and organising ideas. It is just that patchwriting can be unacceptable when it is just glossing over for the Continuation Program the pilfering of texts. In my own experience, students are willing to admit to patchwriting, due to a lack of preparation and a fear of word counts. Furthermore, students informally confess to a complete misinterpretation of paraphrasing and on The Rural, assume that citing a text once is free reign to use whole chunks of the cited text. In this context, the student likes to think they are within acceptable boundaries, but their patchwriting becomes plagiarism. The third concept I am highlighting is the Principle of Least Effort (also known as Zipf's Law) put forward by trust versus, George Kingsley Zipf (1949). In the eyes of a linguist, Zipf's Law refers to word frequencies when people write or speak (most words are hardly ever used but the words we do use, we use often). If we focus however on the principle of least effort itself, we can interpret it as a concept that explains human behaviour. 'In simple terms, the Principle of Least Effort means, for Essay on The Women, example, that a person in solving his immediate problems will view these against the background of should we fear, his probable future problems, as estimated by of India, himself. Moreover he will strive to solve his problems in kill a mockingbird such a way as to minimize the total work that he must expend in solving both his immediate problems and his probable future problems.' (Zipf, 2012, p.1) Thus if one is a student just expecting to pass a course in higher education (the reasons why at this point are extraneous and varied), taking a path where there is less effort spent to on The Rural Women, meet this outcome is understandable.

To start things off, I type in the book I intend to look up (so it becomes a searchable concept symbol), the author of the book as well as a keyword (representing the subject I am researching) in Google Scholar. Figure 1: Google Scholar search of Science in Action (Latour, 1987) and citation analysis. To explain Figure 1, the author (Latour) is a search term as well as the of romans title of the book in question ('Science in Action') and the subject in question ('citation analysis'). The quotations are in place to ensure a phrase is being searched rather than words that are not adjacent to each other. This search is intentionally structured in a way so Google Scholar retrieves any mention of Bruno Latour's Science in Essay of India Action as well as 'citation analysis' being mentioned anywhere in the text. At the time of the book of romans, this demonstration (May 2013), I retrieved 336 results. The top five results according to Google Scholar make up Figure 1.

The results in Women Figure 1 satisfy my aim in retrieving citations of Science in Argument for the Continuation U. S Space Program Essay Action as well as containing some mention of citation analysis (which is a gamble as I have not included synonyms). Had I not included citation analysis as a search term, I would have retrieved about Essay Women of India, 14,300 results according to Google Scholar and been nowhere near knowing what retrieved documents concern themselves with Latour's thoughts on citation. To demonstrate cyberplagiarism I will look within the in to papers of Figure 1, use CTRL + F and provide samples of Rural, citation context where Latour (plus the publication year of the appropriate text) was mentioned: 'As Latour further indicates, citations are not put in papers to indicate to Essay on Metaphysics, others who has influenced the production of the work but to on The Women, display the 'black boxed' (established) knowledge. If one does not agree with a referenced statement, one must, in essence, dispute it with the cited definitive authority.' (MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 1996, p. 441) 'Latour's views, similar to those within the various new perspectives in the sociology of trust, scientific knowledge, emphasise that the boundaries between the social and technical in scientific practice are blurry. Latour's analysis of references pertains in particular to their role in 'the science in the making'.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour makes understandable the Essay on The Rural Women of India heterogeneous and apparently chaotic picture of the actual use of citations. In spite of the variety of a mockingbird, uses, references have a major function in on The Rural of India scientific texts: that of mobilising allies in the defence of knowledge claims' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour's view of the role of references (citations) in scientific texts is related to Space Program Essay, a theory of construction of scientific knowledge, a process in which scientific controversies are settled and knowledge claims are turned into facts.

References play a role as a rhetorical device in the textual phase of the process.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.30) 'Others (e.g., MacRoberts and MacRoberts 1987; Latour 1987) have drawn attention to the perfunctory and rhetorical functions of citations within the scientific community (Cozzens 1989).' (Leydesdorff, 1998, pp. 6) 'Latour (1987) treats references as resources for persuasion rather like battalions. But he warns that their force may vanish if readers actually read what authors cite. Neither Gilbert nor Latour, I think actually believes that reflected-glory references persuade if their true nature is discovered (Latour calls this result 'disastrous' for Rural, the author). Mistrust? But they apparently believe that citers often try to manipulate readers in this way. Scientists and scholars are thus portrayed less as truth-seekers than as image-managers. Such a portrayal is Rural Women controversial, to say the least.' (White, 2004, p. 109) Out of the does every cloud has a five references in Figure 1, only Robins, Gosling and Essay of India, Craik (1999) was unsuitable for this exercise. In this specific example, Latour was cited, citation analysis was stated but the context of the citation did not match my purpose. At this point I am proposing that the sum of Macroberts and Macroberts (1996), Lukkonen (1997), Leydesdorff (1998) and White (2004) gives me not only enough ammunition to spare me from having to read Chapter 1 of Science in Action (that concerns itself on literature) but also provide me with a set of papers critiquing the same chapter.

An interesting comparison for the reader could be to compare the aforementioned quotes with my own interpretation of Latour in the student journey of citation essay (I can assure you, I have read the book and wrote this essay after the essay on we fear death the student journey of citation). If we now consider the amount of freely available (but not necessarily copyright cleared) scholarship that is available via Google Scholar, an individual could potentially take the citation context of an Essay on The Rural Women of India article, book or thesis and be able to comprehend it without ever reading it. In other words, one could incorporate the ammunition above (even dropping the odd direct quote from should we fear death, Latour) and portray the critique and legwork to be their own, as none of the other authors are cited. The authors are only Essay on The Rural of India, used for their citation context. With a process such as this, there is an Argument for the Continuation of the Essay assumption surrounding a consensus of a citation being retrievable. At this point, I return to Essay on The Rural of India, Small's 1978 paper of cited documents as concept symbols, where he looked for a percentage of citing contexts sharing the popular view of the book, a cited document (uniformity of usage).

In doing so, Small noticed how journals (on average) had a higher uniformity of usage compared to on The Rural of India, books. This trend is hardly a surprise as books cover more ground than a journal article but what it gets me thinking about is the importance of using appropriate concept symbols in Google Scholar to retrieve a relevant sample for analysis. I return to Google Scholar. Figure 2: Google Scholar co-citation search of Latour (1987) and Gilbert (1977) For figure 2, I opted with co-citation (papers citing two papers I consider seminal for my purpose; in this instance those by Latour (1987) and Gilbert (1977)) as a retrieval strategy. Figure 2 is an attempt to retrieve papers concerned with the persuasion hypothesis (Gilbert, 1977) and versus, Latour's thoughts on citation. Some of the first few papers are the same as Figure 1 but now having retrieved 67 papers with my precise parameters I have gone down a specific path, with information potentially catered toward more specific interests. It is worth stating that uniformity of citation may not be retrievable in all samples as there are many options to consider. What is comprehendible is that obtaining the uniform use of a citation can potentially be retrieved with the correct strategy and if there is enough (but not too much) scholarship out of India, there. Naturally using concept symbols to be as specific as possible helps but that errs towards fudging a sample to get a desired outcome based on set of assumptions.

Google Scholar throws a spanner in the works as it essentially relies on should things typed in a box. My own experience of using the platform to look at the context of a concept symbol found many chance occurrences with no relevance when looking at Rural of India the results qualitatively (Natt, 2013). In a few simple steps I was able to retrieve chunks of information that has been organised, prioritised and simile, emphasised by peers. The extent of Essay Rural Women of India, which this can be done ranges from an idea to an interpretation of in to kill, a monograph according to a particular sensibility. While I am for Essay Women, open access (OA), I express concern with how future generations of academic writers at the formative stages will keep track of intellectual debts. There a risk of a realignment of acceptable citation practice and a generation of academic writers pilfering the contextual citations of peers to reduce effort and get away with it.

An easy comeback is the use of software that can check levels of plagiarism but I would argue that it only catches out a certain type of plagiarist and at this point I return to patchwriting. Howard's (1993, p.236) opinion of patchwriting is the book that of on The Rural Women of India, 'a healthy effort to does silver lining, gain membership in a new culture' (which one could consider as academia). Howard's (1993, 1995) idealism sees the on The teaching opportunity to convert patchwriters to accomplished academic writers and versus, that is it just a stage in the student journey. While I sympathise with the student journey and the aim for students to become accomplished academic writers, I also see the principle of least effort. So if a student instead of reading, reflecting then writing is instead cramming, not making use of summary writing and Rural Women, producing their output in the last minute, it produces a different kind of output as well as increase the likelihood of corner cutting. My own take on patchwriting is that it provides an opportunity to reframe the simile in to kill doom and gloom that surrounds discussion on Rural Women of India plagiarism. By discussing patchwriting the student and lecturer can learn from what does lining, each other and Essay on The Rural Women, actually address academic writing which I still consider to be important. I also think of the paper by Pecorari (2003) that looked at the writing of postgraduate students (including PhD students) and examples of patchwriting. If the researchers of tomorrow are 'at it' what is there to say that the researchers of today are not?

The technological innovation of the word processor, being able to copy and paste or use CTRL + F to look up a concept symbol should not be underestimated. The moment we rely on a technological supplement or tether toward convenience reading, corner cutting instantly occurs. Only the purist and most classically trained are not 'at it'. Patchwriting, reframing and playing the versus mistrust citation game are tools in the armoury of the initiated. The initiated can be stealth-like and if they play the game right can be protected by the social constructs they operate within.

The uninitiated student is typically less schooled when it comes to the manipulation of academic information. They also have the disadvantage of social constructs making them the easier target when it comes to academic misconduct. Firstly, I'd like to stress that I am not condoning cyberplagiarism nor is this some sort of confessional. I am condemning cyberplagiarism and the demonstration is an attempt to Rural Women, acknowledge the elephant in the room and express concern with normative citation practice. It is easy to pin plagiarism on the internet or the lowering of what does cloud has a lining, academic standards but while there is some validity with such judgements, there are other considerations. What I would like to emphasise is how the Essay on The Rural Women longer one operates within the social constructs of academia, the more socialised one becomes to not only produce quality work but to Argument for the Continuation of the U. S, potentially corner cut and get away with it. I am not saying that everybody engages in deviant citation behaviour but rather that the values when it comes to science (Merton and Lewis, 1971) or knowledge production are and have been changeable. We do not bat straight all of the time. Women? We bat straight enough and mistrust, know when to play across the line. It gives us free reign to Rural, have the odd slog now and then, thinking it is death absolutely normal.

Technology and citation behaviour is one example of this change in Essay on The Rural values and while Google Scholar has the potential to the book, look at Essay on The a concept symbol within a paper, there is the issue of where the information comes from and how it is ranked. Open Access adds to this issue and with the information being easier to of Ahimsa, obtain, it is also easier to manipulate. Thinking back to Carr's (2008) article on Google and the change in human cognition, I propose that the relationship between technology and effort can create a conflict for Essay on The Rural Women, the academic writer. Argument U. S Space Program Essay? The academic writer becomes aware of Essay on The Rural of India, a new path (as demonstrated) in conjunction with all of the versus mistrust other paths they can comprehend and potentially go down. Plagiarism and deviant citation practice has gone on long before Google Scholar or the internet. It is just that this new path brought about by technology in conjunction with the ever expanding amount of scholarship can be counterproductive and result in behaviour associated with least effort rather than efficiency. Barrie, J. Essay Rural Of India? M. and Presti, D. E. (2000) 'Digital plagiarism the Web giveth and the Web shall taketh', Journal of Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Carr, N. (2008) 'Is Google Making Us Stupid?', The Atlantic [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Eysenbach, G. (2000) 'Report of a case of cyberplagiarism and reflections on detecting and simile kill, preventing academic misconduct using the Internet, Journal of Essay on The Women, Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online].

Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Gilbert, G. Versus? N. (1977) 'Referencing as Persuasion', Social Studies of on The Rural Women of India, Science , 7(1), pp. 113-122. Trust? Howard, R. (1993) 'A plagiarism pentimento', Journal of Teaching Writing , 11(3), pp. 233-246. Howard, R. (1995) 'Plagiarisms, authorships, and the academic death penalty', College English, 57(7), pp.788-806. Kralik, D. (2003) 'Editor's note: Cyberplagiarismwhat is it?', Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(6), p.539. Latour, B. (1987) Science in Action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Leydesdorff, L. (1998) 'Theories of citation?', Scientometrics , 43(1), pp. 5-25. Luukkonen, T. On The? (1997) 'Why has Latour's theory of citations been ignored by the bibliometric community? discussion of sociological interpretations of citation analysis', Scientometrics , 38(1), pp.

27-37. MacRoberts, M. H. and we fear, MacRoberts, B. R. (1996) 'Problems of citation analysis', Scientometrics, 36(3), pp. 435-444. Merton, R. K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. v-ix. Merton, R.K. and Lewis, R. Women Of India? (1971) 'The competitive pressure: the race for for the Continuation of the Space Program Essay, priority', Impact of Science on Society , 21(2), pp. 146-175. Natt, A. (2013) 'What is business information literacy and can the corporate librarian contribute anything to the discourse?', Journal of Business and Finance Librarianship, 18(2), pp. 146-174. Oliphant, T. (2002) 'Cyber-Plagiarism: Plagiarism in a Digital World', Feliciter , 48(2), pp.

78-80. Essay On The Rural Women? Pecorari, D. (2003) 'Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in the book academic second-language writing', Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(4), pp. 317-345. Pupovac V, Bilic-Zulle L and Petrovecki M. Essay On The Rural? (2008) 'On academic plagiarism in Europe: An analytical approach based on four studies', In Comas, R and Sureda, J. (eds.). Academic cyberplagiarism, Digithum , 10 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). We Fear Death? Robins, R. W., Gosling, S. On The Rural Women? D., and Craik, K. H. (1999) 'An empirical analysis of trends in psychology', American Psychologist , 54(2), pp.

117-128. Small, H. G. (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Science , 8(3), pp. 327-340. Smith, C.B. (2003) 'Fighting cyberplagiarism', Library Journal, 128(12), pp. 22-23. Szabo, A., and Underwood, J. (2004) 'Cybercheats: Is Information and Communication Technology Fuelling Academic Dishonesty?', Active Learning in Higher Education , 5(2), pp. 180-199. White, H.D. (2004) 'Citation analysis and discourse analysis revisited', Applied Linguistics, 25 (1), pp.

89-116. Zipf, G. K. (1949) Human behavior and the principle of least effort: an introduction to human ecology , Mansfield Centre, CT : Martino Publishing, 2012. Volume 3 Issue 2 - July 2013 Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of Citation and How Google Scholar and the Principle of in to kill, Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing.